[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Müller cells are mainly involved in controlling extracellular homeostasis in the retina, where intense neural activity alters ion concentrations and osmotic gradients, thus favoring cell swelling. This increase in cell volume is followed by a regulatory volume decrease response (RVD), which is known to be partially mediated by the activation of K and anion channels. However, the precise mechanisms underlying osmotic swelling and subsequent cell volume regulation in Müller cells have been evaluated by only a few studies. Although the activation of ion channels during the RVD response may alter transmembrane potential (V), no studies have actually addressed this issue in Müller cells. The aim of the present work is to evaluate RVD using a retinal Müller cell line (MIO-M1) under different extracellular ionic conditions, and to study a possible association between RVD and changes in V. Cell volume and V changes were evaluated using fluorescent probe techniques and a mathematical model. Results show that cell swelling and subsequent RVD were accompanied by V depolarization followed by repolarization. This response depended on the composition of extracellular media. Cells exposed to a hypoosmotic solution with reduced ionic strength underwent maximum RVD and had a larger repolarization. Both of these responses were reduced by K or Cl channel blockers. In contrast, cells facing a hypoosmotic solution with the same ionic strength as the isoosmotic solution showed a lower RVD and a smaller repolarization and were not affected by blockers. Together, experimental and simulated data led us to propose that the efficiency of the RVD process in Müller glia depends not only on the activation of ion channels, but is also strongly modulated by concurrent changes in the membrane potential. The relationship between ionic fluxes, changes in ion permeabilities and ion concentrations -all leading to changes in V- define the success of RVD.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e57268. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NMO-IgG autoantibody selectively binds to aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the most abundant water channel in the central nervous system and is now considered a useful serum biomarker of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). A series of clinical and pathological observations suggests that NMO-IgG may play a central role in NMO physiopathology. The current study evaluated, in well-differentiated astrocytes cultures, the consequences of NMO-IgG binding on the expression pattern of AQP4 and on plasma membrane water permeability. To avoid or to facilitate AQP4 down-regulation, cells were exposed to inactivated sera in two different situations (1 hr at 4°C or 12 hr at 37°C). AQP4 expression was detected by immunofluorescence studies using a polyclonal anti-AQP4 or a human anti-IgG antibody, and the water permeability coefficient was evaluated by a videomicroscopy technique. Our results showed that, at low temperatures, cell exposure to either control or NMO-IgG sera does not affect either AQP4 expression or plasma membrane water permeability, indicating that the simple binding of NMO-IgG does not affect the water channel's activity. However, at 37°C, long-term exposure to NMO-IgG induced a loss of human IgG signal from the plasma membrane along with M1-AQP4 isoform removal and a significant reduction of water permeability. These results suggest that binding of NMO-IgG to cell membranes expressing AQP4 is a specific mechanism that may account for at least part of the pathogenic process.
Journal of Neuroscience Research 02/2012; 90(6):1240-8. · 2.97 Impact Factor