[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
In PARAMOUNT, patients with advanced nonsquamous non–small cell lung cancer (NS-NSCLC) benefited from pemetrexed maintenance therapy following induction therapy with pemetrexed and cisplatin by extending survival, delaying disease progression, and maintaining quality of life (QoL). However, low-grade 1 or 2 toxicities during long-term maintenance treatment may become burdensome and impact QoL.
Materials and Methods
Patients in this double-blind study (N = 539), who completed 4 induction cycles (pemetrexed with cisplatin) without progressive disease (PD) and a ECOG performance status of 0/1, were randomized 2:1 to pemetrexed maintenance (500 mg/m2, day 1) + best supportive care (BSC) or placebo + BSC until PD. Adverse events (AEs, by maximum CTCAE grade) and QoL (EuroQol 5-dimensional [EQ-5D] scale) were assessed.
A median of 4 maintenance cycles was administered (range: pemetrexed [1-44], mean ± SD: 7.9 ± 8.3; placebo [1-38], 5.0 ± 5.2), with 28% of pemetrexed and 12% of placebo patients receiving ≥10 maintenance cycles. Pemetrexed dose intensity was 94%. More patients receiving pemetrexed (12%) discontinued due to possible drug-related CTCAEs than placebo (4%; P = .005). Overall, pemetrexed was associated with significantly more (P < .05) low-grade events (grade 1/2 nausea; grade 2 anemia, edema, and neutropenia) than placebo. Overall, incidences of low-grade fatigue, anemia, and neutropenia decreased with long-term pemetrexed exposure, whereas renal events increased across arms. EQ-5D analyses demonstrated no treatment-by-time interaction or overall treatment differences between arms.
PARAMOUNT demonstrated low incidences of low-grade toxicities with long-term pemetrexed exposure without compromising QoL in patients with NS-NSCLC.
Clinical Lung Cancer 11/2014; 15(6). DOI:10.1016/j.cllc.2014.06.007 · 3.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
The PARAMOUNT Phase III trial showed that maintenance pemetrexed after pemetrexed plus cisplatin induction was well tolerated and effective for patients with advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. Approximately 17% of patients receiving maintenance therapy in this study were 70 years of age or older. Here we report efficacy and safety results from the PARAMOUNT study for elderly (≥70 years) and non-elderly (<70 years) patients.
Final efficacy and safety data from the PARAMOUNT study were analyzed post hoc using subgroup analyses for elderly and non-elderly patients.
The median age was 73 years in the elderly subgroup (n = 92) and 60 years in the non-elderly subgroup (n = 447). Subgroups had similar baseline characteristics, except for a higher percentage of males and patients with a performance status of one in the elderly subgroup. For elderly patients, the median PFS was 6.4 months for pemetrexed and 3.0 months for placebo; the median OS was 13.7 months for pemetrexed and 12.1 months for placebo. For non-elderly patients, the median PFS was 4.0 months for pemetrexed and 2.8 months for placebo; the median OS was 13.9 months for pemetrexed and 10.8 months for placebo. Elderly patients experienced similar levels of low-grade toxicities, but had a higher percentage of grade 3/4 anemia and neutropenia than non-elderly patients, although importantly, this did not translate into increased febrile neutropenia.
Continuation maintenance pemetrexed had comparable survival and toxicity profiles in the elderly and non-elderly subgroups. However, grade 3/4 anemia and neutropenia were numerically higher for elderly patients.
Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 07/2014; 9(7):991-7. DOI:10.1097/JTO.0000000000000207 · 5.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim was to determine if combined pemetrexed, cisplatin, and cetuximab was efficacious and safe as first-line treatment in advanced nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
In this single-arm, multicenter clinical trial, patients with Stage IIIB/IV nonsquamous NSCLC received first-line therapy consisting of pemetrexed (500mg/m(2)) and cisplatin (75mg/m(2)) on Day 1 (21-day cycles) plus weekly cetuximab (400mg/m(2) loading dose, then 250mg/m(2)) for 4-6 cycles. Non-progressing patients received maintenance therapy consisting of pemetrexed and cetuximab as above until disease progression. All patients received vitamin supplementation, dexamethasone, and antihistamine prophylaxis. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), 1-year survival rate, translational research (TR) and safety.
Of the 113 patients receiving study drug, 109 were protocol-qualified. All patients completed ≥1 cycle of induction, and 51 (45%) and 49 (43%) patients completed ≥1 cycle of maintenance with pemetrexed and cetuximab, respectively. The ORR (n=109) was 38.5% (80% confidence interval [CI], 32.3-45.1%), all partial responses. Median PFS was 5.8 (80% CI, 4.4-6.7) months. One-year survival rate was 45% (80% CI, 39-51%). In exploratory analyses, there was some preliminary evidence of potential prognostic relationships with efficacy outcomes for epidermal growth factor receptor and thyroid transcription factor-1 protein expression, but not for KRAS mutation or for thymidylate synthase or folate receptor-alpha protein expression. Seventy-three (64.6%) patients had study drug-related Grade 3/4 adverse events (AEs). Drug-related serious AEs were reported in 31 (27.4%) patients. There were 3 (2.7%) potentially drug-related deaths on-study or within 30 days of follow up.
Pemetrexed, cisplatin, and cetuximab appeared efficacious and tolerable in advanced nonsquamous NSCLC patients. The TR outcomes are hypothesis-generating given the study's size and nonrandomized nature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carboplatin-based combinations are commonly used in platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer (PSOC). Pemetrexed in combination with carboplatin has been shown to be feasible in a phase I study in PSOC. The primary objective of this subsequent phase II study was to determine the overall response rate (ORR; defined by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) of this combination in patients with recurrent PSOC. Secondary objectives included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity.
Patients with PSOC (defined by recurrence ≥ 6 months after completion of up to two lines of prior platinum-based therapy), measurable disease, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 2, and adequate organ function were eligible. Pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) was administered as a 10-minute infusion followed by carboplatin AUC 6 as a 30-minute infusion on day 1 of a 21-day cycle.
Sixty-six patients were treated. Of the 61 patients evaluable for response, there were 20 responders (one complete response and 19 partial responses), for an ORR of 32.8% (95% CI: 21.3%, 46.0%). For the intent-to-treat population (all 66 patients), the median PFS was 9.4 months (95% CI: 8.3, 11.1), with 22.7% censoring. Median OS was not reached due to the high censoring rate. There was one drug-related death (multi-organ failure). The most common drug-related grade 3/4 toxicities were neutropenia (39.4%), thrombocytopenia (24.2%), carboplatin hypersensitivity (9.1%), nausea (6.1%), and vomiting (6.1%).
Carboplatin AUC 6 and pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) has a low incidence of serious toxicities. Defining the platinum-based combination with the best therapeutic index would require a prospective phase III study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a randomised phase II study to assess the safety and efficacy of standard versus high-dose pemetrexed in platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (PR-EOC). The expression of ten genes was also examined as potential biomarkers of pemetrexed/platinum activity.
Patients received pemetrexed 500mg/m(2) (Pem500) or 900mg/m(2) (Pem900) on day 1 of each 21-d cycle. Responses were defined per RECIST for measurable disease or by Gynaecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG) CA-125 criteria for non-measurable disease.
Of 102 patients randomised, 98 were evaluable for toxicity (47 Pem500, 51 Pem900) and 91 were evaluable for efficacy (43 Pem500, 48 Pem900) of whom 68 had measurable disease and 23 had CA-125-defined disease. The overall RR was 9.3% (95% CI: 2.6-22.1%) on Pem500 and 10.4% (95% CI: 3.5-22.7%) on Pem900. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 2.8 months on both arms, and the median survival was 11.9 and 10.3 months, respectively. Lower mRNA expression of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) and reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) were associated with longer PFS and time to treatment failure, respectively. Grade 3/4 toxicities, including fatigue, nausea and vomiting, were numerically greater on Pem900. Pemetrexed-related SAEs occurred in 17% and 28% of Pem500 and Pem900 patients, respectively.
Pemetrexed has activity in PR-EOC equivalent to other agents in platinum-resistant disease; however, Pem500 has the preferable toxicity profile. ERCC1 and RFC1 may merit examination as predictive biomarkers in PR-EOC.
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 02/2009; 45(8):1415-23. DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2008.12.013 · 5.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most patients with advanced ovarian cancer develop recurrent disease. For those patients who recur at least 6 months after initial therapy, paclitaxel platinum has shown a modest survival advantage over platinum without paclitaxel; however, many patients develop clinically relevant neurotoxicity, frequently resulting in treatment discontinuation. Thus, an alternative regimen without significant neurotoxicity was evaluated by comparing gemcitabine plus carboplatin with single-agent carboplatin in platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer patients.
Patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer were randomly assigned to receive either gemcitabine plus carboplatin or carboplatin alone, every 21 days. The primary objective was to compare progression-free survival (PFS).
Three hundred fifty-six patients (178 gemcitabine plus carboplatin; 178 carboplatin) were randomly assigned. Patients received a median of six cycles in both arms. With a median follow-up of 17 months, median PFS was 8.6 months (95% CI, 7.9 to 9.7 months) for gemcitabine plus carboplatin and 5.8 months (95% CI, 5.2 to 7.1 months) for carboplatin. The hazard ration (HR) for PFS was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.90; P = .0031). Response rate was 47.2% (95% CI, 39.9% to 54.5%) for gemcitabine plus carboplatin and 30.9% (95% CI, 24.1% to 37.7%) for carboplatin (P = .0016). The HR for overall survival was 0.96 (95% CI, 0.75 to1.23; P = .7349). While myelosuppression was significantly more common in the combination, sequelae such as febrile neutropenia or infections were uncommon. No statistically significant differences in quality of life scores between arms were noted.
Gemcitabine plus carboplatin significantly improves PFS and response rate without worsening quality of life for patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer.