[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ContextChildbearing is considered to be a significant risk factor for developing overweight and obesity. Physical activity might influence weight change via hormonal changes.Objective
To test the hypothesis that higher levels of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) are positively associated with maternal insulin sensitivity, and reduce IGF-1, IGFBP-3, leptin levels, bodyweight gain/retention and birth weight.Methods
In healthy nulliparous women weight measurements were carried out and blood was collected during pregnancy in the 15th, 25th, and 35th week, and after delivery at 6, 26, and 52 weeks. At 15 and 35 weeks of pregnancy and 26 weeks postpartum MVPA was measured using accelerometers. In linear regression models, the relationship between MVPA below or above the median with metabolic and weight outcomes was assessed, adjusted for maternal BMI, age and smoking.ResultsMVPA decreased significantly during pregnancy, but was very low already in early pregnancy. Insulin resistance and leptin levels increased during pregnancy and decreased significantly after delivery (all p<0,05). After adjustment, insulin, IGFBP-3 and BMI were significantly lower at 15 weeks of pregnancy in women with MVPA above the median compared to those with MVPA below the median. After 15 weeks of pregnancy, no significant associations were observed between hormonal levels and MVPA. MVPA was neither related to weight retention, nor to birth weight.Conclusion
Except in early pregnancy, MPVA was not related to metabolic outcomes. In addition MVPA during pregnancy was not related to weight retention or birth weight.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context and Objective: Information on the correlation of normative reproductive hormone levels with physical development (Tanner stages) during puberty and on the influences of genes and environment on variation in these hormones and Tanner stages is limited. Design, Setting, and Participants: One hundred twelve healthy 9-year-old twin pairs (n = 224) took part in a longitudinal study, of which 89 pairs participated again at age 12 years (n = 178). Main Outcome Measures: Morning urinary LH, FSH, estradiol, and salivary testosterone levels, determined by competitive immunoassays, were measured. Tanner stages were determined through physical examination. Results: Over the 3-year interval, all hormone levels showed a 2- to 9-fold increase. LH and FSH at age 9 years predicted sex-specific Tanner stages at age 12 years in both boys and girls. Most of the associations between hormone levels at age 9 years and physical development at 12 years were explained by genetic influences. FSH in 9-year-old boys correlated with all hormone levels and Tanner stages at age 12 years. Moderate to high heritability estimates were found for hormone levels at both ages and in both sexes. In girls a shift from environmental (age 9 years) to genetic influences (age 12 years) was found for estradiol and pubic hair development, and for breast development a shift in the opposite direction was seen. Conclusions: During development LH and FSH (and testosterone in boys) levels predict secondary sexual characteristics in boys and girls 3 years later. These correlations are largely due to genes that are involved in both early pubertal hormone levels and subsequent physical development.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 03/2013; 98(3):E518-27. DOI:10.1210/jc.2012-3361 · 6.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Sixth Evian Annual Reproduction (EVAR) Workshop Group Meeting was held to evaluate the impact of IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection on the health of assisted-conception children. Epidemiologists, reproductive endocrinologists, embryologists and geneticists presented data from published literature and ongoing research on the incidence of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities and congenital malformations in assisted-conception versus naturally conceived children to reach a consensus on the reasons for potential differences in outcomes between these two groups. IVF-conceived children have lower birthweights and higher peripheral fat, blood pressure and fasting glucose concentrations than controls. Growth, development and cognitive function in assisted-conception children are similar to controls. The absolute risk of imprinting disorders after assisted reproduction is less than 1%. A direct link between assisted reproduction and health-related outcomes in assisted-conception children could not be established. Women undergoing assisted reproduction are often older, increasing the chances of obtaining abnormal gametes that may cause deviations in outcomes between assisted-conception and naturally conceived children. However, after taking into account these factors, it is not clear to what extent poorer outcomes are due to the assisted reproduction procedures themselves. Large-scale, multicentre, prospective epidemiological studies are needed to investigate this further and to confirm long-term health consequences in assisted-conception children.
Assisted reproduction treatment is a general term used to describe methods of achieving pregnancy by artificial means and includes IVF and sperm implantation. The effect of assisted reproduction treatment on the health of children born using these artificial methods is not fully understood. In April 2011, fertility research experts met to give presentations based on research in this area and to look carefully at the evidence for the effects of assisted reproduction treatment on children’s health. The purpose of this review was to reach an agreement on whether there are differences in the health of assisted-conception children with naturally conceived children. The researchers discovered no increased risk in birth defects in assisted-conception children compared with naturally conceived children. They found that IVF-conceived children have lower birth weights and higher fat under the skin, higher blood pressure and higher fasting glucose concentrations than naturally conceived children; however, growth, development and cognitive function are similar between groups. A very low risk of disorders of genetic control was observed in assisted-conception children. Overall, there did not appear to be a direct link between assisted reproduction treatment and children’s health. The researchers concluded that the cause of some differences in the health of children conceived using assisted reproduction treatment may be due to the age of the woman receiving treatment. Large-scale, research studies are needed to study the long-term health of children conceived using assisted reproduction treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
In our hospital, female-to-male (FtM) transgender adolescents from the age of 16 are treated with two- or four-weekly intra-muscular injections of testosterone-esters. Some patients treated with four-weekly injections have complaints of fatigue and experience mood swings towards the end of the inter-injection period, which calls for an evaluation of the time-course of testosterone levels between injections. Evaluation of salivary testosterone is a practical approach for sequential measurements. Since only ∼2% of total serum testosterone is present in saliva, a sensitive assay is necessary. The objective was to develop an isotope dilution-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (ID-LC-MS/MS) for salivary testosterone measurements and to evaluate the testosterone profiles after testosterone-ester mixture injections in FtM-adolescents.
FtM treated with 125 mg/2 weeks or with 250 mg/4 weeks depots of testosterone-ester mixture collected saliva at different time intervals. Salivary testosterone was measured by a thoroughly validated ID-LC-MS/MS assay.
An ID-LC-MS/MS method for measuring salivary testosterone was developed with adequate accuracy and specificity. The reference range was established at 135-400 pmol/L. Testosterone levels peaked supra-physiologically immediately post-injection, and decreased to levels within the male reference range after nine days in all patients. 250 mg/4 weeks depots resulted in values below the reference range at the end of the 4 weeks.
The development of an adequate ID-LC-MS/MS method for measuring salivary testosterone allowed us to investigate the testosterone profile in FtM-adolescents after testosterone-esters mixture injections. These injections lead to extreme concentrations which may affect the wellbeing of the patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is usually the result of a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors. In monogenic obesity, overweight is caused by a single gene mutation. The most frequent form of monogenic obesity is caused by mutations in the gene that codes for the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R gene). Approximately 2% of Dutch children with obesity have a mutation in the MC4R gene. Children with homozygous and 'compound' heterozygous MC4R mutations have a phenotype distinguished by extreme overweight at an early age and hyperphagia. Children with heterozygous MC4R mutations have a more subtle phenotype and are difficult to distinguish clinically from obese children without this mutation. MC4R mutations can be identified by DNA diagnostics.- Drug treatment is not yet available for this condition.
Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 08/2012; 156(32):A4548.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In short children, a low IGF-I and normal GH secretion may be associated with various monogenic causes, but their prevalence is unknown. We aimed at testing GH1, GHR, STAT5B, IGF1, and IGFALS in children with GH insensitivity. Subjects and
Patients were divided into three groups: group 1 (height SDS <-2.5, IGF-I <-2 SDS, n = 9), group 2 (height SDS -2.5 to -1.9, IGF-I <-2 SDS, n = 6) and group 3 (height SDS <-1.9, IGF-I -2 to 0 SDS, n = 21). An IGF-I generation test was performed in 11 patients. Genomic DNA was used for direct sequencing, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and whole-genome SNP array analysis.
Three patients in group 1 had two novel heterozygous STAT5B mutations, in two combined with novel IGFALS variants. In groups 2 and 3 the association between genetic variants and short stature was uncertain. The IGF-I generation test was not predictive for the growth response to GH treatment.
In severely short children with IGF-I deficiency, genetic assessment is advised. Heterozygous STAT5B mutations, with or without heterozygous IGFALS defects, may be associated with GH insensitivity. In children with less severe short stature or IGF-I deficiency, functional variants are rare.
Hormone Research in Paediatrics 06/2012; 77(5):320-33. DOI:10.1159/000338462 · 1.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The quality and quantity of food intake affect body weight, but little is known about the genetics of such human dietary intake patterns in relation to the genetics of BMI. We aimed to estimate the heritability of dietary intake patterns and genetic correlation with BMI in participants of the Erasmus Rucphen Family study. The study included 1,690 individuals (42 % men; age range, 19–92), of whom 41.4 % were overweight and 15.9 % were obese. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess the number of days (0–7) on which participants consumed vegetables, fruit, fruit juice, fish, unhealthy snacks, fastfood, and soft drinks. Principal component analysis was applied to examine the correlations between the questionnaire items and to generate dietary intake pattern scores. Heritability and the shared genetic and shared non-genetic (environmental) correlations were estimated using the family structure of the cohort. Principal component analysis suggested that the questionnaire items could be grouped in a healthy and unhealthy dietary intake pattern, explaining 22 and 18 % of the phenotypic variance, respectively. The dietary intake patterns had a heritability of 0.32 for the healthy and 0.27 for the unhealthy pattern. Genetic correlations between the dietary intake patterns and BMI were not significant, but we found a significant environmental correlation between the unhealthy dietary intake pattern and BMI. Specific dietary intake patterns are associated with the risk of obesity and are heritable traits. The genetic factors that determine specific dietary intake patterns do not significantly overlap with the genetic factors that determine BMI.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00592-012-0387-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Childhood obesity is a major health problem. An association between children's body mass index (BMI) and overeating has been established, but mechanisms leading to overeating are poorly understood. The personality characteristics impulsivity and reward responsiveness may be involved in the tendency to overeat. Impulsivity might relate to overeating through poor inhibition of food intake; reward responsiveness through the rewarding value of food.
This study aimed to reveal the relationships between impulsivity, reward responsiveness, overeating and BMI in a sample of 346 Dutch children aged 6-13 years. The BMI distribution in the sample was representative of the BMI distribution in the Dutch pediatric population.
Impulsivity and reward responsiveness were measured with the Dutch version of the parent-report Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire for children. Overeating was assessed with the Dutch translation of the parent-report Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire.
Overeating, impulsivity and reward responsiveness were significantly associated with childhood BMI. Mediation analysis revealed that impulsivity and reward responsiveness equally and significantly predicted BMI indirectly through overeating.
The personality characteristics impulsivity and reward responsiveness predict childhood BMI indirectly through overeating. This suggests that these personality characteristics are risk factors for obesity.
International journal of obesity (2005) 06/2011; 35(10):1301-7. DOI:10.1038/ijo.2011.116 · 5.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the heritability of head circumference, an approximation of brain size, in twin-sib families of different ages. Data from the youngest participants were collected a few weeks after birth and from the oldest participants around age 50 years. In nearly all age groups the largest part of the variation in head circumference was explained by genetic differences. Heritability estimates were 90% in young infants (4 to 5 months), 85-88% in early childhood, 83-87% in adolescence, 75% in young and mid adulthood. In infants younger than 3 months, heritability was very low or absent. Quantitative sex differences in heritability were observed in 15- and 18-year-olds, but there was no evidence for qualitative sex differences, that is, the same genes were expressed in both males and females. Longitudinal analysis of the data between 5, 7, and 18 years of age showed high genetic stability (.78 > R(G) > .98). These results indicate that head circumference is a highly heritable biometric trait and a valid target for future GWA studies.