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Publications (3)117.62 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Effect of radiotherapy after mastectomy and axillary surgery on 10-year recurrence and 20-year breast cancer mortality: meta-analysis of individual patient data for 8135 women in 22 randomised trials EBCTCG (Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group)* Summary Background Postmastectomy radiotherapy was shown in previous meta-analyses to reduce the risks of both recurrence and breast cancer mortality in all women with node-positive disease considered together. However, the benefi t in women with only one to three positive lymph nodes is uncertain. We aimed to assess the eff ect of radiotherapy in these women after mastectomy and axillary dissection. Methods We did a meta-analysis of individual data for 8135 women randomly assigned to treatment groups during 1964–86 in 22 trials of radiotherapy to the chest wall and regional lymph nodes after mastectomy and axillary surgery versus the same surgery but no radiotherapy. Follow-up lasted 10 years for recurrence and to Jan 1, 2009, for mortality. Analyses were stratifi ed by trial, individual follow-up year, age at entry, and pathological nodal status. Findings 3786 women had axillary dissection to at least level II and had zero, one to three, or four or more positive nodes. All were in trials in which radiotherapy included the chest wall, supraclavicular or axillary fossa (or both), and internal mammary chain. For 700 women with axillary dissection and no positive nodes, radiotherapy had no signifi cant eff ect on locoregional recurrence (two-sided signifi cance level [2p]>0·1), overall recurrence (rate ratio [RR], irradiated vs not, 1·06, 95% CI 0·76–1·48, 2p>0·1), or breast cancer mortality (RR 1·18, 95% CI 0·89–1·55, 2p>0·1). For 1314 women with axillary dissection and one to three positive nodes, radiotherapy reduced locoregional recurrence (2p<0·00001), overall recurrence (RR 0·68, 95% CI 0·57–0·82, 2p=0·00006), and breast cancer mortality (RR 0·80, 95% CI 0·67–0·95, 2p=0·01). 1133 of these 1314 women were in trials in which systemic therapy (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fl uorouracil, or tamoxifen) was given in both trial groups and, for them, radiotherapy again reduced locoregional recurrence (2p<0·00001), overall recurrence (RR 0·67, 95% CI 0·55–0·82, 2p=0·00009), and breast cancer mortality (RR 0·78, 95% CI 0·64–0·94, 2p=0·01). For 1772 women with axillary dissection and four or more positive nodes, radiotherapy reduced locoregional recurrence (2p<0·00001), overall recurrence (RR 0·79, 95% CI 0·69–0·90, 2p=0·0003), and breast cancer mortality (RR 0·87, 95% CI 0·77–0·99, 2p=0·04). Interpretation After mastectomy and axillary dissection, radiotherapy reduced both recurrence and breast cancer mortality in the women with one to three positive lymph nodes in these trials even when systemic therapy was given. For today's women, who in many countries are at lower risk of recurrence, absolute gains might be smaller but proportional gains might be larger because of more effective radiotherapy.
    The Lancet 06/2014; 383:2127-35. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60488-8 · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Postmastectomy radiotherapy was shown in previous meta-analyses to reduce the risks of both recurrence and breast cancer mortality in all women with node-positive disease considered together. However, the benefit in women with only one to three positive lymph nodes is uncertain. We aimed to assess the effect of radiotherapy in these women after mastectomy and axillary dissection. We did a meta-analysis of individual data for 8135 women randomly assigned to treatment groups during 1964-86 in 22 trials of radiotherapy to the chest wall and regional lymph nodes after mastectomy and axillary surgery versus the same surgery but no radiotherapy. Follow-up lasted 10 years for recurrence and to Jan 1, 2009, for mortality. Analyses were stratified by trial, individual follow-up year, age at entry, and pathological nodal status. 3786 women had axillary dissection to at least level II and had zero, one to three, or four or more positive nodes. All were in trials in which radiotherapy included the chest wall, supraclavicular or axillary fossa (or both), and internal mammary chain. For 700 women with axillary dissection and no positive nodes, radiotherapy had no significant effect on locoregional recurrence (two-sided significance level [2p]>0·1), overall recurrence (rate ratio [RR], irradiated vs not, 1·06, 95% CI 0·76-1·48, 2p>0·1), or breast cancer mortality (RR 1·18, 95% CI 0·89-1·55, 2p>0·1). For 1314 women with axillary dissection and one to three positive nodes, radiotherapy reduced locoregional recurrence (2p<0·00001), overall recurrence (RR 0·68, 95% CI 0·57-0·82, 2p=0·00006), and breast cancer mortality (RR 0·80, 95% CI 0·67-0·95, 2p=0·01). 1133 of these 1314 women were in trials in which systemic therapy (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil, or tamoxifen) was given in both trial groups and, for them, radiotherapy again reduced locoregional recurrence (2p<0·00001), overall recurrence (RR 0·67, 95% CI 0·55-0·82, 2p=0·00009), and breast cancer mortality (RR 0·78, 95% CI 0·64-0·94, 2p=0·01). For 1772 women with axillary dissection and four or more positive nodes, radiotherapy reduced locoregional recurrence (2p<0·00001), overall recurrence (RR 0·79, 95% CI 0·69-0·90, 2p=0·0003), and breast cancer mortality (RR 0·87, 95% CI 0·77-0·99, 2p=0·04). After mastectomy and axillary dissection, radiotherapy reduced both recurrence and breast cancer mortality in the women with one to three positive lymph nodes in these trials even when systemic therapy was given. For today's women, who in many countries are at lower risk of recurrence, absolute gains might be smaller but proportional gains might be larger because of more effective radiotherapy. Cancer Research UK, British Heart Foundation, UK Medical Research Council.
    The Lancet 03/2014; · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: After breast-conserving surgery, radiotherapy reduces recurrence and breast cancer death, but it may do so more for some groups of women than for others. We describe the absolute magnitude of these reductions according to various prognostic and other patient characteristics, and relate the absolute reduction in 15-year risk of breast cancer death to the absolute reduction in 10-year recurrence risk. We undertook a meta-analysis of individual patient data for 10,801 women in 17 randomised trials of radiotherapy versus no radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery, 8337 of whom had pathologically confirmed node-negative (pN0) or node-positive (pN+) disease. Overall, radiotherapy reduced the 10-year risk of any (ie, locoregional or distant) first recurrence from 35·0% to 19·3% (absolute reduction 15·7%, 95% CI 13·7-17·7, 2p<0·00001) and reduced the 15-year risk of breast cancer death from 25·2% to 21·4% (absolute reduction 3·8%, 1·6-6·0, 2p=0·00005). In women with pN0 disease (n=7287), radiotherapy reduced these risks from 31·0% to 15·6% (absolute recurrence reduction 15·4%, 13·2-17·6, 2p<0·00001) and from 20·5% to 17·2% (absolute mortality reduction 3·3%, 0·8-5·8, 2p=0·005), respectively. In these women with pN0 disease, the absolute recurrence reduction varied according to age, grade, oestrogen-receptor status, tamoxifen use, and extent of surgery, and these characteristics were used to predict large (≥20%), intermediate (10-19%), or lower (<10%) absolute reductions in the 10-year recurrence risk. Absolute reductions in 15-year risk of breast cancer death in these three prediction categories were 7·8% (95% CI 3·1-12·5), 1·1% (-2·0 to 4·2), and 0·1% (-7·5 to 7·7) respectively (trend in absolute mortality reduction 2p=0·03). In the few women with pN+ disease (n=1050), radiotherapy reduced the 10-year recurrence risk from 63·7% to 42·5% (absolute reduction 21·2%, 95% CI 14·5-27·9, 2p<0·00001) and the 15-year risk of breast cancer death from 51·3% to 42·8% (absolute reduction 8·5%, 1·8-15·2, 2p=0·01). Overall, about one breast cancer death was avoided by year 15 for every four recurrences avoided by year 10, and the mortality reduction did not differ significantly from this overall relationship in any of the three prediction categories for pN0 disease or for pN+ disease. After breast-conserving surgery, radiotherapy to the conserved breast halves the rate at which the disease recurs and reduces the breast cancer death rate by about a sixth. These proportional benefits vary little between different groups of women. By contrast, the absolute benefits from radiotherapy vary substantially according to the characteristics of the patient and they can be predicted at the time when treatment decisions need to be made. Cancer Research UK, British Heart Foundation, and UK Medical Research Council.
    The Lancet 11/2011; 378(9804):1707-16. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61629-2 · 39.21 Impact Factor