[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The over-the-scope clip (OTSC; Ovesco, Tübingen, Germany) is a novel endoscopic clipping device designed for tissue approximation. The device has been used in the closure of fistulas and perforations. We hereby report a series of patients with high-risk non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) lesions in whom OTSCs were used as first-line endoscopic treatment.
We prospectively collected and retrospectively analysed data over a period of 12 months from October 2013 to November 2014 from all consecutive patients who underwent emergency endoscopy for acute severe high-risk NVUGIB and were treated with OTSC as primary first-line therapy.
We included forty consecutive patients with mean age 69 years (range 25-94 years). All patients were treated with the non-traumatic version of the OTSC system (23 with the 11 mm version and 17 with the 12 mm version). Indications for OTSC treatment included gastric ulcer with large vessel (Forrest IIa) (n = 8, 20 %), duodenal ulcer (Forrest Ib) (n = 7, 18 %), duodenal ulcer with large vessel (Forrest IIa) (n = 6, 15 %), Dieulafoy's lesion (n = 6, 15 %) and other secondary indications (n = 13, 32 %). Technical success and primary haemostasis were achieved in all patients (100 %). No re-bleeding, need for surgical or radiological embolization treatment or other complications were observed during the follow-up period of 30 days.
We conclude OTSC placement as a first-line endoscopic treatment seems to be effective, safe and easy to perform and should be considered in patients with high-risk NVUGIB lesions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the last decades many advances have been achieved in endoscopy, in the diagnosis and therapy of cholangiocarcinoma, however blood test, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography scan may fail to detect neoplastic disease at early stage, thus the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma is achieved usually at unresectable stage. In the last decades the role of endoscopy has moved from a diagnostic role to an invaluable therapeutic tool for patients affected by malignant bile duct obstruction. One of the major issues for cholangiocarcinoma is bile ducts occlusion, leading to jaundice, cholangitis and hepatic failure. Currently, endoscopy has a key role in the work up of cholangiocarcinoma, both in patients amenable to surgical intervention as well as in those unfit for surgery or not amenable to immediate surgical curative resection owing to locally advanced or advanced disease, with palliative intention. Endoscopy allows successful biliary drainage and stenting in more than 90% of patients with malignant bile duct obstruction, and allows rapid reduction of jaundice decreasing the risk of biliary sepsis. When biliary drainage and stenting cannot be achieved with endoscopy alone, endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage represents an effective alternative method affording successful biliary drainage in more than 80% of cases. The purpose of this review is to focus on the currently available endoscopic management options in patients with cholangiocarcinoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Some patients with benign colorectal obstruction do not respond to endoscopic balloon dilation. Fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMSs) have several potential advantages over non-covered stents, including a higher likelihood of retrieval owing to limited local tissue reaction. However, the efficacy and safety of FCSEMSs in benign colorectal strictures have not yet been established.
Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data concerning patients with post-surgical benign symptomatic anastomotic colorectal strictures, refractory to endoscopic dilation and in whom FCSEMSs had been placed at our center. Technical success was defined as successful stent placement and deployment at the stricture site. Early clinical success was defined as symptom relief persisting at least for 3 days. Follow-up was based on monthly clinical evaluation and quarterly endoscopic assessment. Endoscopic stent removal was planned on the basis of clinical or endoscopic assessment. Prolonged clinical success was defined as persistent symptom relief during follow-up.
Technical and early clinical success were obtained in 16 of 16 (100 %) patients. The median follow-up was 21 months. Prolonged clinical success was achieved in 9/16 (56 %) cases. There was no major complication, including perforation and bleeding. Stent migration occurred in 3 (19 %) cases, in two of them associated with clinical failure. The median stent diameter was significantly higher in patients with successful than in those with unsuccessful clinical outcome (26 vs. 20 mm, P = 0.006). The clinical success rate was 1/6 (17 %) in patients who received a 20–22 mm stent and 8/10 (80 %) in those who received a 24–26 mm stent, respectively (P = 0.035).
FCSEMSs can represent effective and safe treatment for refractory anastomotic colorectal strictures. Large diameter stents are warranted for better results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Aim of the study was the evaluation of high-definition white light (HDWL) i-Scan endoscopy for diagnostic prediction of histology, inter- and intraobserver agreement for colorectal polyps. METHODS: In this prospective single-center cohort study, a skilled endoscopist, with HDWL i-Scan, predicted on real-time the histology of 150 polyps from 78 patients undergoing colonoscopy. Subsequently, four endoscopists, not involved in the collection of cases, predicted the polyps' histology (neoplastic vs nonneoplastic) and repeated the assessment after 6 months. RESULTS: Real-time assessment of the lesions predicted a correct histology in 138/150 cases with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 95, 82, and 92 %, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of post-acquisition evaluation were 87.7, 61.7, and 82.2 %, respectively. The κ values of inter- and intraobserver agreement of prediction of histology were 0.462 (0.373-0.537) and 0.657 (0.523-0.917). Among the subset of polyps (n = 82) with good/excellent quality image, sensitivity and accuracy of HDWL i-Scan improved (97 %, p = 0.003 and 94 %, p = 0.002, respectively) as well as κ value of interobserver agreement (0.699). CONCLUSIONS: HDWL i-Scan technology helps for characterization of polyps of the colon with good accuracy even if it cannot replace, at the moment, the histopathological examination. Reproducibility among operators is supported by a moderate substantial interobserver and intraobserver agreement.
International Journal of Colorectal Disease 09/2012; 28(3). DOI:10.1007/s00384-012-1583-7 · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pancreatic duct stent placement during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has been recommended in patients at risk for post-ERCP pancreatitis. However, the optimal duration of stent placement remains an open question. Our aim was to compare the efficacy of pancreatic stenting for the duration of ERCP only with spontaneous dislodgment/deferred endoscopic removal in preventing post-ERCP pancreatitis after accidental wire-guided pancreatic duct cannulation. METHODS: All patients in whom accidental wire-guided pancreatic duct cannulation had occurred during ERCP underwent immediate 5-Fr unflanged pigtail pancreatic duct stenting before attempting any other endoscopic maneuver. At the end of the ERCP, patients were randomly assigned to immediate stent removal (group A) or to leaving the stent in place (group B). Assessment of post-ERCP pancreatitis was blind. RESULTS: Post-ERCP pancreatitis occurred in 6/21 (29 %) patients in group A and in 0/19 patients in group B (P = 0.021); the two groups were well matched for their baseline characteristics. Post-ERCP pancreatitis was mild in two patients, moderate in two patients, and severe in two patients. Stents dislodged spontaneously in 14/19 (74 %) patients within 24-96 h; uneventful endoscopic removal was carried out after 96 h in 5 cases. Proximal stent migration did not occur in any case. CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatic duct stent placement for the duration of ERCP only does not prevent post-ERCP pancreatitis. Pancreatic stents should be left in place until spontaneous dislodgment occurs or endoscopic removal is deemed timely. 5-Fr unflanged pigtail stents remain in place for a period sufficient to prevent post-ERCP pancreatitis and do not migrate proximally.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quality of bowel cleansing significantly increases the shorter the time between bowel solution intake and endoscopic examination. We tested the efficacy and patient tolerability following a modified polyethylene glycol electrolyte (PEG) splitting regimen.
This was a prospective, single-blind, randomized, study. Patients were assigned to receive either PEG 4 L the afternoon before colonoscopy or PEG 3 L the day before and 1 L 3h before the procedure the day of colonoscopy.
The study population consisted of 336 patients, including 168 participants in each study arm. Although the bowel preparation quality was similarly quoted as excellent/good following the split and full regimen (95.2% vs 92.8%; p=0.3), a significant (p<0.0001) shift from good towards an excellent preparation (26.8% vs 68.4%) was observed following the split regimen as compared to the full regimen (55.4% vs 37.5%). The incidence of side-effects did not differ. When patients were asked about a future preparation if needed, 69% and 31% following the split and full regimen, respectively, declared to accept again the same preparation, the difference being statistically significant (p<0.001).
Our data found that an excellent bowel cleansing could be frequently achieved by simply modifying the split regimen from the standard PEG 2 plus 2 L to 3 plus 1 L.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The small bowel has long been considered a black box for endoscopists because of its long length and the presence of multiple complex loop. Most of the small bowel is inaccessible by traditional endoscopic means. In addition, radiographic studies have significant limitations with regard to diagnostic yield, and surgery is an invasive alternative. This limitation was overcome through the development of balloon enteroscopy that becomes established throughout the world for diagnostic and therapeutic examinations of the small bowel. The single-balloon enteroscope (SBE) system (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) was introduced into the commercial market in 2007. Several study demonstrated its efficacy and safety. Early reports on the use of single-balloon enteroscopy have suggested a high diagnostic yield and similar therapeutic potential to that of the double-balloon endoscope. SBE is viable technique for in the management of small bowel disease. Technically, it is easy to perform, may be efficient, and in the literature data available, seems to provide high diagnostic and therapeutic yield.