[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adefovir (ADV) and lamivudine (LAM) combination therapy (ADV+LAM) has been a useful option for patients with LAM-resistant (LAM-r) chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, the long-term outcomes of LAM+ADV and 1-mg entecavir (ETV) rescue therapies have still been limited. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term outcomes of these two rescue therapies.
Clinical and molecular hepatology. 09/2014; 20(3):267-73.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) control immune responses, but their role in acute viral hepatitis remains elusive. Herein, we investigated alteration in the peripheral blood Treg population during acute hepatitis A (AHA) and its implication in the immune-mediated liver injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microfluidics can provide unique experimental tools to visualize the development of neural structures within a microscale device, which is followed by guidance of neurite growth in the axonal isolation compartment. We utilized microfluidics technology to monitor the differentiation and migration of neural cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We co-cultured hESCs with PA6 stromal cells, and isolated neural rosette-like structures, which subsequently formed neurospheres in suspension culture. Tuj1-positive neural cells, but not nestinpositive neural precursor cells (NPCs), were able to enter the microfluidics grooves (microchannels), suggesting that neural cell-migratory capacity was dependent upon neuronal differentiation stage. We also showed that bundles of axons formed and extended into the microchannels. Taken together, these results demonstrated that microfluidics technology can provide useful tools to study neurite outgrowth and axon guidance of neural cells, which are derived from human embryonic stem cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The single crystal of the electron doped BaSnO3-δ system has been recently found to have high electrical mobility (up to 320 cm2V-1s-1) at room temperature and excellent oxygen stability. Although thermal conductivity (κ) of the BaSnO3-δ single crystal is an important physical quantity, the κ measurement by the conventional DC method has been difficult due to the limited crystal size. Herein, we report the first measurement of κ by using the 3ω method from ∼20 to 300 K in the oxygen deficient BaSnO3-δ single crystal with carrier concentration of ∼1018 cm-3. We found that κ is proportional to T-1 above 50 K, indicating that phonons mainly contribute to the heat transport. Moreover, the electronic contribution is determined as ∼ 4% of the measured κ from the Wiedeman-Franz law. The κ value is 0.132 W cm-1 K-1 at room temperature and is increased progressively at lower temperatures, becoming overall larger than that of the SrTiO3 single crystal. Our results thus point out that BaSnO3-δ can be a good substrate for growing transparent electronic thin films with the perovskite structure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the conduction mechanism in Sb-doped BaSnO3 epitaxial films, and
compared its behavior with that of the mechanism of its counterpart, La-doped
BaSnO3.We found that the electron mobility in BaSnO3 films was reduced by almost
7 times when the dopant was changed from La to Sb, despite little change in the
effective mass of the carriers. This indicates that the scattering rate of conduction
electrons in theBaSnO3 system is strongly affected by the site at which the dopants are
located. More importantly,we found that electron scattering by threading dislocations
also depends critically on the dopant site. We propose that the large enhancement
of scattering by the threading dislocations in Sb-doped BaSnO3 films is caused
by the combination effect of the change in the distribution of Sb impurities in the
films, the formation of the Sb impurity clusters near the threading dislocations, and
the conduction electron clustering near the Sb impurities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dermatomyositis is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy with typical cutaneous manifestations. It has been proposed that dermatomyositis may be caused by autoimmune responses to viral infections. Previous studies have shown an association between dermatomyositis and malignant tumors such as ovarian cancer, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. However, a chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection associated with dermatomyositis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been very rarely reported. Here, we report a rare case of dermatomyositis coinciding with HBV-associated HCC. A 55-year-old male was confirmed to have HCC and dermatomyositis based on proximal muscle weakness, typical skin manifestations, elevated muscle enzyme levels, and muscle biopsy findings. This case suggests that HCC and/or a chronic HBV infection may be factors in the pathogenesis of dermatomyositis through a paraneoplastic mechanism.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 03/2014; 29(2):231-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this retrospective study, we analyzed the outcomes of prostate cancer patients treated with the CyberKnife radiotherapy system (Accuray).
Between 2007 and 2010, 31 patients were treated for prostate cancer by use of the CyberKnife radiotherapy system. After excluding six patients who were lost to follow-up, data for the remaining 25 patients were analyzed. Patients were divided into the CyberKnife monotherapy group and a postexternal beam radiotherapy boost group. Clinicopathologic features and treatment outcomes were compared between the groups. The primary endpoint was biochemical recurrence-free survival period based on the Phoenix definition. Toxicities were evaluated by using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring criteria.
Of 25 patients, 17 (68%) and 8 (32%) were classified in the monotherapy and boost groups, respectively. With a median follow-up of 29.3 months, most of the toxicities were grade 1 or 2 except for one patient in the boost group who experienced late grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity. The overall biochemical recurrence rate was 20% (5/25) and the median time to biochemical recurrence was 51.9 months. None of the patients with low or intermediate risk had experienced biochemical recurrence during follow-up. Among D'Amico high-risk populations, 16.7% (1/6) in the monotherapy group and 50.0% (4/8) in the boost group experienced biochemical recurrence.
Our data support that prostate cancer treatment by use of the CyberKnife radiotherapy system is feasible. The procedure can be a viable option for managing prostate cancer either in a monotherapy setting or as a boost after conventional radiotherapy regardless of the patient's risk stratification.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/AimsSorafenib is recommended as a standard treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the efficacy and safety of sorafenib as a first-line therapy in Korean patients with advanced HCC. Methods
From 2007 to 2012, 86 patients with advanced HCC (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage C) treated with sorafenib as a first-line therapy were enrolled from five tertiary hospitals. Predictors of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed. ResultsThe median age was 59.5 years and 71 (82.6%) were males; 57 (66.3%) patients were in Child-Pugh class A. The median OS and PFS were 5.0 (range, 4.0-5.9) and 3.2 (range, 2.6-3.7) months, respectively. Regarding OS, Child-Pugh class A (6.0 vs. 2.8 months), tumor diameter < 5 cm (6.0 vs. 4.3 months), baseline α-fetoprotein (AFP) < 200 ng/mL (5.8 vs. 4.1 months), and the advent of hand-foot-skin reaction (HFSR) of ≥ grade 2 (5.9 vs. 4.0 months) were independent favorable predictors (all P < 0.05). Similarly, regarding PFS, Child-Pugh class A (4.3 vs. 2.1 months), tumor diameter < 5 cm (3.9 vs. 2.8 months), baseline AFP < 200 ng/mL (5.6 vs. 2.8 months) and the advent of HFSR of ≥ grade 2 (4.5 vs. 2.6 months) were independent favorable predictors (all P < 0.05). All toxicities during sorafenib treatment were manageable. Conclusions
Because the efficacy of sorafenib seems marginal in Korean patients with treatment-naïve HCC, how to select candidates with favorable outcomes should be further investigated.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 02/2014; · 3.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. We aimed to assess the relationship of metabolic syndrome-associated NASH and insulin resistance (IR), and to define the correlation of chemicometabolic components with different degree of liver histology in NASH subjects.
Ninety-four subjects with NASH (mean age, 38±14 y; 77% male) were enrolled. IR was calculated using a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Clinical characteristics including IR and accompanying metabolic risk components in NASH subjects were compared with those of 52 diabetics and 21 healthy controls. The relationship between IR and chemicometabolic variables was analyzed according to different clustering of metabolic risk components and the histologic activity.
NASH subjects had a stronger association with metabolic syndrome than healthy controls. HOMA-IR was significantly higher in NASH subjects than in healthy controls (4.4±2.5 vs. 1.7±0.6; P<0.001) but not than in diabetics. NASH subjects with metabolic syndrome were more likely to have higher HOMA-IR compared with that of NASH subjects without metabolic syndrome (5.0±2.9 vs. 3.6±1.7; P=0.032). HOMA-IR showed a positive correlation with body mass index (r=0.428, P=0.015) and serum fasting blood sugar (r=0.365, P=0.037). Serum aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio (P=0.029) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (P=0.034) were significantly affected according to the degree of fibrotic activity in 41 histology-proven NASH subjects.
NASH subjects showed increased IR with a significant association of metabolic syndrome. The severity of hepatic fibrosis revealed a strong correlation with serum aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level.
Journal of clinical gastroenterology 01/2014; · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 54-year-old man diagnosed with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) was treated with entecavir (ETV) 1 mg/day following an initial unsuccessful lamivudine (LAM) treatment (rtL180M, rtM204V/I). Subsequently, virological breakthrough with ETV mutation (rtT184A/L) developed. The LAM and adefovir combination therapy was followed by virological breakthrough. The therapy had been switched to TDF monotherapy. However, this patient experienced virological breakthrough under TDF with a HBV strain bearing rtL80M, rtL180M, rtM204V/I, rtA200V, rtF221Y, rtS223A, rtT184A/L, rtR153Q, and rtV191I combined mutations without rtA194T mutation. TDF resistance may emerge due to multi-site polymerase mutations rather than single-site polymerase mutation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enrichment of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) from the mammalian adult testis faces several limitations owing to their relatively low numbers among many types of advanced germ cells and somatic cells. The aim of the present study was to improve the isolation efficiency of SSCs using a simple tissue grafting method to eliminate the existing advanced germ cells. Sliced testis parenchyma obtained from adult ICR or EGFP-expressing transgenic mice were grafted heterotropically under the dorsal skin of nude mice. The most advanced germ cells disappeared in the grafted tissues after 2-4 weeks. Grafted tissues were dissociated enzymatically and plated in culture dishes. During in vitro culture, significantly more SSCs were obtained from the grafted testes than from non-grafted controls, and the isolated SSCs had proliferative potential and were successfully maintained. Additionally, EGFP-expressing SSCs derived from graft parenchyma were transplanted into bulsufan-treated recipient mice testes. Finally, we obtained EGFP-expressing pups after in vitro fertilization using spermatozoa derived from transplanted SSCs. These results suggest that subcutaneous grafting of testis parenchyma and the subsequent culture methods provide a simple and efficient isolation method to enrich for SSCs in adult testis without specific cell sorting methods and may be useful tools for clinical applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the possibility of treating multidrug-resistant tumors with targeted chemo-photothermal treatment, we conducted in vitro and in vivo studies using a doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant DLD-1 cell line (DLD-1/DOX) and nude mice with human xenograft tumors, respectively. The chemo-photothermal treatment consisted of DOX-loaded-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-Au half-shell nanoparticles with targeting moieties of anti-death receptor-4 monoclonal antibody conjugated to the Au surface. The cells or xenografted tumors treated with nanoparticles were exposed to near infrared light for 10 min, which caused an increase in temperature to 45 °C. Chemo-photothermal treatment resulted in a large reduction in the rate of tumor xenograft growth on DLD-1/DOX tumor-bearing mice with a much smaller dose of DOX than conventional DOX chemotherapy. These results demonstrate that targeted chemo-photothermal treatment can provide high therapeutic efficacy and low toxicity in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) is usually caused by extrinsic compression or invasion of the superior vena cava (SVC) by malignant tumors involving mediastinal structures. Although thymomas are well-known causes of SVCS, cases of SVCS caused by malignant thymomas protruding into adjacent vessels draining the SVC with thrombosis have been very rarely reported worldwide. We experienced a 39-year-old female patient with SVCS that developed after the direct invasion of the left brachiocephalic vein (LBCV) and SVC by an anterior mediastinal mass with a high maximum standardized uptake value on the chest computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography-CT. Based on these results, she underwent en bloc resection of the tumor, including removal of the involved vessels, and was eventually diagnosed as having a type B2 thymoma permeating into the LBCV and SVC. We present this case as a very rare form of SVCS caused by an invasive thymoma.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 11/2013; 75(5):210-213.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether ligation-mediated real-time polymerase chain reaction (LM-RT-PCR), which combines LM-PCR, and RT-PCR, can detect sperm DNA fragmentation (DF) in human semen samples.
Three-way comparison of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD), and LM-RT-PCR for detecting sperm DNA fragmentation.
University hospital-based research laboratory.
Twenty-five men presenting at an infertility clinic.
Basic analysis of sperm concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology, with each semen sample equally divided into three aliquots that were evaluated for fragmentation using TUNEL, SCD, and LM-RT-PCR assays.
In TUNEL and SCD assays, counts of the number of sperm with tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) red signals or no halo; in LM-RT-PCR results, evaluation of the threshold cycles (Ct) and relative fluorescence unit (RFU) values.
The median percentage of sperm with positive results for fragmentation in the TUNEL and SCD assays were 20.5% and 20.7%, respectively. To compare the accuracy of the TUNEL, SCD, and LM-RT-PCR assays, we divided the semen samples into two groups according to the TUNEL results: low and high percentage of sperm fragmentation. In the LM-RT-PCR results, the values of the cycles of threshold (Ct) and relative fluorescence unit (RFU) statistically significantly differed between the low and high percentage of sperm fragmentation groups. Comparisons among the TUNEL, SCD, and LM-RT-PCR assays revealed that the correlation patterns according to DNA fragmentation were similar in both the groups with high and low percentage of DNA fragmentation. Our morphologic analysis indicated that the fragmentation of sperm DNA did not appear to influence sperm morphology.
These results indicate that the LM-RT-PCR technique is another useful tool for detecting DNA fragmentation, a parameter of sperm quality in human semen alone or combined with TUNEL or SCD assays.
Fertility and sterility 09/2013; · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It was recently discovered that a transparent n-type (Ba,La)SnO3 system has electrical mobility as high as 320 cm2 V−1 s−1 at room temperature and superior thermal stability up to ∼500 °C. To understand comparatively the carrier-scattering mechanism in the doped BaSnO3, we investigate the physical properties of the single crystals of BaSn1-xSbxO3 (x = 0.03, 0.05, and 0.10), which also show the n-type characters via the Sn site doping by Sb. Transmittance of the grown single crystals in the visible spectral region turn out to be similar to that of the (Ba,La)SnO3 system, maintaining optical transparency. Temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements reveal that the electrical mobility at room temperature reaches as high as 79.4 cm2 V−1 s−1 at a carrier density of 1.02×1020 cm−3, and upon increasing carrier density further, it systematically decreases nearly proportional to the inverse of the carrier density. The overall reduced mobility of the Ba(Sn,Sb)O3 system as compared to the (Ba,La)SnO3 system is attributed to the enhanced scattering caused by the Sb ions located in the direct conduction path. Based on the inverse proportionality between the carrier density and the electrical mobility, we suggest that the neutral impurity scattering becomes particularly strong in the Ba(Sn,Sb)O3.
Physical Review B 09/2013; 88(12). · 3.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have developed a carbon nanotube (CNT) film-based biosensor with a metal semiconductor field effect transistor structure (MESFET). A gold top gate was deposited on the middle of the CNT channel and probe antibodies were immobilized on the gold top gate with an antibody-binding protein, protein G or Escherichia coli outer membrane (OM) with autodisplayed Z-domains of protein A. These CNT-MESFET biosensors exhibited a higher sensitivity than the CNT-FET biosensor with probe antibodies immobilized using a chemical linker, since the orientation of immobilized antibodies was controlled by the antibody-binding proteins. In addition, nonspecific binding was effectively inhibited by E. coli OM. Using the CNT-MESFET biosensors with E. coli OM containing Z domain, we detected amyloid-β (Aβ) in human serum, one of the biomarkers for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Aβ at the level of 1pg/mL in human serum could be measured in real-time and without labeling, which was lower than a limit of detection for plasma Aβ using an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. These results suggested that our CNT-MESFET biosensors might be applicable for an early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the relationship between the mobility and dislocation density for recently discovered high-mobility Ba0.96La0.04SnO3 thin-films and found that the carrier density and mobility of the film, as high as 4.0×1020 cm−3 and 70 cm2 V−1s−1, respectively, decreased as the dislocation density increased. We determined the values for dislocation density using transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy after surface etching. We found that the effect of dislocations on the mobility was large, when compared with that for GaN with a similar dislocation density. The importance of dislocation scattering in the perovskite structure is emphasized, especially in a low-carrier-density regime.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prognosis is an essential part of the baseline assessment of any disease. For predicting prognosis of end-stage liver disease, many prognostic models were proposed. Child-Pugh score has been the reference for assessing the prognosis of cirrhosis for about three decades in end-stage liver disease. Despite of several limitations, recent large systematic review showed that Child-Pugh score was still robust predictors and it's components (bilirubin, albumin and prothrombin time) were followed by Child-Pugh score. Recently, Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score emerged as a "modern" alternative to Child-Pugh score. The MELD score has been an important role to accurately predict the severity of liver disease and effectively assess the risk of mortality. Due to several weakness of MELD score, new modified MELD scores (MELD-Na, Delta MELD) have been developed and validated. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the prognostic factors in end-stage liver disease, focusing on the role of Child-Pugh and MELD score.
Clinical and molecular hepatology. 06/2013; 19(2):105-15.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the predictive factors for renal insufficiency in patients followed for more than 5 years after radical nephrectomy.
Age, gender, history of diabetes, history of hypertension, body mass index, preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), serum uric acid, urine albumin, normal renal parenchymal volume, tumor size, and ratio of normal parenchymal volume of the removed kidney to that of the remaining kidney were evaluated retrospectively in 89 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy from January 2001 to December 2005. Patients were included whose renal parenchymal volume was measurable by use of perioperative imaging (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging), whose preoperative eGFR was greater than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and who were followed for more than 5 years. To measure renal parenchymal volume from imaging, we integrated the extent of the normal renal parenchyma from axial slides of images.
In univariate and multivariate binary regression analysis, the parenchymal volume of the remnant kidney (p=0.001), a history of diabetes (p=0.035), and preoperative eGFR (p=0.011) were independent factors for renal insufficiency. By use of a receiver operating characteristic curve, a volume of 170 mL was determined to be an appropriate cutoff value, with sensitivity of 58.7% and specificity of 74.4% for the parenchymal volume of the remnant kidney for predicting eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (area under the curve, 0.678). The parenchymal volume of the remnant kidney was also an independent factor for the downgrading of the chronic kidney disease category in the multivariate linear regression analysis (p=0.021).
Preoperative eGFR, a history of diabetes, and the radiologic volume of the remaining kidney parenchyma could be useful factors for predicting postoperative renal function. Patients with parenchymal volumes of less than 170 mL have a higher risk of postoperative renal insufficiency, which should be considered carefully when choosing a treatment modality.