[Show description][Hide description] DESCRIPTION: Background : Many sports are associated with a variety of peripheral nervous system injuries that are specific to that particular sport.
Research question : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of playing basketball on nerves in the elbow region.
Type of study : This is a comparative study that focuses on nerve conduction velocity differences between basketball players and sedentary persons.
Methods : The study included 20 male basketball players with a mean (and SD) age, height and weight of 22.5 (3.0) years, 190.3 (5.7) cm and 91.6 (12.4) kg, respectively. The age, height and weight of 20 male non-active controls were 22.3 (1.7) years, 172.6 (6.2) cm and 75.7 (8.4) kg, respectively. Limb length and the perimeters of the dominant arm and forearm were measured for each subject. The neurophysiological study consisted of measuring motor and sensory nerve conduction of the median, ulnar and radial nerves. Both the motor and sensory conduction velocities of the median nerve were significantly delayed in the dominant arm of the basketball players compared to controls. In addition, the sensory conduction velocities of both the ulnar and radial nerves were significantly delayed in the dominant arm of the basketball players compared to controls.
Results : There were no statistical differences between the dominant and non-dominant arms of the basketball players for the sensory and motor conduction velocities of the median, ulnar and radial nerves. The basketball players were taller and heavier than controls; in addition, their dominant upper limb length was longer, and their arm and forearm perimeters were greater than controls.
Conclusions : This study shows that basketball players have a tendency toward developing median (motor and sensory), ulnar (sensory) and radial (sensory) nerve damage in the elbow region, despite being asymptomatic. The mechanism of delayed motor and sensory conduction velocities in the median nerve may involve both traction and compression induced by the median nerve stretching across the upper extremity during movement. Entrapment of the ulnar nerve due to a hypertrophic medial head of the triceps or flexor carpi ulnaris may be the cause of the delayed conduction velocities in this study. Forceful repetitive movements and an overload of the triceps muscle are thought to be primary etiological factors in the delayed radial nerve sensory conduction velocity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Repetitive microtrauma or overuse injuries may often affect upper extremities of the long term computer users. The aim of this study was to compare sensory nerve conduction velocities (SNCV) for median, radial and ulnar nerves in the wrist of computer users with the same parameters in controls who do not use computers regularly.
Twenty one male computer users (age: mean (M) = 28.3 years ± standard deviation (SD) = 7.5 years) and 21 male control subjects (age: M±SD = 24.1±4.6 years) were recruited for the study. Limb length and the perimeters of the dominant arm and forearm were measured for each subject. The neurophysiological study consisted of measuring sensory nerve conduction of the median, ulnar and radial nerves.
The sensory conduction velocities of both median and ulnar nerves were significantly delayed in the dominant arm of the computer users compared to the controls. In addition, sensory conduction velocity of the median nerve was significantly delayed in the dominant extremity of the computer users compared to their non-dominant extremity.
This study shows that computer users have a tendency toward developing median and ulnar sensory nerve damage in the wrist region. Mechanism of delayed SNCV in the median and ulnar nerves may be due to sustained extension and ulnar deviation of the wrist during computer mouse use and typing. Reduced SNCV changes were more apparent on the dominant side of the median nerve. This may indicate the increased neural deficits related to an increased use of the dominant side. Further investigation is needed to determine how to reduce potential risk factors at this stage in order to prevent development of median or ulnar neuropathy in the long term computer users.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health 12/2014; 27(6). DOI:10.2478/s13382-014-0335-z · 0.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: The ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) test is a
promising indicator of myocardial ischemia in the early diagnosis
of the acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Recent studies examining
alterations in IMA levels caused by myocardial ischemia that
develops during exercise have shown contradictory results. There
has been an increase in severe exercise-related cardiac events in
football. We therefore, assessed IMA levels before and after exercise
in professional soccer players in order to examine the effect of the
exercise on IMA levels.
Methods: Blood was collected from professional soccer players
before and after exercise. IMA levels were measured by using
spectrophotometric methods, and the albumin levels were measured
in an autoanalyzer.
Results: The average pre- and post exercise IMA levels of 16
soccer players were found to be 0.438±0.071 and 0.386±0.069,
respectively. The pre- and post exercise albumin levels of the same
group were 4.08±0.20 g/dL and 4.21±0.19 g/dL, respectively.
There was a strong negative correlation between post exercise
IMA and albumin levels, which was statistically significant
(r = -0.535. p = 0.033).
Conclusion: IMA levels should be examined not only in noncardiac
pathologies, but also in specific serum albumin concentrations
and in individuals practicing vigorous sport activities.
Key words: Ischemia, Ischemia-modified albumin, Albumin,
Marmara Medical Journal 01/2013; 26(1). DOI:10.5472/MMJ.2012.02495.1
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability in both children and the elderly. Mortality from TBI is said account for 1-2% of all deaths. One-third to one-half of all traumatic deaths is due to head injury. Of those who survive, the majority is left with significant disabilities, including 3% who remain in a vegetative state and only approximately 30% who make a good recovery. Microarray studies and other genomic techniques facilitate the discovery of new targets for the treatment of diseases, which aids in drug development, immunotherapeutics and gene therapy. Gene expression profiling or microarray analysis enables the measurement of thousands of genes in a single RNA sample.
In this study, adult Wistar-albino rats underwent TBI using a trauma device. Brain tissues and blood samples were taken for gene expression at 1, 12 and 48 h post-trauma and were then analysed via microarray. Total RNA was isolated using an RNeasy Mini Kit (QIAGEN-Sample & Assay Technologies, Hilden, Germany) and tested using a 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA). Overall changes in gene expression were evaluated using Agilent Whole Rat Genome 4 × 44 K oligonucleotide arrays and analysed with GeneSpring (GeneSpring 6.1, Silicon Genetics, Redwood City, CA) software. Only genes with a signal-to-noise ratio of above 2 in the experiments were included in the statistical analysis.
ANOVA (p<0.05) was performed to identify differentially expressed probe sets. Additional filtering (minimum 2-fold change) was applied to extract the most differentially expressed genes based on the study groups (Control vs. 1st hour, Control vs. 12th hour, Control vs. 48th hour). Differentially expressed genes were detected via microarray analysis. A gene interaction-based network investigation of the genes that were identified via traditional microarray data analysis describes a significantly relevant gene network that includes the C1ql2, Cbnl, Sdc1, Bdnf, MMP9, and Cd47 genes, which were differentially expressed compared with the controls.
In this study, we will review the current understanding of the genetic susceptibility of TBI with microarrays. Our results highlight the importance of genes that control the response of the brain to injury as well as the suitability of microarrays for identifying specific targets for further study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study determined the effects of heading training on serum nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in soccer players. Seventeen professional level male soccer players (mean ± SD), age 24 ± 4.4 years, were recruited from a 3rd league team. Each player completed 15 approved headings in about 20-25 minutes. Venous blood samples were obtained from soccer players before and after the heading training for analysis. Levels of NGF and BDNF in the serum were determined by a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Mean ± SD serum NGF levels were 18.71 ± 3.36 pg·ml-1 before training and 31.41 ± 7.89 pg·ml-1 after training (p=0.000). Mean ± SD serum BDNF levels were 22.32 ± 3.62 pg·ml-1 before training and 55.41 ± 12.59 pg·ml-1 after training (p=0.000). In this study heading a soccer ball was found to cause an increase in serum concentrations of NGF and BDNF. We suggest that the microtrauma caused by repetitive heading and/or the course of survival of the injured neurons may lead to increased NGF and BDNF levels.
Biology of Sport 09/2011; 28(3):177-181. DOI:10.5604/959284 · 0.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is one of the most frequent neurological damage types in which complex physiological and biochemical events occur in traumatized area. Regional ischemia can occur in the acute phase after trauma. Recently, both clinical and experimental studies have shown that ischemia modified albumin (IMA) is one of the most promising blood markers of ischemia. In this study, whether serum IMA values can be used in rats as a marker for intracranial ischemia caused by trauma is investigated. Material and Methods: Wistar-albino adult rats were utilized in this study. Rats were exposed to MTBI by using a trauma device. Frontal and parietal brain tissues were taken for histopathological investigation. Serum IMA values of traumatised and control rats were measured with the ACB (albumin cobalt binding) test. Results: While the absolute IMA values were 0.576 +/- 0.048 for trauma group, it was identified as 0.568 +/- 0.055 for control group. There was no statistically significant difference between trauma and control groups in the mean value of the IMA. In our histopathological analysis, necrosis associated with hypoxia in the outer layers of brain cortex as a result of the trauma applied to rats, and neuron damage in the inner layers of the cortex were observed. In addition, red neurons were detected in the brain cortex as a result of early stage neuron damage associated with ischemia. Conclusion: We found that there is no significant increase in IMA levels in rats with trauma suggesting that this biomarker would not be useful in detecting early ischemic changes in MTBI.
Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Medical Sciences 08/2010; 30(4):1171-1176. DOI:10.5336/medsci.2009-11356 · 0.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of single bouts of exercise on changes in ischemia-modified albumin (IMA). Twenty wrestlers (mean age, 28.8 ± 8.96 years) participated in this study. They performed a typical 1.5-hour wrestling training session. Blood was sampled before and immediately after training. The albumin-cobalt binding test was used to measure IMA levels. Serum albumin concentrations and blood lactate levels were also evaluated. Mean serum IMA levels were 0.281 ± 0.052 ABSU before training and 0.324 ± 0.039 ABSU after training. A single bout of acute exercise led to significant (p < 0.05) increases in IMA. The results of the correlation tests indicated that there was a positive correlation between IMA and lactate levels (r = 0.873; p < 0.001). There were no significant correlations between IMA and albumin (r = −0.058; p = 0.807), and between albumin and lactate levels (r = −0.120; p = 0.613). Our results showed that demanding, intense anaerobic physical activity might influence the generation of IMA.
Journal of exercise science and fitness (JESF) 01/2010; 8(2-8):67-72. DOI:10.1016/S1728-869X(10)60010-X · 0.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The peripheral nerves of the upper extremity are exposed to acute and chronic mechanical injuries in ice hockey players, because of the high repetition of motions, high muscular forces and extreme shoulder positions. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of ice hockey playing on the axillary, musculocutaneous and radial nerves crossing the upper arm region.
The ice hockey group consisted of 20 first-division male ice hockey players and the control group consisted of 20 non-active males. The neurophysiological study consisted of motor nerve conduction latency of the axillary, musculocutaneous and radial nerves.
The values of distal motor latency (DML) of the axillary, radial and musculocutaneous nerves were significantly prolonged in the ice hockey players compared with the controls. Ice hockey can repetitively stress the upper extremity during shooting, because of forceful throwing to move the puck from the stick blade to the opponent's net. The mechanism of prolonged DML in the axillary nerve may both tract and compress as the axillary nerve stretches across the humerus during movement. From this study it emerged that using the biceps and coracobrachialis muscles can create notable muscle compartment pressure on the musculocutaneus nerve. The significant differences detected in the neurophysiologic study of the musculocutaneous nerve between the ice hockey players and controls may reflect the fact that the forces acting on the shoulder and the elbow during ice hockey matches can effectively influence DML.
The authors suggest two plausible causes for prolonged radial nerve DML: direct compression by the hypertrophied triceps muscle and stretching of the arm. The study suggests it is likely that a combination of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and excessive biomechanical demands on neurological structures during ice hockey matches may be a major etiologic factor in compression of the axillary, musculocutaneous and radial nerves.
The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness 07/2009; 49(2):224-31. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the maximal voluntary peak torque of the ham-string and quadriceps muscles, and the torque ratio between these muscles in volleyball and basketball play-ers across a spectrum of speeds in their dominant legs. Twenty male volleyball players, 20 male basketball players, and 20 controls were evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer at angular velocities of 60º, 180º and 300°s -1 . No significant quadriceps and hamstring muscles concentric peak torque was found between volleyball and basketball players with the exception of quadriceps at 300°s -1 (volleyball: 139.9±0.7 Nm, bas-ketball: 117.2±1.9 Nm). The mean hamstring/quadriceps muscles (H/Q) ratios at 60°s -1 were similar to each other. No significant differences were found between volleyball and basketball players for H/Q muscles ra-tio at 180°s -1 . Volleyball players demonstrated higher differences compared to the basketball players and control groups only at 300°s -1 (p=.001 and p=.000, respectively). Our data suggest that the sport's demands seem to influence isokinetic concentric H/Q ratio.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the maximal voluntary peak torque of the hamstring and quadriceps muscles, and the torque ratio between these muscles in volleyball and basketball players across a spectrum of speeds in their dominant legs. Twenty male volleyball players, 20 male basketball players, and 20 controls were evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer at angular velocities of 60°s-1, 180°s-1 and 300°s-1. No significant quadriceps and hamstring muscles concentric peak torque was found between volleyball and basketball players with the exception of quadriceps at 300°s-1 (volleyball: 139.9 ± .7 Nm, basketball: 117.2 ± 1.9 Nm). The mean hamstring/quadriceps muscles (H/Q) ratios at 60°s-1 were similar to each other. No significant differences were found between volleyball and basketball players for H/Q muscles ratio at 180°s-1. Volleyball players demonstrated higher differences compared to the basketball players and control groups only at 300°s-1 (p=.001 and p=.000, respectively). Our data suggest that the sport’s demands seem to influence isokinetic concentric H/Q ratio.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ulnar neuropathy at the elbow is a common disorder seen in the throwing athlete. The purpose of our study was to determine whether asymptomatic physically active volleyball players and non-actives demonstrate distinct differences in nerve conduction of the ulnar nerve at the elbow. Nerve conduction studies were performed on both arms of 24 male volleyball players and 24 male non-actives. Nerve conduction velocity at the above to below elbow segment of the ulnar motor nerve were slower in the volleyball players compared with controls and their non-dominant arms. There were no statistical differences in latencies and conduction velocity of the ulnar nerve on the forearm, both in volleyball players and in the controls. In the evoked responses of the ulnar nerve, the amplitude was the same as corresponding normal values in both sensory nerve and muscle action potentials. We conclude that abnormal ulnar (motor) nerve conduction at the elbow segment may suggest a subclinical entrapment neuropathy as a result of strenuous elbow movements in volleyball players.
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 07/2006; 16(3):197-200. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2005.00475.x · 2.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate early changes occurring in both medial and lateral meniscus thickness from the knees of patients with osteoarthritis (OA).
We conducted this study in the Department of Anatomy and Division of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli, Turkey during the period 2004 to 2005. In this study, we measured the thickness of the medial and lateral meniscus in a group of 36 (50 knees) consecutive patients with chronic knee pain, and clinical findings of early OA, and 10 (20 knees) control subjects using MRI.
The thickness of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus and anterior horn of the lateral meniscus were significantly higher in the OA patients compared with the control subjects.
This study showed that meniscal degeneration in early stage OA is not evenly distributed in the knee. Thickening of the menisci in some areas may occur due to their own localization and biomechanics.
Saudi medical journal 07/2006; 27(6):854-7. · 0.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We observed a rare variation of splenic artery during the routine dissection in the Laboratory of the Anatomy Department. It arose from the splenic artery toward the distal part of transverse colon which typically supplied by the inferior mesenteric artery. Embryologically distal part of the transverse colon is a segment of hindgut. In this case, splenic artery which an artery of foregut supplies an area of hindgut. The knowledge of splenic artery variations has significant importance during surgery of the organs of the upper abdominal region. In this study, we discussed clinical significance and embryological aspects of this anomalous artery.
Saudi medical journal 05/2006; 27(4):536-8. · 0.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peripheral nerve injuries can occur in runners, but large numbers of nerve injuries remain subclinical. Identification of nerve injuries needs an understanding of common sites of entrapment in running. Fourteen asymptomatic male middle-distance runners and 14 non-active subjects participated in this study. The neurophysiologic study consisted of motor and sensory nerve conduction of medial and lateral plantar nerves, sensory nerve conduction of sural and superficial peroneal nerves, and motor nerve conduction of common peroneal nerve. Active range of motion and muscle strength assessment (dorsi flexion/plantar flexion; inversion/eversion) as measured using a Biodex System3 Dynamometer were observed to be within normal limits for both groups. The medial plantar (sensory) nerve and sural nerve distal latencies were significantly prolonged and sensory conduction velocities were significantly delayed in the runners compared with the control subjects. Many of the asymptomatic runners with abnormal nerve conduction tests in this study may represent presymptomatic or asymptomatic neuropathy similar to the type of subclinical entrapment neuropathy.
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 01/2006; 8(4):403-10. DOI:10.1016/S1440-2440(05)80055-6 · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the tissue injury associated with long-term alcohol consumption in male gonads. To this end, apoptotic testicle tissues of alcoholic rats were compared with the testicle tissues of the control rats.
This study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy and Division of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli, Turkey during the period 2002 to 2003. We used Sprague-Dawley rats as the subject material in the investigation of apoptosis. We divided the rats into 2 groups: alcoholic rats and the control group, with 10 adult male rats in each group. We housed the subjects in each group under controlled temperature (22 +/- 3 degrees C) and humidity (62 +/- 7%) and lighting (12 hours darkness and 12 hours daylight per day). We fed the rats in the alcoholic group by ethanol in liquid diet for 12 weeks while the control rats received the normal isocaloric diet. We fixed the testicle tissues of both groups by perfusion of 10% formaldehyde through left ventricle and then removed. We further fixed the tissues in formaldehyde solution for at least 2 days. After dehydration by ethanol, we embedded the tissue in paraffin and used serial paraffin sections (5 micron thickness) for immunohistochemistry. We used Caspase-3 Ab-4 (CPP32) antibody to identify caspase reaction in apoptotic regions. Hence, we observed the stained sections and photographed the apoptotic seminiferous tubules (ST). For comparison of apoptosis in the alcoholic group and control group, we counted the apoptotic germ cells in x 400 magnification under light microscope.
The diameters of seminiferous tubules were measured using light microscope with micrometre. The findings were compared by computer and significant differences in apoptosis between 2 groups (p<0.01) were detected.
Apoptosis is significantly induced in ethanol treated rat related to the overuse of ethanol. The findings indicate the tissue injury of testicles associated with alcohol consumption.
Saudi medical journal 06/2005; 26(6):928-33. · 0.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of regular and intense practice of an asymmetric sport such as tennis on nerves in the elbow region was examined.
The study included 21 male elite tennis players with a mean (SD) age of 27.5 (1.7) years and 21 male non-active controls aged 26.4 (1.9) years. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, limb length, and perimeters of arm and forearm) were determined for each subject, and range of motion assessment and radiographic examination carried out. Standard nerve conduction techniques using constant measured distances were applied to evaluate the median, ulnar, and radial nerves in the dominant and non-dominant limb of each individual.
The sensory and motor conduction velocities of the radial nerve and the sensory conduction velocity of the ulnar nerve were significantly delayed in the dominant arms of tennis players compared with their non-dominant arms and normal subjects. There were no statistical differences in the latencies, conduction velocities, or amplitudes of the median motor and sensory nerves between controls and tennis players in either the dominant or non-dominant arms. However, the range of motion of the upper extremity was significantly increased in tennis players when compared with control subjects. Tennis players were taller and heavier than control subjects and their dominant upper limb lengths were longer, and arm and forearm circumferences greater, than those of the control subjects.
Many of the asymptomatic tennis players with abnormal nerve conduction tests in the present study may have presymptomatic or asymptomatic neuropathy similar to subclinical entrapment nerve neuropathy.
British Journal of Sports Medicine 11/2004; 38(5):632-5. DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2003.008029 · 5.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study to verify the effect of playing goalball on some measures of motor fitness. One hundred and three children (age13–15 years) with varying degrees of blindness were assessed for motor fitness. All participants were male. The participants underwent motor fitness (balance, handgrip, flexibility, vertical jump, isokinetic concentric peak torque) assessments. There were significant differences between goalball players and non-goalball players regarding many motor fitness components. Non-goalball players were inferior in all motor fitness compared with goalball players. This study suggests that goalball may be considered effective option to improve motor skills in visually impaired children.
Isokinetics and exercise science 01/2004; 12(4):247-252. · 0.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the volume of the medial epicondyle and lateral epicondyle in comparison with the distal end of humerus volume in male and female elite athletes participating in an impact loading sport (volleyball). The volleyball group consisted of 17 female, aged 20.47 +/- 2.47 years (mean +/- SD), 16 male aged 21.68 +/- 3.47 years (mean +/- SD); training for about 8 hours/week. The control group consisted of 15 nonactive females aged 21.73 +/- 2.68 years (mean +/- SD) and 14 nonactive males aged 23.35 +/- 4.16 years (mean +/- SD). Anthropometric determinations (height, weight, limb length, girth of arm and forearm) were made on each subjects. Range of motion was evaluated by standard goniometric technique. Comparative plain films of both elbows were obtained in an anteroposterior projection. The volumes of the medial epicondyle and lateral epicondyle were determined by the principle of Cavalieri which is an effective stereologic volume calculation method. In the volleyball players, increased medial epicondyle volume was recorded in the dominant and nondominant arms as compared with the control subjects (P < 0.05). Wrist flexors are highly involved in spiking, blocking and serving in volleyball. In this study we founded volume of medial epicondyle which is the connection point of flexor muscle was increased because of loading.