[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In our previous study, Bacillus subtilis strain BSK3S, containing a polymyxin biosynthetic gene cluster from Paenibacillus polymyxa, could produce polymyxin only in the presence of exogenously added L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid (Dab). The dependence of polymyxin production on exogenous Dab was removed by introducing an ectB gene encoding the diaminobutyrate synthase of P. polymyxa into BSK3S (resulting in strain BSK4). We found, by observing the complete inhibition of polymyxin synthesis when the spo0A gene was knocked out (strain BSK4-0A), that Spo0A is indispensable for the production of polymyxin. Interestingly, the abrB-spo0A double-knockout mutant, BSK4-0A-rB, and the single abrB mutant, BSK4-rB, showed 1.7- and 2.3-fold increases, respectively, in polymyxin production over that of BSK4. These results coincided with the transcription levels of pmxA in the strains observed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The AbrB protein was shown to bind directly to the upstream region of pmxA, indicating that AbrB directly inhibits the transcription of polymyxin biosynthetic genes. The BSK4-rB strain, producing high levels of polymyxin, will be useful for the development and production of novel polymyxin derivatives.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 03/2012; 78(12):4194-9. · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gene (2304-bp) encoding a novel xylanolytic enzyme (XylK2) with a catalytic domain, which is 70% identical to that of Cellulomonas flavigena DSM 20109 GH6 β-1,4-cellobiohydrolase, was identified from an earthworm (Eisenia fetida)-symbiotic bacterium, Cellulosimicrobium sp. strain HY-13. The enzyme consisted of an N-terminal catalytic GH6-like domain, a fibronectin type 3 (Fn3) domain, and a C-terminal carbohydrate-binding module 2 (CBM 2). XylK2ΔFn3-CBM 2 displayed high transferase activity (788.3 IU mg(-1)) toward p-nitrophenyl (PNP) cellobioside, but did not degrade xylobiose, glucose-based materials, or other PNP-sugar derivatives. Birchwood xylan was degraded by XylK2ΔFn3-CBM 2 to xylobiose (59.2%) and xylotriose (40.8%). The transglycosylation activity of the enzyme, which enabled the formation of xylobiose (33.6%) and xylotriose (66.4%) from the hydrolysis of xylotriose, indicates that it is not an inverting enzyme but a retaining enzyme. The endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity of XylK2ΔFn3-CBM 2 increased significantly by approximately 2.0-fold in the presence of 50mM xylobiose.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is constitutively activated in cancer cells. Therefore, blocking the aberrant activity of STAT3 in tumor cells is a validated therapeutic strategy. To discover novel inhibitors of STAT3 activity, we screened against microbial natural products using a dual-luciferase assay. Using the microbial metabolome library, we identified cosmomycin C (CosC), which was isolated from the mycelium extract of Streptomyces sp. KCTC19769, as a STAT3 pathway inhibitor. CosC inhibited STAT3 (Tyr705) phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells. CosC-mediated inhibition of STAT3 signaling pathway was confirmed by suppressed expression of STAT3 downstream target proteins including cyclin D1, Bcl-xL, survivin, Mcl-1, and VEGF in CosC-treated MDA-MB-468 cells. Flow cytometry showed that CosC caused accumulation in the G(0)-G(1) phase of the cell cycle and induced apoptosis via PARP cleavage and caspase-3 activation. Based on these findings, CosC may be a potential candidate for modulation of STAT3 pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A Gram-negative, red-pigment-producing marine bacterial strain, designated S1-1, was isolated from the tidal flat sediment of the Yellow Sea, Korea. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic, and genetic data, strain S1-1 (KCTC 11448BP) represented a new species of the genus Zooshikella. Thus, we propose the name Zooshikella rubidus sp. nov. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry of the red pigments produced by strain S1-1 revealed that the major metabolic compounds were prodigiosin and cycloprodigiosin. In addition, this organism produced six minor prodigiosin analogues, including two new structures that were previously unknown. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a microorganism that simultaneously produces prodigiosin and cycloprodigiosin as two major metabolites. Both prodigiosin and cycloprodigiosin showed antimicrobial activity against several microbial species. These bacteria were approximately 1.5-fold more sensitive to cycloprodigiosin than to prodigiosin. The metabolites also showed anticancer activity against human melanoma cells, which showed significantly more sensitivity to prodigiosin than to cycloprodigiosin. The secondary metabolite profiles of strain S1-1 and two reference bacterial strains were compared by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistical analyses based on secondary metabolite profiles by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that the metabolite profile of strain S1-1 could clearly be distinguished from those of two phylogenetically related, prodigiosin-producing bacterial strains.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 06/2011; 77(14):4967-73. · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epothilone and its analogs are a potent new class of anticancer compounds produced by myxobacteria. Thus, in an effort to identify new myxobacterial strains producing epothilone and its analogs, cellulose-degrading myxobacteria were isolated from Korean soils, and 13 strains carrying epothilone biosynthetic gene homologs were screened using a polymerase chain reaction. A migration assay revealed that Sorangium cellulosum KYC3013, 3016, 3017, and 3018 all produced microtubule-stabilizing compounds, and an LCMS/ MS analysis showed that S. cellulosum KYC3013 synthesized epothilone A.
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2008; 18(8):1416-22. · 1.40 Impact Factor