ABSTRACT: The absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) and the pharmacokinetic characteristics of BMS-562086 [pexacerfont; 8-(6-methoxy-2-methyl-3-pyridinyl)-2,7-dimethyl-N-[(1R)-1-methylpropyl]pyrazolo(1,5-a)-1,3,5-triazin-4-amine (DPC-A69448)] were investigated in vitro and in animals to support its clinical development. BMS-562086 was orally bioavailable in rats, dogs, and chimpanzees, with an absolute oral bioavailability of 40.1, 58.8, and 58.5%, respectively. BMS-562086 was extensively metabolized in hepatocytes from all species and completely metabolized in rats. The primary biotransformation pathways found for BMS-562086 in both liver microsomal and hepatocyte preparations and in rats were similar. These included O-demethylation, hydroxylation at the N-alkyl side chain and N-dealkylation. Multiple cytochromes P450 including CYP3A4/5 were involved in the metabolic clearance of BMS-562086. Both renal and biliary excretion played a significant role in elimination of the metabolites of BMS-562086. The involvement of other metabolic enzymes in addition to CYP3A4/5 in elimination of BMS-562086 suggests a reduced potential for drug-drug interaction through modulation of CYP3A4/5. Chimpanzees proved to be a good animal model in predicting BMS-562086 human clearance. Virtual clinical trials performed with a population-based ADME simulator suggested that a minimal dose of 100 mg daily would provide sufficient drug exposure to achieve plasma concentrations above the projected human efficacious plasma concentration of BMS-562086 (> 500 nM). In summary, BMS-562086 exhibited favorable ADME and pharmacokinetic properties for further development.
Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 03/2012; 40(6):1093-103. · 3.74 Impact Factor