[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aims:
The dynamics of intestinal stem cells are crucial for regulation of intestinal function and maintenance. Although crypt stem cells have been identified in the intestine by genetic marking methods, identification of plural crypt stem cells has not yet been achieved as they are visualised in the same colour.
Intestinal organoids were transferred into Matrigel® mixed with lentivirus encoding mCherry. The dynamics of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using time-lapse imaging, and the localisation of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using 3D immunofluorescence.
We established an original method for the introduction of a transgene into an organoid generated from mouse small intestine that resulted in continuous fluorescence of the mCherry protein in a portion of organoid cells. Three-dimensional analysis using confocal microscopy showed a single mCherry-positive cell in an organoid crypt that had been cultured for >1year, which suggested the presence of long-lived mCherry-positive and -negative stem cells in the same crypt. Moreover, a single mCherry-positive stem cell in a crypt gave rise to both crypt base columnar cells and transit amplifying cells. Each mCherry-positive and -negative cell contributed to the generation of organoids.
The use of our original lentiviral transgene system to mark individual organoid crypt stem cells showed that long-lived plural crypt stem cells might independently serve as intestinal epithelial cells, resulting in the formation of a completely functional villus.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2014; 454(4). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.10.091 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop stem cell therapy for small intestinal (SI) diseases, it is essential to determine whether SI stem cells in culture retain their tissue regeneration capabilities. By using a heterotopic transplantation approach, we show that cultured murine SI epithelial organoids are able to reconstitute self-renewing epithelia in the colon. When stably integrated, the SI-derived grafts show many features unique only to the SI but distinct from the colonic epithelium. Our study provides evidence that cultured adult SI stem cells could be a source for cell therapy of intestinal diseases, maintaining their identity along the gastrointestinal tract through an epithelium-intrinsic mechanism.
Genes & Development 08/2014; 28(16):1752-7. DOI:10.1101/gad.245233.114 · 10.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reports have suggested that the two Notch ligands, Dll1 and Dll4, are indispensable to maintain the homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium. However, within the intestinal epithelium, the precise distribution of the cells that express those ligands at the protein level remains largely unknown. Here, we show a series of immunohistochemical analysis through which we successfully identified mice intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that endogenously express Dll1 or Dll4. Results showed that Dll1-positive (Dll1+ve) IECs reside exclusively within the crypt, whereas Dll4-positive (Dll4+ve) IECs can locate both in the crypt and in the villus of the small intestine. Also in the colon, Dll1+ve IECs resided at the lower part of the crypt, whereas Dll4+ve IECs resided at both upper and lower part of the crypt, including the surface epithelium. Both Dll1+ve and Dll4+ve IECs were ATOH1-positive, but Hes1-negative cells, and located adjacent to Hes1-positive cells within the crypts. A sub-population of both Dll1+ve and Dll4+ve IECs appeared to co-express Muc2, but rarely co-expressed other secretory lineage markers. However, as compared to Dll1+ve IECs, Dll4+ve IECs included larger number of Muc2-postive IECs, suggesting that Dll4 is more preferentially expressed by goblet cells. Also, we identified that Dll4 is expressed in the Paneth cells of the small intestine, whereas Dll1 and Dll4 is expressed in the c-kit-positive IECs of the colon, indicating that Dll1+ve and Dll4+ve IECs may contribute to constitute the intestinal stem cell niche. Compared to the normal colon, analysis of DSS-colitis showed that number of Dll1+ve IECs significantly decrease in the elongated crypts of the inflamed colonic mucosa. In sharp contrast, number of Dll4+ve IECs showed a significant increase in those crypts, which was accompanied by the increase in number of Hes1-positive IECs. Those Dll4+ve IECs were mostly found adjacent to the Hes1-positive IECs, suggesting that Dll4 may act as a major Notch ligand in the crypts of the inflamed colonic mucosa. Our results illustrate distinct expression patterns of Dll1 and Dll4 within the intestinal epithelium, and suggest that these two ligands may have different roles in normal and inflamed mucosa.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Notch signaling plays an essential role in the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). We have previously shown that Notch signaling is up-regulated in the inflamed mucosa of ulcerative colitis (UC) and thereby plays an indispensable role in tissue regeneration. Here we show that in addition to Notch signaling, STAT3 signaling is highly activated in the inflamed mucosa of UC. Forced expression of the Notch target gene Hes1 dramatically enhanced the IL-22-mediated STAT3-dependent transcription in human IECs. This enhancement of STAT3-dependent transcription was achieved by the extended phosphorylation of STAT3 by Hes1. Microarray analysis revealed that Hes1-mediated enhancement of IL-22-STAT3 signaling significantly increased the induction of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides, such as REG1A, REG3A and REG3G, in human IECs. Conversely, the reduction of Hes1 protein levels with a γ-secretase inhibitor significantly down-regulated the induction of those genes in IECs, resulting in a markedly poor response to IL-22. Our present findings identify a new role for the molecular function of Hes1 in which the protein can interact with cytokine signals and regulate the immune response of IECs.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2013; 443(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.12.061 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) regulate the absorption and secretion of anions, such as HCO3(-) or Cl(-). Bestrophin genes represent a newly identified group of calcium-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs). Studies have suggested that, among the four human bestrophin-family genes, bestrophin-2 (BEST2) and bestrophin-4 (BEST4) might be expressed within the intestinal tissue. Consistently, a study showed that BEST2 is expressed by human colonic goblet cells. However, their precise expression pattern along the gastrointestinal tract, or the lineage specificity of the cells expressing these genes, remains largely unknown. Here, we show that BEST2 and BEST4 are expressed in vivo, each in a distinct, lineage-specific manner, in human IECs. While BEST2 was expressed exclusively in colonic goblet cells, BEST4 was expressed in the absorptive cells of both the small intestine and the colon. In addition, we found that BEST2 expression is significantly down-regulated in the active lesions of ulcerative colitis, where goblet cells were depleted, suggesting that BEST2 expression is restricted to goblet cells under both normal and pathologic conditions. Consistently, the induction of goblet cell differentiation by a Notch inhibitor, LY411575, significantly up-regulated the expression of not BEST4 but BEST2 in MUC2-positive HT-29 cells. Conversely, the induction of absorptive cell differentiation up-regulated the expression of BEST4 in villin-positive Caco-2 cells. In addition, we found that the up- or down-regulation of Notch activity leads to the preferential expression of either BEST4 or BEST2, respectively, in LS174T cells. These results collectively confirmed that BEST2 and BEST4 could be added to the lineage-specific genes of humans IECs due to their abilities to clearly identify goblet cells of colonic origin and a distinct subset of absorptive cells, respectively.
PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e79693. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0079693 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult stem-cell therapy holds promise for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Here we describe methods for long-term expansion of colonic stem cells positive for leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5(+) cells) in culture. To test the transplantability of these cells, we reintroduced cultured GFP(+) colon organoids into superficially damaged mouse colon. The transplanted donor cells readily integrated into the mouse colon, covering the area that lacked epithelium as a result of the introduced damage in recipient mice. At 4 weeks after transplantation, the donor-derived cells constituted a single-layered epithelium, which formed self-renewing crypts that were functionally and histologically normal. Moreover, we observed long-term (>6 months) engraftment with transplantation of organoids derived from a single Lgr5(+) colon stem cell after extensive in vitro expansion. These data show the feasibility of colon stem-cell therapy based on the in vitro expansion of a single adult colonic stem cell.
Nature medicine 03/2012; 18(4):618-23. DOI:10.1038/nm.2695 · 27.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an efflux transporter that regulates bioavailability of orally administered drugs at the intestinal epithelium. To develop an in vitro experimental model that mimics P-gp-mediated intestinal drug transport in vivo, we employed normal intestinal epithelium three-dimensionally cultured. Physiological expression of P-gp mRNA and the expression of its protein at the apical membrane were observed in the small intestinal epithelium grown as cystic organoids. Rhodamine123 (Rh123), a substrate for P-gp, was actively transported in the basoapical direction and accumulated in the luminal space, while the epithelial integrity was kept intact. Furthermore, we were able to monitor the whole process of Rh123 transport and its inhibition by verapamil in real-time, from which kinetic parameters for Rh123 transport could be estimated by a mathematical modeling. The method here described to evaluate the dynamics of P-gp-mediated transport in primary intestinal epithelial cells would be instrumental in investigating the physiological function of P-gp and its inhibitors/inducers in vitro.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2012; 419(2):238-43. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.01.155 · 2.30 Impact Factor