R W Compans

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States

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Publications (422)2107.23 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important pathogen for lower respiratory tract illness in infants and a high priority for vaccine development. We previously reported that RSV virus-like particles (VLPs) expressing either the fusion (F) or attachment (G) glycoprotein could confer protection against RSV challenge in BALB/c mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that RSV VLP vaccine efficacy can be enhanced by mixing RSV VLP F and RSV VLP G, and we analyzed host responses to these RSV VLPs. Mice were immunized with VLP F, VLP G, or VLP F + VLP G. Lung viral loads in BALB/c mice following RSV strain A2-line19F challenge were lower in mice vaccinated with RSV VLP F + VLP G compared to VLP F- or VLP G-vaccinated mice. Vaccination with VLP F or VLP F + VLP G induced similar levels of neutralizing antibodies. The enhanced protection against RSV challenge induced by vaccination with RSV VLP F + VLP G correlated with CD8 T cells producing T helper type 1 cytokines. VLP G vaccination alone followed by challenge resulted in immunopathology similar to formalin-inactivated RSV vaccination and RSV challenge. Taken together, mixed VLP F + VLP G provided a high level of protection against RSV without vaccine-induced immunopathology, but VLP G vaccination enhanced disease when used alone.
    Antiviral research. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Detection of Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies has long been used as an important diagnostic tool for identifying active viral infections, but their relevance in later stages has not been clearly defined in vivo. In this study we followed the kinetics, longevity and function of influenza virus-specific IgM antibodies following sub-lethal infection of mice with live mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 virus or immunization with formalin-inactivated virus for two years. These groups mounted robust protective immune responses and survived lethal challenge with 50xLD50 mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 virus 600 days after the primary exposure. Surprisingly, virus-specific IgM antibodies persisted along with IgG antibodies and we found a significantly higher number of IgM(+) virus-specific plasma cells than IgG(+) plasma cells that persisted for at least 9 months post-exposure. The IgM antibodies were functional as they neutralized influenza virus in the presence of complement just as well as IgG antibodies.
    Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 08/2014; · 2.60 Impact Factor
  • Ioanna Skountzou, Richard W Compans
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    ABSTRACT: Problems with existing influenza vaccines include the strain specificity of the immune response, resulting in the need for frequent reformulation in response to viral antigenic drift. Even in years when the same influenza strains are prevalent, the duration of immunityduration of immunity is limited, and results in the need for annual revaccination. The immunogenicity of the present split or subunit vaccines is also lower than that observed with whole inactivated virus, and the vaccines are not very effective in high risk groups such as the young or the elderly. Vaccine coverage is incomplete, due in part to concerns about the use of hypodermic needles for delivery. Alternative approaches for vaccination are being developed which address many of these concerns. Here we review new approaches which focus on skin immunization, including the development of needle-free delivery systems which use stable dry formulations and induce stronger and longer-lasting immune responses.
    Current topics in microbiology and immunology 07/2014; · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sporadic activity by H5N2 influenza viruses has been observed in chickens in Taiwan from 2003 to 2012. The available information suggests that these viruses were generated by reassortment between a Mexican-like H5N2 and a local enzootic H6N1 virus. Yet, the origin, prevalence and pathogenicity of these H5N2 viruses have not been fully defined. Following the 2012 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks, surveillance was conducted from December 2012 to July 2013 at a live-poultry wholesale market in Taipei. Our findings showed that H5N2 and H6N1 viruses co-circulated at low-levels in chickens in Taiwan. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all H5N2 viruses had hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes derived from a 1994 Mexican-like virus, while their internal gene complexes were incorporated from the enzootic H6N1 virus lineage by multiple reassortment events. Pathogenicity studies demonstrated heterogeneous results, even though all tested viruses had motifs (R-X-K/R-R) supportive of high pathogenicity. Serological surveys for common subtypes of avian viruses confirmed the prevalence of the H5N2 and H6N1 viruses in chickens and revealed an extraordinarily high seroconversion rate to an H9N2 virus, a subtype that is not found in Taiwan but is prevalent in Mainland China. These findings suggest that reassortant H5N2, together with H6N1, viruses have become established and enzootic in chickens throughout Taiwan and that a large-scale vaccination program might have been conducted locally, which likely led to the introduction of the 1994 Mexican-like virus to Taiwan in 2003. H5N2 avian influenza viruses first appeared in chickens in Taiwan in 2003 and caused a series of outbreaks afterwards. Phylogenetic analyses show that the chicken H5N2 viruses have H5 and N2 genes that are closely related to those of a vaccine strain originating from Mexico in 1994, while the contemporary duck H5N2 viruses in Taiwan belong to the Eurasian gene pool. The unusually high similarity of the chicken H5N2 viruses to the Mexican vaccine strain suggests that these viruses might be introduced to Taiwan by using inadequately inactivated or attenuated vaccine. These chicken H5N2 viruses are developing a variety of pathogenicity that could lead to significant consequence to the local poultry industry. These findings emphasize the need for strict quality control and competent oversight in the manufacture and usage of avian influenza virus vaccines, and alternatives to widespread vaccination may be desirable.
    Journal of Virology 03/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current influenza vaccines do not provide good protection against antigenically different influenza A viruses. As an approach to overcome strain-specificity of protection, this study demonstrates significantly improved long-term cross protection by supplementing split vaccines with a conserved molecular target, a repeat of the influenza M2 ectodomain (M2e) expressed on virus-like particles (M2e5x VLPs) in a membrane-anchored form. Intramuscular immunization with H1N1 split vaccine (A/California/07/2009) supplemented with M2e5x VLPs induced M2e specific humoral and cellular immune responses, and shaped the host responses to the vaccine in the direction of T helper type 1 responses inducing dominant IgG2a isotype antibodies as well as IFN-? producing cells in systemic and mucosal sites. Upon lethal challenge, M2e5x VLP-supplemented vaccination lowered lung viral loads and induced long-term cross protection against H3N2 or H5N1 subtype influenza viruses over 12 months. M2e antibodies, CD4 T cells, and CD8 T-cells were found to contribute to improving heterosubtypic cross protection. In addition, improved cross protection by supplemented vaccination with M2e5x VLPs was mediated via Fc receptors. The results support evidence that supplementation with M2e5x VLPs is a promising approach for overcoming the limitation of strain-specific protection by current influenza vaccination.Molecular Therapy (2014); doi:10.1038/mt.2014.33.
    Molecular Therapy 03/2014; · 7.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The generation of memory B cells by vaccination plays a critical role in maintaining antigen specific antibodies and producing antibody responses upon re-exposure to a pathogen. B cell populations contributing to antibody production and protection by vaccination remain poorly defined. We used influenza virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine in a transgenic mouse model that would identify germinal center-derived memory B cells with the expression of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP+ cells). Immunization with influenza VLP vaccine did not induce significant increases in YFP+ cells although vaccine antigen-specific antibodies in sera were found to confer protection against a lethal dose of influenza A virus (A/PR8). In addition, CD43+B220- populations with low YFP+ cells mainly contributed to the production of vaccine antigen-specific IgG isotype-switched antibodies whereas CD43-B220+ populations with high YFP+ cells were able to produce vaccine antigen-specific IgM antibodies. Challenge infection of immunized transgenic mice with live influenza A virus resulted in significant increases in YFP+ cells in the B220- populations of spleen and bone marrow cells. These results suggest that CD43+B220- B cells generated by vaccination are important for producing influenza vaccine antigen-specific antibodies and conferring protection.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Immunology 03/2014; · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Most vaccines are administered by intramuscular injection using a hypodermic needle and syringe. Some limitations of this procedure include reluctance to be immunized because of fear of needlesticks, and concerns associated with the safe disposal of needles after their use. Skin delivery is an alternate route of vaccination that has potential to be painless and could even lead to dose reduction of vaccines. Recently, microneedles have emerged as a novel painless approach for delivery of influenza vaccines via the skin. Areas covered: In this review, we briefly summarize the approaches and devices used for skin vaccination, and then focus on studies of skin immunization with influenza vaccines using microneedles. We discuss both the functional immune response and the nature of this immune response following vaccination with microneedles. Expert opinion: The cutaneous administration of influenza vaccines using microneedles offers several advantages: it is painless, elicits stronger immune responses in preclinical studies and could improve responses in high-risk populations. These dry formulations of vaccines provide enhanced stability, a property of high importance in enabling their rapid global distribution in response to possible outbreaks of pandemic influenza and newly emerging infectious diseases.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 02/2014; · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza vaccines with broad cross-protection are urgently needed to prevent an emerging influenza pandemic. A fusion protein of the TLR5-agonist domains from flagellin and multiple repeats of the conserved extracellular domain of the influenza matrix protein 2 (M2e) was constructed, purified and evaluated as such a vaccine. A painless vaccination method suitable for possible self-administration using coated microneedle arrays was investigated for skin-targeted delivery of the fusion protein in a mouse model. The results demonstrate that microneedle immunization induced strong humoral as well as mucosal antibody responses and conferred complete protection against homo- and heterosubtypic lethal virus challenges. Protective efficacy with microneedles was found to be significantly better than that seen with conventional intramuscular injection, and comparable to that observed with intranasal immunization. Because of its advantages for administration, safety and storage, microneedle delivery of M2e-flagellin fusion protein is a promising approach for an easy-to-administer universal influenza vaccine.
    Journal of Controlled Release 01/2014; · 7.63 Impact Factor
  • Sang-Moo Kang, Min-Chul Kim, Richard W Compans
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    ABSTRACT: Current influenza vaccines are primarily targeted to induce immunity to the influenza virus strain-specific hemagglutinin antigen and are not effective in controlling outbreaks of new pandemic viruses. An approach for developing universal vaccines is to present highly conserved antigenic epitopes in an immunogenic conformation such as virus-like particles (VLPs) together with an adjuvant to enhance the vaccine immunogenicity. In this review, the authors focus on conserved antigenic targets and molecular adjuvants that were presented in VLPs. Conserved antigenic targets that include the hemagglutinin stalk domain, the external domain of influenza M2 and neuraminidase are discussed in addition to molecular adjuvants that are engineered to be incorporated into VLPs in a membrane-anchored form.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 01/2014; 11(8). · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    Han Zhang, Li Wang, Richard W Compans, Bao-Zhong Wang
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    ABSTRACT: Due to frequent viral antigenic change, current influenza vaccines need to be re-formulated annually to match the circulating strains for battling seasonal influenza epidemics. These vaccines are also ineffective in preventing occasional outbreaks of new influenza pandemic viruses. All these challenges call for the development of universal influenza vaccines capable of conferring broad cross-protection against multiple subtypes of influenza A viruses. Facilitated by the advancement in modern molecular biology, delicate antigen design becomes one of the most effective factors for fulfilling such goals. Conserved epitopes residing in virus surface proteins including influenza matrix protein 2 and the stalk domain of the hemagglutinin draw general interest for improved antigen design. The present review summarizes the recent progress in such endeavors and also covers the encouraging progress in integrated antigen/adjuvant delivery and controlled release technology that facilitate the development of an affordable universal influenza vaccine.
    Viruses 01/2014; 6(5):1974-1991. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cutaneous vaccination with microneedle patches offers several advantages over more frequently used approaches for vaccine delivery, including improved protective immunity. However, the involvement of specific APC subsets and their contribution to the induction of immunity following cutaneous vaccine delivery is not well understood. A better understanding of the functions of individual APC subsets in the skin will allow us to target specific skin cell populations in order to further enhance vaccine efficacy. Here we use a Langerin-EGFP-DTR knock-in mouse model to determine the contribution of langerin(+) subsets of skin APCs in the induction of adaptive immune responses following cutaneous microneedle delivery of influenza vaccine. Depletion of langerin(+) cells prior to vaccination resulted in substantial impairment of both Th1 and Th2 responses, and decreased post-challenge survival rates, in mice vaccinated cutaneously but not in those vaccinated via the intramuscular route or in non-depleted control mice. Our results indicate that langerin(+) cells contribute significantly to the induction of protective immune responses following cutaneous vaccination with a subunit influenza vaccine.
    Scientific reports. 01/2014; 4:6094.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract To find an effective mucosal adjuvant for influenza virus-like particles (VLPs), we compared the effects of known adjuvants Alum, CpG DNA, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), poly IC, gardiquimod, and cholera toxin (CT). Mice that were intranasally immunized with Alum, CpG, MPL, and CT adjuvanted VLPs showed higher levels of antibodies in both sera and mucosa. Hemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralizing activities were enhanced in groups adjuvanted with Alum, MPL, or CT. Influenza virus specific long-lived cells secreting IgG and IgA antibodies were found at high levels both in bone marrow and spleen in the Alum, CpG and CT adjuvanted groups. A similar level of protection was observed among different adjuvanted groups, except the CT adjuvant that showed a higher efficacy in lowering lung viral loads after challenge. Alum and CT adjuvants differentially increased influenza VLP-mediated activation of dendritic cells and splenocytes in vitro, supporting the in vivo pattern of antibody isotypes and cytokine production. These results suggest that Alum, MPL, or CpG adjuvants, which have been tested clinically, can be developed as an effective mucosal adjuvant for influenza VLP vaccines.
    Viral immunology 11/2013; · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza vaccines with broad cross-protection are urgently needed. The highly conserved ectodomain of the influenza matrix protein 2 (M2e) can be a promising candidate if its low immunogenicity was overcome. In this study, we generated protein nanoclusters self-assembled from conformation-stabilized M2e tetramers (tM2e) to improve its immunogenicity. The resulting nanoclusters showed an average hydrodynamic diameter of 268 nm. Vaccination with the nanoclusters by an intranasal route elicited high levels of serum antigen-specific IgG in mice (approximately 100-fold higher than that obtained with soluble tM2e), as well as antigen-specific T cell and mucosal antibody responses. The immunity conferred complete protection against lethal challenge with homo- as well as heterosubtypic viruses. These results demonstrate that nanoclusters assembled from conformation-stabilized M2e are promising as a potential universal influenza A vaccine. Self-assembly into nanoclusters represents a novel approach for increasing the immunogenicity of vaccine antigens.
    Nanomedicine: nanotechnology, biology, and medicine 08/2013; · 6.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since the end of March 2013, avian a influenza viruses of the H7N9 subtype have caused more than 130 human cases of infection in China, many of which were severe, resulting in 43 fatalities. Although this A(H7N9) virus outbreak is now under control, the virus (or one with similar properties) could reemerge as winter approaches. To better assess the pandemic threat posed by A(H7N9) viruses, NIAID/NIH Centers of Excellence in Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS) investigators and other expert laboratories in China and elsewhere have characterized the wild-type avian A(H7N9) viruses in terms of host range, virulence, and transmission, and are evaluating the effectiveness of antiviral drugs and vaccine candidates. However, to fully assess the potential risk associated with these novel viruses, there is a need for additional research including experiments that may be classified as "gain-of-function" (GOF). Here, we outline the aspects of the current situation that most urgently require additional research, our proposed studies, and risk-mitigation strategies.
    Science 08/2013; · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Skin vaccination with influenza virus-like particles (VLPs) using microneedles has been shown to induce similar or better protection compared to intramuscular immunization. In this study, we examined the long-term protective efficacy of influenza (H1N1 A/PR/8/34) VLPs after skin vaccination using microneedle patches coated with the vaccine. Microneedle vaccination of mice in the skin induced 100% protection against lethal challenge infection with influenza A/PR/8/34 virus 14 months after a single vaccine dose. Influenza virus-specific total IgG response and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers were maintained at high levels for over one year after microneedle vaccination. Microneedle vaccination also induced substantial levels of lung IgG and IgA antibody responses, and antibody-secreting plasma cells from spleen and bone marrow, as well as conferring effective control of lung viral loads, resulting in complete protection 14 months after vaccination. These strong and long-lasting immune responses were enabled in part by stabilization of the vaccine by formulation with trehalose during microneedle patch fabrication. Administration of the stabilized vaccine using microneedles was especially effective at enabling strong recall responses measured four days after lethal virus challenge, including increased HAI and antibody-secreting cells in the spleen and reduced viral titer and inflammatory response in the lung. The results in this study indicate that skin vaccination with VLP vaccine using a microneedle patch provides long-term protection against influenza in mice.
    Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI 07/2013; · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The influenza M2 ectodomain (M2e) is poorly immunogenic and has some amino acid changes among isolates from different host species. We expressed a tandem repeat construct of heterologous M2e sequences (M2e5x) derived from human, swine, and avian origin influenza A viruses on virus-like particles (M2e5x VLPs) in a membrane-anchored form. Immunization of mice with M2e5x VLPs induced protective antibodies cross-reactive to antigenically different influenza A viruses and conferred cross protection. Anti-M2e antibodies induced by heterologous M2e5x VLPs showed a wider range of cross reactivity to influenza virus at higher levels than those by live virus infection, homologous M2e VLPs, or M2e monoclonal antibody 14C2. Fc receptors were found to be important for mediating protection by immune sera from M2e5x VLP vaccination. The present study provides evidence that heterologous recombinant M2e5x VLPs can be more effective in inducing protective M2e immunity than natural virus infection and further supports an approach for developing an effective universal influenza vaccine.
    Antiviral research 06/2013; · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The need for annual revaccination against influenza is a burden on the healthcare system, leads to low vaccination rates and makes timely vaccination difficult against pandemic strains, such as during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. In an effort toward achieving a broadly protective vaccine that provides cross-protection against multiple strains of influenza, this study developed a microneedle patch to co-immunize with A/PR8 influenza hemagglutinin DNA and A/PR8 inactivated virus vaccine. We hypothesize that this dual component vaccination strategy administered to the skin using microneedles will provide cross-protection against other strains of influenza. To test this hypothesis, we developed a novel coating formulation that did not require additional excipients to increase coating solution viscosity by using the DNA vaccine itself to increase viscosity and thereby enable thick coatings of DNA vaccine and inactivated virus vaccine on metal microneedles. Co-immunization in this way not only generated robust antibody responses against A/PR8 influenza but also generated robust heterologous antibody responses against pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza in mice. Challenge studies showed complete cross-protection against lethal challenge with live pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus. Control experiments using A/PR8 inactivated influenza virus vaccine with placebo DNA coated onto microneedles produced lower antibody titers and provided incomplete protection against challenge. Overall, this is the first study showing DNA solution as a microneedle coating agent and demonstrating cross-protection by co-immunization with inactivated virus and DNA vaccine using coated microneedles.
    Journal of Controlled Release 04/2013; · 7.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Miniaturized microneedle devices are being developed for painlessly targeting vaccines to the immune cell populations in skin. As skin immunization studies are generally restricted to animal models however, where skin architecture and immunity is greatly different to human, surprisingly little is known about the local human response to intradermal (ID) vaccines. Here we use surgically excised human skin to explore for the first time the complex molecular and cellular host responses to a candidate influenza vaccine comprising nanoparticulate virus-like-particles (VLPs), administered via conventional hypodermic injection or reduced scale microneedles. Responses at the molecular level are determined by microarray analysis (47,296 discrete transcripts) and validated by quantitative PCR (96 genes). Cellular response is probed through monitoring migration of dendritic cells in viable skin tissue. Gene expression mapping, ontological analysis and qPCR reveal up-regulation of a host of genes responsible for key immunomodulatory processes and host viral response, including cell recruitment, activation, migration and T cell interaction following both ID and microneedle injection of VLPs; the response from the microneedles being more subtle. Significant morphological and migratory changes to skin dendritic cells are also apparent following microneedle VLP delivery. This is the first study displaying the global, multifaceted immunological events that occur at the site of vaccine deposition in human skin and will subsequently influence the degree and nature of innate and adaptive immune responses. An increased understanding of the detailed similarities and differences in response against antigen administered via different delivery modalities will inform the development of improved vaccines and vaccine delivery systems.
    Advanced healthcare materials. 04/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: In January 2012, influenza virus researchers from around the world announced a voluntary pause of 60 days on any research involving highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses leading to the generation of viruses that are more transmissible in mammals. Now that the aims of the voluntary moratorium have been met in some countries and are close to being met in others, we declare an end to the voluntary moratorium on avian flu transmission studies.
    Science 01/2013; · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunization using a microneedle patch coated with vaccine offers the promise of simplified vaccination logistics and increased vaccine immunogenicity. This study examined the stability of influenza vaccine during the microneedle coating process, with a focus on the role of coating formulation excipients. Thick, uniform coatings were obtained using coating formulations containing a viscosity enhancer and surfactant, but these formulations retained little functional vaccine hemagglutinin (HA) activity after coating. Vaccine coating in a trehalose-only formulation retained about 40 - 50% of vaccine activity, which is a significant improvement. The partial viral activity loss observed in the trehalose-only formulation was hypothesized to come from osmotic pressure-induced vaccine destabilization. We found that inclusion of a viscosity enhancer, carboxymethyl cellulose, overcame this effect and retained full vaccine activity on both washed and plasma-cleaned titanium surfaces. The addition of polymeric surfactant, Lutrol® micro 68, to the trehalose formulation generated phase transformations of the vaccine coating, such as crystallization and phase separation, which was correlated to additional vaccine activity loss, especially when coating on hydrophilic, plasma-cleaned titanium. Again, the addition of a viscosity enhancer suppressed the surfactant-induced phase transformations during drying, which was confirmed by in vivo assessment of antibody response and survival rate after immunization in mice. We conclude that trehalose and a viscosity enhancer are beneficial coating excipients, but the inclusion of surfactant is detrimental to vaccine stability.
    Journal of Controlled Release 01/2013; 166:159-171. · 7.63 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

12k Citations
2,107.23 Total Impact Points


  • 1994–2014
    • Emory University
      • • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      • • Emory Vaccine Center
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 2013
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • University of Cincinnati
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 2012–2013
    • Kyung Hee University Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Erasmus MC
      • Department of Virology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2010–2013
    • Cardiff University
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 2005–2013
    • Georgia State University
      • • Department of Biology
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 2009–2012
    • Georgia Institute of Technology
      • School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering
      Atlanta, GA, United States
    • Tulane University
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
  • 2011
    • Children's Healthcare of Atlanta
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
    • Osaka University
      • Department of Host Defense
      Suika, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2004–2009
    • Harbin Veterinary Research Institute
      Charbin, Heilongjiang Sheng, China
  • 2006
    • University of Technology Munich
      • Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Immunologie und Hygiene
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2003–2006
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases
      Druid Hills, GA, United States
  • 1977–2006
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Microbiology
      Birmingham, AL, United States
  • 2001
    • University of Virginia
      • Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2000
    • The University of Memphis
      • Department of Microbiology and Molecular Cell Sciences
      Memphis, Tennessee, United States
  • 1998
    • Leidos Biomedical Research
      Maryland, United States
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1997
    • U.S. Food and Drug Administration
      • Division of Viral Products
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
  • 1992–1994
    • St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
      • Department of Infectious Diseases
      Memphis, TN, United States
  • 1988–1991
    • Purdue University
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      West Lafayette, IN, United States
    • University of Florida
      • Division of Infectious Diseases
      Gainesville, FL, United States
  • 1979–1985
    • University of Alabama
      Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United States
  • 1981–1982
    • University of Alabama Medical Center
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
  • 1966–1975
    • The Rockefeller University
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1969
    • Australian National University
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia