[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the adult female, acne is a chronic condition with a substantial negative psychological, social and emotional impact. Based on time of onset, two subtypes of adult female acne are recognized: 'persistent acne' is a continuation of the disease from adolescence, while 'late-onset acne' first presents in adulthood. The morphological characteristics of adult female acne are often distinct from adolescent acne. In adults, inflammatory lesions (particularly papules, pustules and nodules) are generally more prominent on the lower chin, jawline and neck, and comedones are more often closed comedones (micro cysts). Adult acne is mainly mild-to-moderate in severity and may be refractory to treatment. A holistic approach to acne therapy should be taken in adult females, which combines standard treatments with adjunctive therapy and cosmetic use. A number of factors specific to the adult female influence choice of treatment, including the predisposition of older skin to irritation, a possible slow response to treatment, a high likelihood of good adherence, whether of child-bearing age, and the psychosocial impact of the disease. Adherence to therapy should be encouraged through further patient education and a simplified regimen that is tailored to suit the individual patient's needs and lifestyle. This article reviews the specific characteristics of adult female acne, and provides recommendations for acne therapy in this patient group.
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 01/2013; · 2.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skin has been reported to reflect the general inner-health status and aging. Nutrition and its reflection on skin has always been an interesting topic for scientists and physicians throughout the centuries worldwide. Vitamins, carotenoids, tocopherols, flavonoids and a variety of plant extracts have been reported to possess potent anti-oxidant properties and have been widely used in the skin care industry either as topically applied agents or oral supplements in an attempt to prolong youthful skin appearance. This review will provide an overview of the current literature "linking" nutrition with skin aging.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human sebaceous gland is a microscopic branched type multiacinar gland been present everywhere on the body except on the palms and soles, whereas they are sparsely located on the dorsum of hands and feet. Several medical conditions are related with sebaceous gland pathology, such as acne, sebaceous hyperplasia, sebaceous adenoma and sebaceous carcinoma. Acne is a common, complex, chronic disorder of the human pilosebaceous unit that mostly occurs in adolescence and young adulthood. The sebaceous gland plays an exquisite role in the initiation of the disease. The multifactorial nature of the pathogenesis of acne includes increased sebum production, alteration of the quality of sebum lipids, inflammatory processes, interaction with neuropeptides and dysregulation of the hormone microenvironment, follicular hyperkeratinization and inflammation maintained by Propionbacterium acnes products within the follicle. On the other hand, the sebaceous gland, as a major and critical compartment of human skin, is also affected through ageing, both intrinsic and extrinsic, which lead to distinct clinical and histological changes. Intrinsic ageing of the sebaceous gland is determined primarily by genetic factors and hormonal status, with androgens playing a major role. A clinical manifestation associated with intrinsic ageing changes is skin xerosis. Extrinsic ageing of human sebaceous gland is mainly caused by accumulating UV irradiation, especially UVA. Photoageing of sebaceous gland is expressed with a wide spectrum of benign and malignant sebaceous tumours, such as sebaceous hyperplasia, sebaceous carcinoma and Muir-Torre syndrome. This review will focus on the pathogenesis of the most common sebaceous gland diseases and their molecular pathways which may represent future pharmaceutical targets.
Current pharmaceutical biotechnology 01/2012; 13(10):1898-913. · 3.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of our work has been to investigate the mechanisms of gender-independent human skin ageing and examine the hypothesis of skin being an adequate model of global ageing. For this purpose, whole genome gene profiling was employed in sun-protected skin obtained from European Caucasian young and elderly females (mean age 26.7±4 years [n1 = 7] and 70.75±3.3 years [n2 = 4], respectively) and males (mean age 25.8±5.2 years [n3 = 6] and 76±3.8 years [n4 = 7], respectively) using the Illumina array platform. Confirmation of gene regulation was performed by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. 523 genes were significantly regulated in female skin and 401 genes in male skin for the chosen criteria. Of these, 183 genes exhibited increased and 340 decreased expression in females whereas 210 genes showed increased and 191 decreased expression in males with age. In total, 39 genes were common in the target lists of significant regulated genes in males and females. 35 of these genes showed increased (16) or decreased (19) expression independent of gender. Only 4 overlapping genes (OR52N2, F6FR1OP2, TUBAL3 and STK40) showed differential regulation with age. Interestingly, Wnt signalling pathway showed to be significantly downregulated in aged skin with decreased gene and protein expression for males and females, accordingly. In addition, several genes involved in central nervous system (CNS) ageing (f.i. APP, TAU) showed to be expressed in human skin and were significanlty regulated with age. In conclusion, our study provides biomarkers of endogenous human skin ageing in both genders and highlight the role of Wnt signalling in this process. Furthermore, our data give evidence that skin could be used as a good alternative to understand ageing of different tissues such as CNS.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(11):e50393. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Acne is a chronic skin disorder of the pilosebaceous unit; it has a multifactorial pathogenesis. Propionibacterium acnes within the follicle is considered to be a triggering factor of inflammation in acne. Antibiotics have been the primary treatment against P. acnes for more than 40 years. However, a gradual increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains of P. acnes has been observed. AREAS COVERED: This review discusses the pathophysiology of antibiotic-resistant acne development. It focuses on strategies to minimize the development of resistance and, most importantly, confront the development of antibiotic-resistant acne. The literature search was conducted up to August 2010, using the search terms 'acne', 'antibiotic-resistant acne' and 'bacterial resistance'. EXPERT OPINION: Antibiotic-resistant acne is a real phenomenon. Strategies to prevent and confront it should include not only the use of certain treatment regimens but also rational prescribing policies, combination therapies, use of antibacterial non-antibiotic agents and treatment options targeting all the pathogenetic components of acne. Benzoyl-peroxide-based treatment is the most evidence-based approach. Oral isotretinoin remains the most efficacious option for severe acne.
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 02/2011; 12(8):1233-47. · 2.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVES: Fibromyalgia (FBM) is a common chronic pain disorder affecting up to 2% of the general population. Current treatment options are mostly symptom-based and limited both in efficacy and number. Two promising alternatives are gabapentin (GP) and pregabalin (PB). We aimed to estimate the efficacy and safety/tolerability of the two compounds in FBM through a systematic review and a meta-analysis of relevant randomized double-blind placebo-controlled (RCT) were performed. DATA SOURCES, EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS: A literature search was conducted through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL and the reference lists of relevant studies. Responders to treatment (>30% reduction in mean pain score) and dropouts due to lack of efficacy were used as primary outcome measures. Dropout rates and incidence of common adverse outcomes were also investigated. Four RCTs, reporting data on 2040 patients, were reviewed and three of them using PG were included in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Pregabalin at a dose of 600, 450 and 300 mg per day is effective in FBM compared to placebo (NNT: 7, upper 95% CI: 12, 450 mg). A number of adverse events (AE), such as dizziness, somnolence, dry mouth, weight gain, peripheral oedema, is consistently associated with treatment at any dose and could lead one out of four patients to quit treatment (NNH: 6, lower 95% CI: 4, 600 mg). Indirect comparison meta-analysis suggests that PB at a dose of 450 mg per day could result in more responders than at 300 mg, but this result needs to be interpreted with caution as there were no significant differences between 600 and 300 mg or between 600 and 450 mg. Data on GP is limited. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSIONS: The analysis indicates that PB at a dose of 450 mg per day is most likely effective in treating FBM, although AE are not negligible. Further evidence is necessary for more conclusive inferences.
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 12/2010; 35(6):639-56. · 2.10 Impact Factor