Takao Kumazawa

Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan

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Publications (3)7.83 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: It has been postulated that physical immobilization is an essential factor in developing chronic pain after trauma or surgery in an extremity. However, the mechanisms of sustained immobilization-induced chronic pain remain poorly understood. The present study, therefore, aimed to develop a rat model for chronic post-cast pain (CPCP) and to clarify the mechanism(s) underlying CPCP. To investigate the effects of cast immobilization on pain behaviours in rats, one hindlimb was immobilized for 2 weeks with a cast and remobilization was conducted for 10 weeks. Cast immobilization induced muscle atrophy and inflammatory changes in the immobilized hindlimb that began 2 h after cast removal and continued for 1 week. Spontaneous pain-related behaviours (licking and reduction in weight bearing) in the immobilized hindlimb were observed for 2 weeks, and widespread mechanical hyperalgesia in bilateral calves, hindpaws and tail all continued for 5-10 weeks after cast removal. A sciatic nerve block with lidocaine 24 h after cast removal transitorily abolished bilateral mechanical hyperalgesia in CPCP rats, suggesting that sensory inputs originating in the immobilized hindlimb contribute to the mechanism of both ipsilateral and contralateral hyperalgesia. Intraperitoneal injection of the free radical scavengers 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperydine-1-oxy1 or N-acetylcysteine 24 h after cast removal clearly inhibited mechanical hyperalgesia in bilateral calves and hindpaws in CPCP rats. These results suggest that cast immobilization induces ischaemia/reperfusion injury in the hindlimb and consequent production of oxygen free radicals, which may be involved in the mechanism of widespread hyperalgesia in CPCP rats.
    European journal of pain (London, England) 12/2011; 16(3):338-48. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, after confirming the suppression of autonomic nervous function by isoflurane anesthesia using autonomic antagonists, we pharmacologically investigated the involvement of vasomotor and cardiac sympathetic functions in systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) frequency components in conscious rats at rest and during exposure to low-ambient temperature (LT-exposure, 9°C for 90 min). Under unanesthesia, phentolamine administration (α-adrenoceptor antagonist, 10 mg/kg) decreased the mid-frequency component (MF 0.33-0.73 Hz) and inversely increased the high-frequency component (HF 1.3-2.5 Hz). The increased HF was suppressed by subsequent treatment with atenolol (β-adrenoceptor antagonist, 10 mg/kg), but not with atropine (muscarinic receptor antagonist, 10 mg/kg). Moreover, phentolamine administration after atenolol decreased MF, but did not increase HF. LT-exposure increased MF and HF; however, phentolamine pretreatment suppressed the increased MF during LT-exposure, and atenolol pretreatment dose-dependently decreased the increased HF. These results suggest that MF and HF of SBPV may reflect α-adrenoceptor-mediated vasomotor function and β-adrenoceptor-mediated cardiac sympathetic function, respectively, in the conscious state.
    The Journal of Physiological Sciences 06/2011; 61(5):373-83. · 1.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental animal pain models involving peripheral nerve lesions have expanded the understanding of the pathological changes caused by nerve damage. However models for the pathogenesis of chronic pain patients lacking obvious nerve injuries have not been developed to the same extent. Guided by clinical observations, we focused on the initiating noxious event, the context when applying nociceptive stimulation targeting long-lasting pain elicited by muscle insult. The administration of a nociceptive agent (6% hypertonic saline: HS; 5-time repeated-injection: HS5) after pretreatment with an immuno-inflammatory agent (lipopolysaccharide: LPS, 2 μg/kg) into one gastrocnemius muscle produced markedly long-persisting biphasic sustained mechanical hypersensitivity on the plantar surface of both hindpaws. In the acute phase, the blockade of afferent inputs from the injected-site was effective in returning the contralateral enhanced-responses to baseline levels. In contrast, similar blockade during the chronic phase did not affect the contralateral enhanced-responses, indicating that the hypersensitivity in the two phases was probably induced by different mechanisms. However, increasing the dose of LPS (20 μg/kg) before applying HS5 eliminated the development of mechanical hypersensitivity in the chronic phase, while the hypersensitivity in the acute phase was significantly more severe than with low-dose LPS-pretreatment. In this model, the development of hypersensitivity could be modulated by manipulating LPS-doses prior to noxious stimulation. This novel chronic pain model based on a preceding 'priming' myalgic stimulus provides an intriguing means for studying the pathogenesis of chronic pain.
    European journal of pain (London, England) 02/2011; 15(7):724-31. · 3.37 Impact Factor