Ross T Tsuyuki

University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

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Publications (303)1116.52 Total impact

  • Canadian Pharmacists Journal 08/2015; DOI:10.1177/1715163515597243
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    Yazid N Al Hamarneh · Luc Sauriol · Ross T Tsuyuki
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    ABSTRACT: There is strong evidence that pharmacist care improves patients' glycaemic control. However, the sustainability and durability of such interventions beyond the research period is not known. RxING was the first trial of pharmacist prescribing in diabetes and it showed an improvement in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) of 1.8% over 6 months. 1° objective: To evaluate glycaemic control in the RxING study patients 12 months after the end of the formal study follow-up. 2° objective: To assess the patients' risk of cardiovascular events in the next 10 years. We contacted the participating pharmacists to check if the patients who participated in the RxING study are still taking insulin, the dose of insulin they are taking, and their HbA1c. There were no mandated follow-up visits with the pharmacist after the study completion. A total of 100 patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes were enrolled in the original RxING study; 93 of them completed the study, while 83 participated in the 12-month follow-up. Seventy-five patients were still taking insulin, with the average dose increasing from 31.1 units (SD 18.4) at study completion to 37.4 units (SD 30.8) (95% CI -13.3 to 0.88, p=0.085). HbA1c was reduced from 9.1% (SD 1) at baseline to 7.3% (SD 0.9) at study completion (95% CI 1.4 to 2, p <0.001), and increased to 8.1% (SD 1.3) 12 months later (95% CI -1.1 to -0.5, p <0.001 vs study completion). Twelve months after completing the intervention, approximately half of the glycaemic control gains were lost. This highlights the importance of structured follow-up with the pharmacist in this patient population.; Identifier: NCT01335763. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    BMJ Open 08/2015; 5(8):e008152. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008152 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Differentiating asthma from other causes of chronic airflow limitation, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), can be difficult in a typical outpatient setting. The inflammation of asthma typically is different than that of COPD, and the degree of inflammation and cellular damage varies with asthma severity. Metabolomics is the study of molecules created by cellular metabolic pathways. We hypothesized that the metabolic activity of adults with asthma would differ from that of adults with COPD. Furthermore, we hypothesized that nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) would measure such differences in urine samples. Clinical and urine-based NMR data were collected on adults meeting the criteria of asthma and COPD before and after an exacerbation (n = 133 and 38, respectively) and from patients with stable asthma or COPD (n = 54 and 23, respectively). Partial least-squares discriminant analysis was performed on the NMR data to create models of separation (86 metabolites were measured per urine sample). Some subjects' metabolomic data were withheld from modeling to be run blindly to determine diagnostic accuracy. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis of the urine NMR data found unique differences in select metabolites between patients with asthma and those with COPD seen in the emergency department and even in follow-up after exacerbation. By using these select metabolomic profiles, the model could correctly diagnose blinded asthma and COPD with greater than 90% accuracy. This is the first report showing that metabolomic analysis of human urine samples could become a useful clinical tool to differentiate asthma from COPD. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 07/2015; 136(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.05.022 · 11.48 Impact Factor
  • M. Rosenthal · J. Sutton · Z. Austin · R. T. Tsuyuki
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Pharmacy practice research is one avenue through which new pharmacy services can be integrated into daily pharmacy practice. However, pharmacists’ participation in this research has not been well characterized. Drawing from the literature on work performance and personality traits, 4 hypotheses were developed to gain insight into pharmacists’ performance in a pharmacy practice research trial.
    Canadian Pharmacists Journal 07/2015; 148(4). DOI:10.1177/1715163515586846
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    ABSTRACT: -Hypertension control rates remain suboptimal. Pharmacists' scope of practice is evolving and their position in the community may be ideal for improving hypertension care. We aimed to study the impact of pharmacist prescribing on blood pressure (BP) control in community-dwelling patients. -We designed a patient-level randomized controlled trial, enrolling adults with above-target BP (as defined by Canadian guidelines), through community pharmacies, hospitals, or primary care teams in 23 communities in Alberta. Intervention group patients received an assessment of BP and cardiovascular risk, education on hypertension, prescribing of antihypertensive medications, laboratory monitoring, and monthly follow-up visits for 6 months (all by their pharmacist). Control group patients received a wallet card for BP recording, written hypertension information, and usual care from their pharmacist and physician. Primary outcome was the change in systolic BP at 6 months. A total of 248 patients (mean age 64 years, 49% male) were enrolled. Baseline mean (SD) systolic/diastolic BP was 150(14)/84(11) mm Hg. The intervention group had a mean (SE) reduction in systolic BP at 6 months of 18.3 (1.2) compared with 11.8 (1.9) in the control group, an adjusted difference of 6.6 (1.9) mmHg (p=0.0006). The adjusted odds of patients achieving BP targets was 2.32 (95% CI 1.17, 4.15 in favor of the intervention). -Pharmacist prescribing for patients with hypertension resulted in a clinically important and statistically significant reduction in BP. Policymakers should consider an expanded role for pharmacists, including prescribing, to address the burden of hypertension. Clinical Trial Registration; Identifier: NCT00878566.
    Circulation 06/2015; 132(2). DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.015464 · 14.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Legislative changes are affording pharmacists the opportunity to provide more advanced pharmacy services. However, many pharmacists have not yet been able to provide these services sustainably. Research from implementation science suggests that before sustained change in pharmacy can be achieved an improved understanding of pharmacy context, through the professional culture of pharmacy and pharmacists' personality traits, is required. The primary objective of this study was to investigate possible relationships between cultural factors, and personality traits, and the uptake of advanced practice opportunities by pharmacists in British Columbia, Canada. The study design was a cross-sectional survey of registered, and practicing, pharmacists from one Canadian province. The survey gauged respondents' characteristics, practice setting, and the provision of advanced pharmacy services, and contained the Organizational Culture Profile (OCP), a measure of professional culture, as well as the Big Five Inventory (BFI), a measure of personality traits. A total of 945 completed survey instruments were returned. The majority of respondents were female (61%), the average age of respondents was 42 years (SD: 12), and the average number of years in practice was 19 (SD: 12). A significant positive relationship was identified for respondents perceiving greater value in the OCP factors competitiveness and innovation and providing a higher number of all advanced services. A positive relationship was observed for respondents scoring higher on the BFI traits extraversion and the immunizations provided, and agreeableness and openness and medication reviews completed. This is the first work to identify statistically significant relationships between the OCP and BFI, and the provision of advanced pharmacy services. As such, this work serves as a starting place from which to develop more detailed insight into how the professional culture of pharmacy and pharmacists personality traits may influence the adoption of advanced pharmacy services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.sapharm.2015.05.003 · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • 04/2015; 68(2). DOI:10.4212/cjhp.v68i2.1438
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    ABSTRACT: To identify which activities produced a significant improvement in blood pressure control in patients with type 2 diabetes when pharmacists were added to primary care teams. This prespecified, secondary analysis evaluated medication management data from a randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome was a change in treatment, defined as addition, dosage increase, or switching of an antihypertensive medication during the 1-year study period. The secondary outcome was a change in antihypertensive medication adherence using the medication possession ratio (MPR). The 200 evaluable trial patients had a mean age of 59 (SD, 11) years, 44% were men, and mean blood pressure was 130 (SD, 16)/74 (SD, 10) mm Hg at baseline. Treatment changes occurred in 45 (42%) of 107 patients in the intervention group and 24 (26%) of 93 patients in the control group (RR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.08-2.46). Addition of a new medication was the most common type of change, occurring in 34 (32%) patients in the intervention group and 17 (18%) patients in the control group (P = 0.029). Adherence to antihypertensive medication was high at baseline (MPR, 93%). Although medication adherence improved in the intervention group (MPR, 97%) and declined in the control group (MPR, 91%), the difference between groups was not significant (P = 0.21). The observed improvement in blood pressure control when pharmacists were added to primary care teams was likely achieved through antihypertensive treatment changes and not through improvements in antihypertensive medication adherence.
    Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 04/2015; 55(3):e301-e304. DOI:10.1331/JAPhA.2015.14225 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Natural health products (NHPs), including melatonin, are widely used products. Despite the widespread assumption that all NHPs are safe, they contain pharmacologically active substances and can therefore have adverse effects and/or interact with pharmaceuticals. To investigate the mechanism underlying NHP interactions identified through the Pharmacy SONAR active surveillance study. Active surveillance was undertaken in community pharmacies to identify adverse events in patients who had recently taken NHPs together with conventional pharmaceuticals. For suspected NHP-pharmaceutical interactions, the possible mechanism of action was explored by in vitro analysis of samples of different products to identify cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP) inhibition potential. Active surveillance identified a 19-year-old male taking citalopram, nortriptyline and oxycodone concomitantly and who experienced severe sedation when melatonin was added to this regimen. In vitro analysis involving several melatonin products showed product-dependent inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2C19 and CYP3A7. The adverse event was likely due to a primary pharmacokinetic interaction between melatonin and citalopram; although mechanistically, interactions affecting cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism may have occurred with all of these health products. A pharmacodynamic interaction may also be possible, but beyond the capacity of this study to establish.Key words: Melatonin, citalopram, nortriptyline, oxycodone, drug interaction. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.
    Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 04/2015; 18(2):124-31. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence for the value of pharmacists' interventions in the care of patients is strong and continues to grow, but the rate at which these new practice opportunities are being integrated into daily practice has not kept pace. The knowledge translation literature suggests that before effective change strategies can be implemented, a better understanding of the current environment must be obtained. Two important factors within the practice environment are the professional culture and personality traits of group members. To gain insight, at a national level, into the culture of hospital pharmacy, using the Organizational Culture Profile, and into hospital pharmacists' personality traits, using the Big Five Inventory. A cross-sectional survey of hospital pharmacists from across Canada was conducted intermittently over the period August 2012 to September 2013. The online survey contained questions about demographic characteristics and practice setting, as well as questions from the Organizational Culture Profile and Big Five Inventory. The survey link was distributed directly to hospital pharmacists or made available through provincial monthly newsletters. All data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially. In total, 401 surveys were returned. Descriptive analyses from the Organizational Culture Profile revealed that most respondents perceived value in the factors of supportiveness, competitiveness, and stability. Descriptive analyses from the Big Five Inventory revealed that respondents may have been more likely to exhibit behaviours in line with the trait of conscientiousness. Several significant subgroup differences were noted in relation to levels of education, regions of practice within Canada, years in practice, and proportion of time spent conducting clinical duties. The results from this survey provide preliminary insight into the professional culture and personality traits of Canadian hospital pharmacists. It will be important to explore these findings in more depth to maximize the success of any future practice change initiatives.
    The Canadian journal of hospital pharmacy 03/2015; 68(2):127-35.
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    ABSTRACT: Frailty is a multidimensional syndrome characterized by loss of physiologic reserve that gives rise to vulnerability to poor outcomes. We aimed to examine the association between frailty and long-term health-related quality-of-life among survivors of critical illness. Prospective multicenter observational cohort study. ICUs in six hospitals from across Alberta, Canada. Four hundred twenty-one critically ill patients who were 50 years or older. None. Frailty was operationalized by a score of more than 4 on the Clinical Frailty Scale. Health-related quality-of-life was measured by the EuroQol Health Questionnaire and Short-Form 12 Physical and Mental Component Scores at 6 and 12 months. Multiple logistic and linear regression with generalized estimating equations was used to explore the association between frailty and health-related quality-of-life. In total, frailty was diagnosed in 33% (95% CI, 28-38). Frail patients were older, had more comorbidities, and higher illness severity. EuroQol-visual analogue scale scores were lower for frail compared with not frail patients at 6 months (52.2 ± 22.5 vs 64.6 ± 19.4; p < 0.001) and 12 months (54.4 ± 23.1 vs 68.0 ± 17.8; p < 0.001). Frail patients reported greater problems with mobility (71% vs 45%; odds ratio, 3.1 [1.6-6.1]; p = 0.001), self-care (49% vs 15%; odds ratio, 5.8 [2.9-11.7]; p < 0.001), usual activities (80% vs 52%; odds ratio, 3.9 [1.8-8.2]; p < 0.001), pain/discomfort (68% vs 47%; odds ratio, 2.0 [1.1-3.8]; p = 0.03), and anxiety/depression (51% vs 27%; odds ratio, 2.8 [1.5-5.3]; p = 0.001) compared with not frail patients. Frail patients described lower health-related quality-of-life on both physical component score (34.7 ± 7.8 vs 37.8 ± 6.7; p = 0.012) and mental component score (33.8 ± 7.0 vs 38.6 ± 7.7; p < 0.001) at 12 months. Frail survivors of critical illness experienced greater impairment in health-related quality-of-life, functional dependence, and disability compared with those not frail. The systematic assessment of frailty may assist in better informing patients and families on the complexities of survivorship and recovery.
    Critical Care Medicine 01/2015; 43(5). DOI:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000860 · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Adding pharmacists to primary care teams significantly improved blood pressure control and reduced predicted 10–year cardiovascular risk in patients with Type 2 diabetes. This pre-specified sub-study evaluated the economic implications of this cardiovascular risk reduction strategy.Methods One-year outcomes and healthcare utilization data from the trial were used to determine cost-effectiveness from the public payer perspective. Costs were expressed in 2014 Canadian dollars and effectiveness was based on annualized risk of cardiovascular events derived from the UKPDS Risk Engine.ResultsThe 123 evaluable trial patients included in this analysis had a mean age of 62 (± 11) years, 38% were men, and mean diabetes duration was 6 (± 7) years. Pharmacists provided 3.0 (± 1.9) hours of additional service to each intervention patient, which cost $226 (± $1143) per patient. The overall one-year per-patient costs for healthcare utilization were $190 lower in the intervention group compared with usual care [95% confidence interval (CI): $1040, $668). Intervention patients had a significant 0.3% greater reduction in the annualized risk of a cardiovascular event (95% CI: 0.08%, 0.6%) compared with usual care. In the cost-effectiveness analysis, the intervention dominated usual care in 66% of 10 000 bootstrap replications. At a societal willingness-to-pay of $4000 per 1% reduction in annual cardiovascular risk, the probability that the intervention was cost-effective compared with usual care reached 95%. A sensitivity analysis using multiple imputation to replace missing data produced similar results.Conclusions Within a randomized trial, adding pharmacists to primary care teams was a cost-effective strategy for reducing cardiovascular risk in patients with Type 2 diabetes. In most circumstances, this intervention may also be cost saving.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Diabetic Medicine 01/2015; 32(7). DOI:10.1111/dme.12692 · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    Ross T. Tsuyuki · Lori MacCallum
    Canadian Pharmacists Journal 01/2015; 148(1):5-8. DOI:10.1177/1715163514562744
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Despite evidence of benefit for pharmacist involvement in chronic disease management, the provision of these services in community pharmacy has been suboptimal. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) framework suggests that for knowledge translation to be effective, there must be evidence of benefit, a context conducive to implementation, and facilitation to support uptake. We hypothesize that while the evidence and context components of this framework are satisfied, that uptake into practice has been insufficient because of a lack of facilitation. This protocol describes the rationale and methods of a feasibility study to test a facilitated pharmacy practice intervention based on the PARiHS framework, to assist community pharmacists in increasing the number of formal and documented medication management services completed for patients with diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Methods: A cluster-randomized before-after design will compare ten pharmacies from within a single organization, with the unit of randomization being the pharmacy. Pharmacies will be randomized to facilitated intervention based on the PARiHS framework or usual practice. The Alberta Context Tool will be used to establish the context of practice in each pharmacy. Pharmacies randomized to the intervention will receive task-focused facilitation from an external facilitator, with the goal of developing alternative team processes to allow the greater provision of medication management services for patients with diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The primary outcome will be a process evaluation of the needs of community pharmacies to provide more clinical services, the acceptability and uptake of modifications made, and the willingness of pharmacies to participate. Secondary outcomes will include the change in the number of formal and documented medication management services in the aforementioned chronic conditions provided 6 months before, versus after, the intervention between the two groups, and identification of feasible quantitative outcomes for evaluating the effect of the intervention on patient care outcomes. Results: To date, the study has identified and enrolled the ten pharmacies required and initiated the intervention process. Conclusion: This study will be the first to examine the role of facilitation in pharmacy practice, with the goal of scalable and sustainable practice change. Trial registration: identifier NCT02191111. Keywords: Pharmacy; Facilitation; Knowledge translation; Knowledge implementation
    01/2015; 1(2). DOI:10.1186/2055-5784-1-2
  • Meghan Sebastianski · Marcello Tonelli · Ross T. Tsuyuki
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    ABSTRACT: Background Hemodialysis patients experience poor outcomes associated with the presence of atherosclerosis, particularly lower-extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). Prevalence of PAD is known to vary between ethnic groups; however, no information on ethnic-specific PAD prevalence in a hemodialysis cohort is available. Methods Data from the Canadian Kidney Dialysis Cohort Study was used in a secondary analysis of 1293 adults starting hemodialysis in three major Canadian centres. PAD diagnosis was determined through structured interview and supplemented by clinical record. Ethnicity was self-reported. Results Overall PAD prevalence was 19.1 % with no significant difference between ethnic groups. Ethnic differences observed in diabetes prevalence in the full hemodialysis group were not present in the subset of PAD patients. Conclusions The prevalence of PAD in patients undergoing hemodialysis is high, however we found no apparent ethnic differences in prevalence between ethnic groups.
    12/2014; 2(3). DOI:10.1007/s40615-014-0066-7
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    ABSTRACT: Survivors of ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) are at high risk for other vascular events. We evaluated the impact of 2 types of case management (hard touch with pharmacist or soft touch with nurse) added to usual care on global vascular risk. This is a prespecified secondary analysis of a 6-month trial conducted in outpatients with recent stroke/TIA who received usual care and were randomized to additional monthly visits with either nurse case managers (who counseled patients, monitored risk factors, and communicated results to primary care physicians) or pharmacist case managers (who were also able to independently prescribe according to treatment algorithms). The Framingham Risk Score [FRS]) and the Cardiovascular Disease Life Expectancy Model (CDLEM) were used to estimate 10-year risk of any vascular event at baseline, 6 months (trial conclusion), and 12 months (6 months after last trial visit). Mean age of the 275 evaluable patients was 67.6 years. Both study arms were well balanced at baseline and exhibited reductions in absolute global vascular risk estimates at 6 months: median 4.8% (Interquartile range (IQR) 0.3%-11.3%) for the pharmacist arm versus 5.1% (IQR 1.9%-12.5%) for the nurse arm on the FRS (P = .44 between arms) and median 10.0% (0.1%-31.6%) versus 12.5% (2.1%-30.5%) on the CDLEM (P = .37). These reductions persisted at 12 months: median 6.4% (1.2%-11.6%) versus 5.5% (2.0%-12.0%) for the FRS (P = .83) and median 8.4% (0.1%-28.3%) versus 13.1% (1.6%-31.6%) on the CDLEM (P = .20). Case management by nonphysician providers is associated with improved global vascular risk in patients with recent stroke/TIA. Reductions achieved during the active phase of the trial persisted after trial conclusion. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
    American Heart Journal 12/2014; 168(6):924-30. DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2014.08.001 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    Monica Zolezzi · Lynne Bye · Jeff Harrison · Ross T. Tsuyuki · John P. Shaw
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    ABSTRACT: Background Access to health /disease screening (HDS) and medication monitoring /management (MM) services in New Zealand has traditionally been through general practitioners. While government and professional organisations are supportive of greater community pharmacy involvement, there has been little research on the extent of current provision or of the views of community pharmacists in this area.AimTo describe the characteristics and extent of HDS and MM services provided in New Zealand community pharmacies, and to document pharmacists’ opinions and perceived barriers in regard to the provision of these services.MethodsA four-part questionnaire was developed to record: the types of HDS /MM services offered by community pharmacies; the opinions of respondent pharmacists regarding these services; the characteristics of community pharmacies offering the services; and the profiles of the respondent pharmacists. The questionnaire was distributed to 879 community pharmacies in New Zealand.ResultsThere were 458 valid questionnaires returned, with a response rate of 52%. Over half (59%) of the responding pharmacies reported provision of HDS and /or MM services, although there were relatively few ‘high level’ services such as cardiovascular risk assessment and disease management. Most services were paid for by pharmacy customers, although some District Health Boards paid for services such as Medicines Use Review. Pharmacists cited lack of remuneration, lack of time and limited access to patient information as the main barriers to greater involvement.Conclusion At the time of this study (2007), community pharmacists in New Zealand were in the ‘early adoption’ phase concerning the provision of HDS and MM services.
    12/2014; 44(4). DOI:10.1002/jppr.1032
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    ABSTRACT: In 2010, unhealthy diets were estimated to be the leading risk for death and disability in Canada and globally. Although important, policies aimed at improving individual's skills in selecting and eating healthy foods has had a limited effect. Policies that create healthy eating environments are strongly recommended but have not yet been effectively and/or broadly implemented in Canada. Widespread adoption of healthy food procurement policies are strongly recommended in this policy statement from the Hypertension Advisory Committee with support from 15 major national health organizations. The policy statement calls on governments to take a leadership role, but also outlines key roles for the commercial and noncommercial sectors including health and scientific organizations and the Canadian public. The policy statement is based on a systematic review of healthy food procurement interventions that found them to be almost uniformly effective at improving sales and purchases of healthy foods. Successful food procurement policies are nearly always accompanied by supporting education programs and some by pricing policies. Ensuring access and availability to affordable healthy foods and beverages in public and private sector settings could play a substantive role in the prevention of noncommunicable diseases and health risks such as obesity, hypertension, and ultimately improve cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The Canadian journal of cardiology 11/2014; 30(11):1456-9. DOI:10.1016/j.cjca.2014.06.021 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    The Canadian journal of cardiology 10/2014; 31(2). DOI:10.1016/j.cjca.2014.09.005 · 3.94 Impact Factor
  • The Canadian journal of cardiology 10/2014; 30(10):S125-S126. DOI:10.1016/j.cjca.2014.07.167 · 3.71 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,116.52 Total Impact Points


  • 1994–2015
    • University of Alberta
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry
      • • Division of Cardiology
      • • Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2014
    • Royal Alexandra Hospital
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2013
    • TEC Edmonton
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2002–2013
    • University of Toronto
      • • Leslie L. Dan Faculty of Pharmacy
      • • Department of Medicine
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2012
    • Curtin University Australia
      • School of Pharmacy
      Bentley, Western Australia, Australia
  • 2007–2008
    • The University of Calgary
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  • 2005
    • Institute of Health Economics
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2004
    • University of Lausanne
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
  • 1994–2004
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2001
    • University of the Sciences in Philadelphia
      • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States