ABSTRACT: Organ motion in proton therapy affects treatment dose distribution during both double-scattering (DS) and uniform-scanning (US) deliveries. We investigated the dosimetric impact of target motion using three-dimensional polymer gel dosimeters and a programmable motion platform. A simple one-beam treatment plan with 16 cm range and 6 cm modulation was generated from the treatment planning system (TPS) in both the DS and US modes. One gel dosimeter was irradiated with a stationary DS beam. Two other gel dosimeters were irradiated with the DS and US beams while they moved in the same sinusoidal motion profile using a programmable motion platform. The dose distribution of the stationary DS delivery agreed with the TPS plan. Dosimetric comparisons between DS motion delivery and the MATLAB-based motion model showed insignificant differences. Dose-volume histograms of a cylindrical target volume inside the gel dosimeters showed target coverage degradation caused by motion. A three-dimensional gamma index calculation (3% and 3 mm) confirmed different dosimetric impacts from DS and US with the same target motion. This polymer-gel-dosimeter-based study confirmed the dosimetric impact of intrafraction target motion and its interplay with temporal delivery of different energy layers in US proton treatments.
Physics in Medicine and Biology 02/2012; 57(3):649-63. · 2.83 Impact Factor