[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventional fabrication of gold nanobiohybrids is often accomplished by multi-step chemical synthesis, causing rather long production times (hours-days) and requiring multiple purification steps. In contrast, by applying femtosecond-laser systems the process of pulsed laser ablation in liquids (PLAL) with in situ bioconjugation may be used alternatively to produce surfactant-free and functional nanobiohybrids within a single-step approach on the time scale of minutes. Gold nanobiohybrids conjugated with nucleic acids, peptides, proteins and aptamers were successfully established by these means. However, limited process productivity is a main disadvantage of the femtosecond-PLAL approach due to the short pulse duration. In this work for the first time, we utilize picosecond-PLAL to fabricate novel gold-antibody nanobiohybrids for cellular staining issues. The functionality of the nanobiohybrids is confirmed by blotting and cellular immunolabeling, resulting in equivalent staining results than achieved with conventional labeling markers. By the adoption of picosecond pulse duration a higher productivity by one order of magnitude is reached compared to the conventional femtosecond-PLAL. Moreover, the production of nanoparticles and nanobiohybrids with the same surface composition, the same amount of biomolecule load and the same level of biomolecule structure integrity is proven than that gained by femtosecond-PLAL. Finally, the potential physical mechanisms of biomolecule degradation and the quantitative on-line monitoring of the degradation are discussed. The results emphasize laser-fabricated gold-antibody nanobiohybrids as competing products to commercial immunoflow or cellular staining markers. It reveals significantly higher production speed than that achieved via existing fabrication methods and therefore represents a competing technology.
The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 03/2015; 119(17):9524-9533. DOI:10.1021/jp511162n · 4.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The utilisation of the diffractive properties of Fresnel zone plates offers the possibility of intraocular lens desings with multiple foci. Such intraocular lenses can be manufctured by two-photon polymerisation (2PP). This paper explains the underlying concept and shows the principles for visualisation of the focus properties of such implants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The modes of laser lithography fabrication of three-dimensional submicrometer structures have been studied. The method is based on the effect of threshold two-photon polymerization of a photosensitive material at the laser beam focus. To determine the lithograph workspace in the coordinates “laser power-speed of the sample displacement with respect to the laser focus,” a series of photonic crystals with the woodpile structure is prepared. Two methods for fabricating three-dimensional structures, i.e., raster scanning and vector graphics (or the vector method) are analyzed in detail. The advantages of the vector method for fabricating periodic structures are demonstrated using crystals of inverted yablonovite as an example. The prepared samples are studied by scanning electron microscopy.
Physics of the Solid State 11/2014; 56(11):2166-2172. DOI:10.1134/S1063783414110262 · 0.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article reports about nanocomposites, which refractive index is tuned by adding TiO 2 nanoparticles. We compare in situ/ex situ preparation of nanocomposites. Preparation procedure is described, properties of nanocomposites are compared, and especially we examine the applicability of two-photon polymerization (2PP) of synthesized nanocomposites. All prepared samples exhibit suitable optical transparency at specific laser wavelengths. Three-dimensional structures were generated by means of two-photon polymerization effect induced by a femtosecond laser. Keywords: high refractive index; polymer/TiO 2 nanocomposites; two-photon polymerization (2PP); 3-dimensional (3D) structures
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcium phosphates, functionalized with nano-sized metal particles, are a promising material class for the treatment of bone defects. However, a sintering process is required in principle to achieve sufficient strength of calcium phosphate scaffolds. In this work laser-generated nano-sized silver, gold and platinum particles were adsorbed on micro-sized β-tricalcium phosphate particles and further heat treated at temperatures between 600 and 1200 °C. Gold and platinum nanoparticles underwent exponential growth starting at about 600 °C, while sintering of β-tricalcium phosphate started at 800 °C. We hypothesise that this phenomenon is caused by a heat-induced evaporation and growth process where the decrease of the particle number is directly correlated with the size increase. The silver nanoparticles on the other hand formed a new phase with the calcium phosphate (AgCa10(PO4)7) during the heat treatments and could not be observed within the ceramic scaffold anymore. Addressing the lack of information in nanoparticle-combined calcium phosphate scaffolds, this study contributes to the further modification of bone replacement materials with biologically relevant functions and molecules.
Ceramics International 07/2014; 40(6):7931–7939. DOI:10.1016/j.ceramint.2013.12.141 · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a demonstration of unique capabilities of three-dimensional laser lithography, an example complex-shape microobject and photonic crystals with “woodpile” structure for the infrared spectral range are fabricated by this technique. Photonic dispersion relations for the woodpile structure are calculated for different values of the permittivity contrast and the filling factor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spherical silicon nanoparticles with the sizes of 100–200 nm exhibit strong electric and magnetic dipole responses in the visible spectral range due to Mie resonances. At the resonance conditions, electromagnetic energy is accumulated inside Si nanoparticles, which can be used for the realization of efficient nanoantennas, nanolasers, and novel metamaterials. In this paper, modification of optical properties of Si nanoparticles by metal nanoinclusions, randomly distributed inside them, is theoretically investigated. The method is based on the recently developed, so-called, decomposed discrete dipole approximation (DDDA) allowing multipole analysis of light scattering by arbitrary shaped inhomogeneous nanoparticles. Particularly, the influence of metal nanoinclusions, their concentration and distribution, on the excitation of magnetic and electric dipole modes in Si nanoparticles is studied.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: In this study, the suitability of a mixture containing riboflavin (vitamin B2) and triethanolamine (TEOHA) as a novel biocompatible photoinitiator for two-photon polymerization (2PP) processing was investigated. Materials & methods: Polyethylene glycol diacrylate was crosslinked using Irgacure(®) 369, Irgacure 2959 or a riboflavin-TEOHA mixture; biocompatibility of the photopolymer extract solutions was subsequently assessed via endothelial cell proliferation assay, endothelial cell viability assay and single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. Use of a riboflavin-TEOHA mixture as a photoinitiator for 2PP processing of a tissue engineering scaffold and subsequent seeding of this scaffold with GM-7373 bovine aortic endothelial cells was also demonstrated. Results: The riboflavin-TEOHA mixture was found to produce much more biocompatible scaffolds than those produced with Irgacure 369 or Irgacure 2959. Conclusion: The results suggest that riboflavin is a promising component of photoinitiators for 2PP fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds and other medically relevant structures (e.g., biomicroelectromechanical systems).
Regenerative Medicine 11/2013; 8(6):725-38. DOI:10.2217/rme.13.60 · 3.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The unique optical properties of nanoparticles are highly sensitive in respect to particle shapes, sizes, and localization on a sample. This demands for a fully controlled fabrication process. The use of femtosecond laser pulses to generate and transfer nanoparticles from a bulk target towards a collector substrate is a promising approach. This process allows a controlled fabrication of spherical nanoparticles with a very smooth surface. Several process parameters can be varied to achieve the desired nanoparticle characteristics. In this paper, the influence of two of these parameters, i.e. the applied pulse energy and the laser beam shape, on the generation of Si nanoparticles from a bulk Si target are studied in detail. By changing the laser intensity distribution on the target surface one can influence the dynamics of molten material inducing its flow to the edges or to the center of the focal spot. Due to this dynamics of molten material, a single femtosecond laser pulse with a Gaussian beam shape generates multiple spherical nanoparticles from a bulk Si target. The statistical properties of this process, with respect to number of generated nanoparticles and laser pulse energy are investigated. We demonstrate for the first time that a ring-shaped intensity distribution on the target surface results in the generation of a single silicon nanoparticle with a controllable size. Furthermore, the generated silicon nanoparticles presented in this paper show strong electric and magnetic dipole resonances in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. Theoretical simulations as well as optical scattering measurements of single silicon nanoparticles are discussed and compared.
Applied Physics A 10/2013; 114(1). DOI:10.1007/s00339-013-8007-6 · 1.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In den industrialisierten Ländern ist das Glaukom eine der häufigsten Ursachen, die zur Erblindung führt; weltweit ist es die häufigste Ursache der irreversiblen Erblindung. Neben der medikamentösen Drucksenkung und filtrierenden chirurgischen Eingriffen finden zunehmend alloplastische Implantate Verwendung in der Glaukomtherapie. Da die in der Literatur publizierten Langzeitresultate der bisher verwendeten Implantate nicht befriedigend sind, scheint es sinnvoll, nach neuen Konzepten zu suchen. Dabei wird einerseits der Drainageort untersucht – in dieser Studie der Suprachoroidalraum –, andererseits soll durch die Entwicklung eines druckgesteuerten Mikrostents mit den antiproliferativen Oberflächenbeschichtungen Paclitaxel und Mitomycin C eine Vermeidung der bekannten kurz- und langfristigen postoperativen Komplikationen erreicht werden. Schließlich soll mithilfe einer Glaukominduktion im Tierversuch die Funktionalität des Mikrostents in vivo getestet werden. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt das Konzept eines neuartigen Mikrostents zur Ableitung des Kammerwassers in den Suprachoroidalraum. Erste Resultate zeigen eine korrekte Implantation eines beschichteten Mikrostents mit Ventil. Die antiproliferative Wirkung der Beschichtung konnte histologisch nachgewiesen werden. Des Weiteren wird festgehalten, dass für die Überprüfung der Ergebnisse am Versuchstier ein Glaukommodell notwendig ist, wobei alle infrage kommenden und in der Literatur beschriebenen Glaukommodelle diskutiert werden. Leider konnte keine der Methoden dauerhaft reproduziert werden. Die vorliegenden vielversprechenden ersten Versuche sollten u. a. durch weitere Forschung im Bereich der Dosisfindung des antiproliferativen Wirkstoffes und der Funktionalität des Ventils im Einstrombereich weiter verfolgt werden, wobei das Ziel die Erprobung des Stents im menschlichen Auge sein wird.
Der Ophthalmologe 08/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00347-013-2839-5 · 0.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In industrialized countries glaucoma is one of the most common causes that leads to blindness. It is also the most common cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. In addition to local treatment of intraocular pressure and filtering glaucoma surgery, alloplastic implants are increasingly being used in glaucoma therapy. As long-term results published in the literature of commonly used implants are unsatisfactory, it seems useful to search for new concepts. In order to avoid the well-known short-term and long-term postoperative complications a pressure-controlled microstent with antiproliferative surface modifications was developed. Additionally, the functionality of such a microstent should be investigated using an animal glaucoma model. This paper describes the concept of a microstent which drains aquous humour from the anterior chamber into the suprachoroidal space. In addition, the glaucoma models described in the literature are discussed. Unfortunately, none of the methods could be reproduced permanently. First results show a correct implantation of a coated microstent with valve where the anti-proliferative effect could be demonstrated histologically. The promising results should lead to further investigations and the final goal will be the testing of the stent in the human eye.
Der Ophthalmologe 07/2013; 110(8). · 0.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nanoprocessing of materials using ultrashort laser pulses involves a number of concurrent fundamental physical processes. Due to different time and spatial scales of activation, however, these processes are difficult to study within the frames of a single computational model on one hand, and yet not possible to isolate in the experimental analysis on the other hand. In their detailed investigation, the transient character of the nonequilibrium states of matter induced with a short laser pulse hampers the applicability of continuum approaches, but classical molecular dynamics simulations are usually limited in the system sizes. In this work, a molecular dynamics based model coupled to a continuum description of the photo-excited free carrier’s dynamics and implemented in parallel algorithm is extended to the scale directly accessible in the experiment. This allows for the first time a direct comparison to experimental data. The essential mechanisms responsible for the short laser pulse surface nanostructuring are analyzed in the complex dynamics of competing processes simultaneously involved into the nanostructures generation process. The modeling and experiment show a very good agreement and predict a new opportunity for fabrication of nanoparticle structures and the surface subpatterning.
Applied Physics A 06/2013; 111(3). DOI:10.1007/s00339-013-7656-9 · 1.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ultrafast interactions of surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) in systems with multiple coherently excited SPP and light beams are studied. SPPs on thin metallic films are excited by local scattering of the laser light on surface nanostructures consisting of polymeric or metallic ridges  and grooves. SPP interaction and scattering effects are investigated by leakage radiation microscopy (LRM) . The interference of SPPs inside dielectrically-loaded SPP waveguides  as well as the interference of SPPs with additional light fields is used for tracking the propagation of ultrashort SPP pulses excited by 60 fs laser pulses at a central wavelength of 800 nm. We present results on SPP autocorrelation, allowing the SPP dispersion and pulse durations to be measured. An example of a LRM image of an interference pattern of two counter-propagating SPPs inside a dielectrically-loaded waveguide is shown in Fig. 1. Furthermore, we demonstrate ultrafast scattering of propagating SPPs on regions of metal films pumped by additional laser pulses. In a time-delay pump-probe experiment it is shown that this SPP scattering occurs on the time scale of the pulse duration. Applications of this effect as ultrafast SPP switches are discussed.
International Quantum Electronics Conference; 05/2013
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Femtosecond laser-induced transfer, developed for the generation of metallic micro- and nanoparticles , is applied to the fabrication of Si nanoparticles. This method allows controllable fabrication of high quality spherical Si nanoparticles with radii of 50-300 nm. Measured light scattering spectra of individual Si nanoparticles demonstrate strong resonant responses in the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges. Theoretical analysis on the basis of Mie theory with a multipole decomposition shows that the first two low-frequency resonances correspond to the magnetic dipole and electric dipole modes. At these resonances, Si nanoparticles generate scattered waves as magnetic and electric dipoles, respectively. Due to high Si permittivity, the magnetic dipole resonance is observed in the visible spectral range for Si nanoparticles with diameters of 100-200 nm. Magnetic optical response of non-spherical Si nanoparticles is also studied using numerical simulations . Possibilities for the realization of isotropic optical metamaterials on the basis of the Si nanoparticles with negative permeability or negative refraction index in the visible spectral range are discussed.
International Quantum Electronics Conference; 05/2013
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The spatiotemporal evolution of a SPP wave packet with femtosecond duration is experimentally investigated in two different plasmonic focusing structures. A two-dimensional reconstruction of the plasmonic field in space and time is possible by the numerical analysis of interferometric time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy data. We show that the time-integrated and time-resolved view onto the wave packet dynamics allow one to characterize and compare the capabilities of two-dimensional components for use in plasmonic devices operating with ultrafast pulses.