[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the glucokinase (GCK) gene are the most frequent cause of maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) in Italy. We evaluated GCK mutations in 32 unrelated patients younger than 18 years who had been diagnosed with MODY. Eleven different GCK heterozygous mutations were identified in 22 (68.7%) of the 32 probands. Nine mutations were missense and two were nonsense. Three of these mutations (E17X, P59S and E372X) have not been described previously and were shown to be associated with hyperglycaemia. Several prediction methods suggested that the E17X and E372X mutations result in a premature truncated protein and that the P59S mutation is pathogenic. This idea was further supported by evidence suggesting that Proline 59 is a highly conserved amino acid residue and that the P59S mutation does not appear to be present in non-diabetic controls and in sequence variant databases. Furthermore, this mutation was found in six (27.3%) of the patients from the same geographical area, Gargano, pointing to the existence of a founder effect, which was confirmed by microsatellite analysis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance induces increased pulse pressure (PP), endothelial dysfunction (ED), and reduced bioavailability of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO). The genetic background of these 3 cardiovascular risk factors might be partly common. The ENPP1 K121Q polymorphism is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk.
We investigated whether the K121Q polymorphism is associated with increased PP in white Caucasians and with ED in vitro. In 985 individuals, (390 unrelated and 595 from 248 families), the K121Q polymorphism was associated with PP (P=8.0 x 10(-4)). In the families, the Q121 variant accounted for 0.08 of PP heritability (P=9.4 x 10(-4)). This association was formally replicated in a second sample of 475 individuals (P=2.6 x 10(-2)) but not in 2 smaller samples of 289 and 236 individuals (P=0.49 and 0.21, respectively). In the individual patients' data meta-analysis, comprising 1985 individuals, PP was associated with the Q121 variant (P=1.2 x 10(-3)). Human endothelial cells carrying the KQ genotype showed, as compared to KK cells, reduced insulin-mediated insulin receptor autophosphorylation (P=0.03), Ser(473)-Akt phosphorylation (P=0.03), and NO synthase activity (P=0.003).
Our data suggest that the ENPP1 Q121 variant is associated with increased PP in vivo and reduced insulin signaling and ED in vitro, thus indicating a possible pathogenic mechanism for the increased cardiovascular risk observed in ENPP1 Q121 carriers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Although metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) or albuminuria (MA) most often occurs in concomitance in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients (T2DM), their mode of interaction in increasing the risk of low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) has been poorly investigated.
Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome Clinical Research and Reviews 01/2009; 3(3):139-142.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance has a role in diabetic kidney complications. The K121Q (lysine to glutamine substitution at amino acid 121, encoded by single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1044498) variant of the ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase gene (ENPP1) has been associated with insulin resistance and related vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in many, although not all, studies. This study investigated whether the ENPP1 Q121 variant modulates the risk of decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with T2D.
2 diabetes units from Italy (in Gargano and Padua) and 1 from the United States (Boston, MA) recruited a total of 1,392 patients with T2D.
The ENPP1 Q121 variant.
Estimated GFR from serum creatinine, urinary albumin excretion, blood pressure, hemoglobin A(1c), triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Decreased GFRs (ie, estimated GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)).
In the Gargano and Boston populations, according to the dominant model of inheritance, Q121 carriers (ie, individual with either KQ or QQ alleles) had an increased risk of decreased GFR: odds ratios (ORs) of 1.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 2.6) and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.0 to 2.2), respectively. In the Padua set, the association was in the same direction, but did not reach formal statistical significance (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 0.7 to 4.5). When the 3 studies were pooled, Q121 carriers showed an increased risk of decreased GFR (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.1; P = 0.002). Also, pooled mean differences in absolute GFRs were different across genotype groups, with Q121 carriers showing lower GFRs compared with KK individuals (P = 0.04).
P values not approaching a genome-wide level of significance.
Our data suggest that patients with T2D carrying the ENPP1 Q121 variant are at increased risk of decreased GFR.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 10/2008; 53(2):273-80. · 5.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conflicting results have been reported regarding whether the PPARgamma2 Pro12Ala polymorphism plays a role in the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), suggesting genetic heterogeneity. To investigate this issue, a meta-analysis of 41 published and 2 unpublished studies (a total of 42,910 subjects) was conducted. Ala12 carriers had a 19% T2D risk reduction, but this association was highly heterogeneous (p = 0.005). A great proportion (48%) of heterogeneity was explained by the controls' BMI, with risk reduction being greater when BMI was lower. Risk reduction of Ala12 carriers in Asia (35%) was higher than in Europe (15%, p = 0.02) and tended to be higher than in North America (18%, p = 0.10). Difference between Asians and Europeans was no longer significant (p = 0.15) after adjusting for the controls' BMI. Studies from Europe were still heterogeneous (p = 0.02) with risk reduction in Ala12 carriers being progressively smaller (test for trend in the odds ratios, p = 0.02) from Northern (26% reduction, p < 0.0001) to Central (10%, p = 0.04) and Southern (0%, p = 0.94) Europe. In conclusion, in our meta-analysis, the reduced risk of T2D in Ala12 carriers is not homogeneous. It is greater in Asia than in Europe and, among Europeans, it is higher in Northern Europe, barely significant in Central Europe, and nonexistent in Southern Europe.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While the relevant role of insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of increased urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is well established in type 1 diabetes, its contribution in type 2 diabetes is controversial. Our aim was to investigate whether insulin resistance was associated with increased UAE in a large cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes.
A total of 363 men and 349 women, aged 61 +/- 9 years, with a disease duration of 11 +/- 9 years and HbA(1c) levels of 8.6 +/- 2.0% were included. Insulin resistance was derived from the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)), and UAE was derived from the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) defined as increased if the value was > or =2.5 mg/mmol in men and > or =3.5 mg/mmol in women. ACR was correlated with HOMA(IR) (r = 0.15, P = 0.0001), independently of age, disease duration, blood pressure, HbA(1c), triglycerides, waist circumference, and smoking.
When the two sexes were investigated separately, a significant correlation between ACR and HOMA(IR) was reached in men (n = 363; r = 0.21, P = 0.0001) but not women (n = 349; r = 0.08, P = 0.14), suggesting that insulin resistance and sex may interact (P for interaction = 0.04) in determining UAE. When men were subgrouped into quartiles of HOMA(IR), those of the third and fourth quartile (i.e., the most insulin resistant) were at higher risk to have increased ACR than patients of the first quartile (third quartile: odds ratio 2.2 [95% CI 1.2-4.2], P = 0.01) (fourth quartile: 4.1 [2.2-7.9], P = 0.00002). Finally, ACR was significantly higher in men with two or more insulin resistance-related cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and arterial hypertension) than in men with fewer than two insulin resistance-related cardiovascular risk factors (0.90 [0.2-115.1] vs. 1.56 [0.1-1367.6], respectively, P = 0.005).
In type 2 diabetic patients, increased UAE is strongly associated with insulin resistance and related cardiovascular risk factors. This association seems to be stronger in men than in women.
Diabetes Care 04/2005; 28(4):910-5. · 7.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronary artery disease (CAD), a major cause of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), is often diagnosed late because of silent myocardial ischaemia (SMI). Exercise electrocardiogram testing (ECG) stress is the most utilized screening test for SMI. Its applicability and accuracy, which have never been reported in asymptomatic high-risk T2D patients, have been investigated in this study.
A cross-sectional study with coronary angiography as the gold standard for detecting CAD was used.
Two hundred and six consecutive T2D patients, without symptoms and resting ECG signs of ischaemia but with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and/or > or = two atherogenic factors, were studied. Ischaemia at ECG stress was indicated by horizontal or downsloping ST segment depression > or =1 mm at 0.08 s after the J point. CAD was defined by stenosis > or =70%.
Only 141/206 (68%) patients had a diagnostic test: 27 (19%) tested positive and 114 (81%) tested negative. Coronary angiography in 71 patients (the 27 who tested positive and 44 randomly selected patients who tested negative) indicated a CAD prevalence of 29% and the ECG stress accuracy was 79%. 'False negative' patients (18%) had a higher prevalence (P<0.01) of long duration of diabetes and PVD.
This is the first study which provides insights into the applicability and accuracy of ECG stress in screening SMI in high-risk patients with T2D. Due to the high prevalence of CAD, alternative screening tests in patients unable to perform the test and in those with a high chance of being 'false negative' should be looked for and validated.
European Journal of Endocrinology 11/2002; 147(5):649-54. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibits insulin signaling and, when overexpressed, plays a role in insulin resistance (Ahmad et al. 1997). We identified, in the 3' untranslated region of the PTP1B gene, a 1484insG variation that, in two different populations, is associated with several features of insulin resistance: among male individuals, higher values of the insulin resistance HOMA(IR) index (P=.006), serum triglycerides (P=.0002), and total/HDL cholesterol ratio (P=.025) and, among female individuals, higher blood pressure (P=.01). Similar data were also obtained in a family-based association study by use of sib pairs discordant for genotype (Gu et al. 2000). Subjects carrying the 1484insG variant showed also PTP1B mRNA overexpression in skeletal muscle (6,166 plus minus 1,879 copies/40 ng RNA vs. 2,983 plus minus 1,620; P<.01). Finally, PTP1B mRNA stability was significantly higher (P<.01) in human embryo kidney 293 cells transfected with 1484insG PTP1B, as compared with those transfected with wild-type PTP1B. Our data indicate that the 1484insG allele causes PTP1B overexpression and plays a role in insulin resistance. Therefore, individuals carrying the 1484insG variant might particularly benefit from PTP1B inhibitors, a promising new tool for treatment of insulin resistance (Kennedy and Ramachandran 2000).
The American Journal of Human Genetics 04/2002; 70(3):806-12. · 11.20 Impact Factor