[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays a major role in the development of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), but there is an increasing awareness of EBV-negative PTLD. The clinical presentation of EBV-negative PTLD has not been as well characterised as EBV-positive cases. Further, there is limited knowledge on the clinical importance of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell of origin subtype post-transplant. Materials and methods. We studied the role of EBV, hepatitis C (HCV) and DLBCL subtype in clinical presentation and survival in 135 post-transplant lymphomas diagnosed 1980-2006 in a population-based cohort of 10 010 Swedish solid organ transplant recipients. The lymphomas were re-evaluated according to WHO 2008, examined for EBV, and clinical data were collected from medical records. Results. Lymphoma incidence rate was 159/100 000 person-years and is also reported by lymphoma subtype. EBV-negative lymphomas constituted 48% and were associated with HCV infection (p = 0.02), bone marrow involvement (p < 0.001), and T-cell phenotype (p = 0.002). Among DLBCL, 78% were of non-germinal centre subtype, which was associated with EBV-positivity (69%, p = 0.001), early occurrence (p = 0.03), heart/liver/lung/pancreas recipients (p = 0.02), anti-T-cell globulin (p = 0.001), and tacrolimus treatment (p = 0.02). DLBCL subtypes had similar overall survival. Five-year overall survival was 42% in all treated patients. Independent poor prognostic factors were older age, B symptoms, ECOG 2-4, kidney/pancreas/heart recipients, T-cell lymphoma, and HCV-infection. Conclusions. With long follow-up, a large part of PTLD is EBV-negative, due to a high proportion of T-cell lymphomas and low of polymorphic PTLD. EBV-negative PTLD have a different clinical presentation. HCV may play an aetiological role in late-onset PTLD and was revealed as a new prognostic factor for inferior survival that needs to be confirmed in larger studies. The heavier immunosuppression in non-kidney transplantations seems to play a role in the development of non-germinal centre DLBCL. DLBCL cell of origin subtype lacks prognostic importance in the transplant setting.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA repair mechanisms are fundamental for B cell development, which relies on the somatic diversification of the immunoglobulin genes by V(D)J recombination, somatic hypermutation, and class switch recombination. Their failure is postulated to promote genomic instability and malignant transformation in B cells. By performing targeted sequencing of 73 key DNA repair genes in 29 B cell lymphoma samples, somatic and germline mutations were identified in various DNA repair pathways, mainly in diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs). Mutations in mismatch repair genes (EXO1, MSH2, and MSH6) were associated with microsatellite instability, increased number of somatic insertions/deletions, and altered mutation signatures in tumors. Somatic mutations in nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) genes (DCLRE1C/ARTEMIS, PRKDC/DNA-PKcs, XRCC5/KU80, and XRCC6/KU70) were identified in four DLBCL tumors and cytogenetic analyses revealed that translocations involving the immunoglobulin-heavy chain locus occurred exclusively in NHEJ-mutated samples. The novel mutation targets, CHEK2 and PARP1, were further screened in expanded DLBCL cohorts, and somatic as well as novel and rare germline mutations were identified in 8 and 5% of analyzed tumors, respectively. By correlating defects in a subset of DNA damage response and repair genes with genomic instability events in tumors, we propose that these genes play a role in DLBCL lymphomagenesis.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 08/2013; · 13.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma represents a diverse group of blood malignancies, of which follicular lymphoma (FL) is a common subtype. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II region multiple independent SNPs that are significantly associated with FL risk. To dissect these signals and determine whether coding variants in HLA genes are responsible for the associations, we conducted imputation, HLA typing, and sequencing in three independent populations for a total of 689 cases and 2,446 controls. We identified a hexa-allelic amino acid polymorphism at position 13 of the HLA-DR beta chain that showed the strongest association with FL within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region (multiallelic p = 2.3 × 10(-15)). Out of six possible amino acids that occurred at that position within the population, we classified two as high risk (Tyr and Phe), two as low risk (Ser and Arg), and two as moderate risk (His and Gly). There was a 4.2-fold difference in risk (95% confidence interval = 2.9-6.1) between subjects carrying two alleles encoding high-risk amino acids and those carrying two alleles encoding low-risk amino acids (p = 1.01 × 10(-14)). This coding variant might explain the complex SNP associations identified by GWASs and suggests a common HLA-DR antigen-driven mechanism for the pathogenesis of FL and rheumatoid arthritis.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 06/2013; · 11.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous group of B cell lymphomas. MicroRNA expression provides a new and interesting tool for understanding the biology and clinical course of DLBCL. The present study presents microRNA-129-5p expression data from DLBCL patients treated with CHOP or R-CHOP. Patients with low microRNA-129-5p expression had a median survival of 23 months and a significantly shorter overall survival (P = 0.0042) compared to patients with high microRNA-129-5p expression, who had a median survival of 58 months. We also found that patients treated with R-CHOP only and displaying low microRNA-129-5p expression had a significantly shorter overall survival compared to patients with high microRNA-129-5p expression; all such patients were still alive at the time of last follow-up (P = 0.043). No significant difference was found among microRNA-129-5p expression in tumor tissue, the tissue surrounding the tumor, and normal controls. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that the expression of microRNA-129-5p can affect the clinical outcome of DLBCL patients and that microRNA-129-5p may be involved in the biology of DLBCL development, although larger studies are necessary to confirm this. Further investigations may also help to elucidate the biological role of microRNA-129-5p in DLBCL.
International journal of hematology 03/2013; · 1.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous group of B-cell lymphomas. A new and important tool for understanding the biology and clinical course of DLBCL is microRNA expression. This study presents microRNA-200c expression data from 61 DLBCL patients treated with CHOP or R-CHOP. Patients with high microRNA-200c expression had a median survival of 20.3 months and a significantly shorter overall survival (P=0.019) compared to patients with low microRNA-200c expression, who had a median survival of 35.8 months. We also found that patients treated with R-CHOP only and displaying high microRNA-200c expression had a significantly shorter overall survival compared to patients with low microRNA-200c expression, where all patients were still alive at the time of the last follow-up (P=0.0036). Lastly, we found that patients with high microRNA-200c expression had a significantly shorter time from initial diagnosis to the first relapse compared to patients with low microRNA-200c expression (P=0.0001). To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that the expression of microRNA-200c affects the clinical outcome of DLBCL patients, and that microRNA-200c is involved in the biology of DLBCL development, although larger studies are necessary to confirm this. Further investigations may also help to elucidate the biological role of microRNA-200c in DLBCL.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cernunnos is involved in the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) process during DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here, we
studied immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination (CSR), a physiological process which relies on proper repair of the
DSBs, in B cells from Cernunnos-deficient patients. The pattern of in vivo generated CSR junctions is altered in these cells,
with unusually long microhomologies and a lack of direct end-joining. The CSR junctions from Cernunnos-deficient patients
largely resemble those from patients lacking DNA ligase IV, Artemis, or ATM, suggesting that these factors are involved in
the same end-joining pathway during CSR. By screening 269 mature B cell lymphoma biopsies, we also identified a somatic missense
Cernunnos mutation in a diffuse large B cell lymphoma sample. This mutation has a dominant-negative effect on joining of a subset of
DNA ends in an in vitro NHEJ assay. Translocations involving both Ig heavy chain loci and clonal-like, dynamic IgA switching
activities were observed in this tumor. Collectively, our results suggest a link between defects in the Cernunnos-dependent
NHEJ pathway and aberrant CSR or switch translocations during the development of B cell malignancies.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 02/2012; 209(2):291-305. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) lesions comprise few tumour cells, surrounded by numerous inflammatory cells. Like in other malignancies, the microenvironment is presumed to be clinically important in HL; however, microenvironment predictors remain poorly characterised. The aim of this study was to investigate how selected patient characteristics and genetic factors affect HL phenotype, in particular tissue eosinophilia, mast cell counts and HL histological subtype.Methods: In a population-based study, patients with HL were interviewed about potential HL risk factors. Available tumours, n = 448, were classified histologically; the number of eosinophils and mast cells were estimated, and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil protein-x (EPX) gene polymorphisms were determined. Associations were assessed in regression models.Results: Self-reported history of asthma was predictive of having tumour eosinophilia [≥200 eosinophils/10 high power fields, univariate odds ratio (OR) = 2.22, 95% CI 1.06–4.64, P = 0.03]. High numbers of eosinophils were predominantly seen in patients carrying the genotype ECP434GG [multivariate relative levels (RLs) = 1.84, 95% CI 1.02–3.30, P = 0.04]. Lower number of eosinophils was seen in Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-positive tumours (univariate RL = 0.52, 95% CI 0.3–0.9, P = 0.02) and in older patients (univariate RL = 0.85, 95% CI 0.73–0.99, P = 0.03). Well-known factors such as young age, female sex and EBV-negative status predicted nodular sclerosis histology.Conclusion: The number of eosinophils in HL tumours is influenced by patient traits such as asthma, ECP genotype and EBV status. EBV status was predictive of histology.
European Journal Of Haematology 07/2011; 87(3):208 - 216. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), tumor eosinophilia indicates poor prognosis, probably caused by eosinophil-induced stimulation of tumor cells. Our aim was to investigate the effects of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) on HL tumor cells in vitro.
A fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay was used to measure the survival index of cells from the HL cell lines: HDLM-2 (T-cell origin, nodular sclerosis histology), KMH2 (B-cell origin, mixed cellularity), and L428 (B-cell origin, nodular sclerosis) after incubation with ECP97arg variants with different glycosylations and with ECP97thr. Flow cytometry monitored the effects of ECP on markers of cell death.
For KMH2 and L428, ECP was cytotoxic with a dose-response relationship similar to a previously investigated small-cell lung cancer cell line. HDLM-2 was more sensitive to ECP at low concentrations, but reached a plateau (survival index of 70%) at 0.018 μM. The IC(50) for KMH2 and L428 were 0.2 and 0.15 μM, respectively. The IC(50) was never reached for HDLM-2. All tested ECP variants displayed similar activity in HDLM-2, in contrast to KMH2 and L428, which were more sensitive to less glycosylated ECP. Positive DNA staining (propidium iodide) of HDLM-2 cells treated with ECP indicated cell death by necrosis.
ECP is cytotoxic for HL tumor cells even at low concentrations, but heterogeneity between cell lines exists and not all tumor cells are eradicated. Two cell lines of B-cell origin, KMH2 and L428, were sensitive to ECP in a dose-response manner, but for HDLM-2, which is of T-cell origin, the cytotoxicity reached a plateau.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytotoxic CD4(+) T cells have been found in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and seem to be involved in the regulation of malignant B cells. The CD4(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs) can regulate various immune cells, including B cells, by inducing their apoptosis. Hence, different subgroups of CD4(+) T cells may be involved in the regulation of malignant B cells. In this study, the cytotoxic phenotype and function of various CD4(+) T-cell subgroups were investigated in patients with B-cell malignancies. Peripheral blood was collected from patients with CLL, various B-cell lymphomas, healthy adult donors, children with precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (pre-B ALL) and from healthy children. CD4(+) T cells (CD3(+) CD4(+) FoxP3(-)), Tregs (CD3(+) CD4(+) CD127(low) FoxP3(+)) and CD127(high) FoxP3(+) T cells (CD3(+) CD4(+) CD127(high) FoxP3(+)) were analysed for their expression of the cytolytic markers CD107a and Fas ligand. Patients with CLL had increased CD107a expression on all tested T-cell subgroups compared with healthy donors. Similar results were found in patients with B-cell lymphomas whereas the CD107a expression in children with pre-B ALL was no different from that in healthy controls. Fas ligand expression was similar between patient cells and cells of healthy donors. CD4(+) T cells and Tregs from patients with CLL and healthy donors were subsequently purified and cultured in vitro with autologous B cells. Both subgroups lysed B cells and killing was confirmed by granzyme ELISAs. In conclusion, cytotoxic populations of CD4(+) T cells, including Tregs, are present in patients with B-cell malignancy and may be an important factor in immune-related disease control.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TP53 mutations in the absence of 17p-deletion correlate with rapid disease progression and poor survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Herein, we determined the TP53 mutation frequency in 268 newly diagnosed CLL patients from a population-based material. Overall, we detected TP53 mutations in 3.7% of patients (n = 10), where 7/10 cases showed a concomitant 17p-deletion, confirming the high prevalence of TP53 mutation in 17p-deleted patients. Only 3 (1.1%) of the newly diagnosed patients in our cohort thereby carried TP53 mutations without 17p-deletion, a frequency that is much lower than previous reports on referral cohorts (3-6%). Our findings imply that TP53 mutations are rare at CLL onset and instead may arise during disease progression.
Leukemia research 02/2011; 35(2):272-4. · 2.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is one of the most studied cytokines driving T-cell proliferation, activation and survival. It binds to the IL-2 receptor consisting of three chains, the α (CD25), β and common γ (γc). The binding of the CD25 chain to IL-2 is necessary to expose high-affinity binding sites for the β and γc chains, which, in turn, are responsible for downstream signalling. A high level of soluble CD25 (sCD25) has been associated with a poor prognosis in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The function and source of origin of this soluble receptor is not well investigated. In the present study we hypothesized that T regulatory (Treg) cells may release CD25 to act as a decoy receptor for IL-2, thereby depriving T-effector cells of IL-2. Peripheral blood from patients with B-cell malignancies (n = 26) and healthy controls (n = 27) was investigated for the presence and function of FoxP3(+) Treg cells and sCD25 by multi-colour flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Further, the proliferative capacity of T cells was evaluated with or without the presence of recombinant sCD25. The results demonstrate that Treg cells from patients had lower CD25 expression intensity and that they released CD25 in vitro. Further, high levels of Treg cells correlated with sCD25 plasma concentration. Recombinant sCD25 could suppress T-cell proliferation in vitro. In conclusion, the release of sCD25 by Treg cells may be a mechanism to deprive IL-2 and thereby inhibit anti-tumour T-cell responses.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The p16(INK4a) tumor suppressor gene can be inactivated by a variety of events including promoter hypermethylation. In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), p16(INK4a) methylation has been associated with advanced disease stage and higher IPI. The prognostic impact of p16(INK4a) methylation in DLBCL remains unclear; however, it has been suggested to correlate with inferior outcome. To further investigate the clinical impact of p16(INK4a) methylation in DLBCL, promoter methylation of this gene was assessed quantitatively by pyrosequencing. Forty-two of 113 (37%) DLBCL patients with methylation level above 5% were categorized as methylated and subsequently divided into low, intermediate and high methylation categories. Overall, no association was shown between the extent of p16(INK4a) methylation and patients' clinical characteristics, except disease stage (P=0.049). Moreover, we could not reveal any impact of p16(INK4a) methylation on lymphoma-specific survival. Although >25% of p16(INK4a) methylation correlated with a better progression-free survival (P=0.048) in patients <65 years old, the significance of this finding, if any, needs to be further investigated. In conclusion, our finding questions the role of p16(INK4a) promoter methylation as a negative prognostic factor in DLBCL.
Leukemia research 10/2010; 35(4):438-43. · 2.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Benefits and risks of corticosteroid treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are debated. Patients with RA are at increased risk of malignant lymphomas. In a large case-control study of risk factors for lymphoma in RA, it was recently reported that steroid treatment was associated with decreased lymphoma risk.
To further assess the nature of the association between steroid treatment in RA and the risk of lymphoma.
In a cohort of 74 651 patients with RA, 378 patients with lymphoma and 378 matched RA controls were identified, and information on inflammatory activity and different aspects of steroid treatment (duration, therapeutic strategy and mode of administration) abstracted from their medical records. Lymphomas were reclassified (WHO classification) and examined for Epstein-Barr virus. Relative risks were assessed as adjusted odds ratios (ORs) through conditional logistic regression.
A total duration of oral steroid treatment of <2 years was not associated with lymphoma risk (OR=0.87; 95% CI 0.51 to 1.5), whereas total treatment >2 years was associated with a lower lymphoma risk (OR=0.43; 95% CI 0.26 to 0.72). RA duration at the initiation of oral steroids did not affect lymphoma risk. Intra-articular steroids were associated with a reduced lymphoma risk, but only when used as swift flare treatment (OR=0.22; 95% CI 0.13 to 0.37). Analyses by lymphoma subtype showed a reduced risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (crude OR=0.59; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.94).
In this RA population, use of steroids was associated with reduced lymphoma risk. Whether this association is a generic effect of steroids or specific to the studied population remains unknown.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases 06/2009; 69(4):654-9. · 8.11 Impact Factor