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ABSTRACT: To study the heterogeneity and immunogenic variability among Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae) isolates from different regions of China. The heterogeneity of 17 strains of M. ovipneumoniae isolated from 8 regions of China was studied by the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The software NTsys-2. 10e was used to analyze the profiles obtained from the AFLP and SDS-PAGE. The proteins reacted with the antiserum against M. ovipneumoniae type strain Y98 were then detected by Western-blot. Seventeen strains of M. ovipneumoniae were divided into 8 AFLP groups based on the source regions when the coefficient was 0.78. They were also divided into 8 SDS-PAGE groups based on the source regions when the coefficient was 0.85. A total of 6 immunogenic proteins were detected within 8 strains of M. ovipneumoniae, and their molecular weights were 105 kDa, 83 kDa, 65 kDa, 42 kDa, 40 kDa or 26 kDa, respectively. Interestingly, the 83 kDa and 40 kDa proteins were conserved in all the 8 isolates. M. ovipneumoniae isolates from some regions of China were genetically different, but the 83 kDa and 40 kDa antigenic proteins were conserved among the tested isolates. This study can provide some insights for the diagnosis and vaccine development of the disease caused by M. ovipneumoniae.ACTA MICROBIOLOGICA SINICA 10/2011; 51(10):1421-6.