L. Forlenza

CIRA Centro Italiano Ricerche Aerospaziali, Napoli, Campania, Italy

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Publications (12)3.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on a hardware-in-the-loop facility aimed at real-time testing of architectures and algorithms of multisensor sense and avoid systems. It was developed within a research project aimed at flight demonstration of autonomous non-cooperative collision avoidance for Unmanned Aircraft Systems. In this framework, an optionally piloted Very Light Aircraft was used as experimental platform. The flight system is based on multiple-sensor data integration and it includes a Ka-band radar, four electro-optical sensors, and two dedicated processing units. The laboratory test system was developed with the primary aim of prototype validation before multi-sensor tracking and collision avoidance flight tests. System concept, hardware/software components, and operating modes are described in the paper. The facility has been built with a modular approach including both flight hardware and simulated systems and can work on the basis of experimentally tested or synthetically generated scenarios. Indeed, hybrid operating modes are also foreseen which enable performance assessment also in the case of alternative sensing architectures and flight scenarios that are hardly reproducible during flight tests. Real-time multisensor tracking results based on flight data are reported, which demonstrate reliability of the laboratory simulation while also showing the effectiveness of radar/electro-optical fusion in a non-cooperative collision avoidance architecture.
    International Journal of Aerospace Engineering 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Cited By (since 1996):2, Export Date: 16 October 2013, Source: Scopus, Art. No.: 6494404, CODEN: IEARA, doi: 10.1109/TAES.2013.6494404, Language of Original Document: English, Correspondence Address: Accardo, D.; Department of Aerospace Engineering (DIAS), Università Degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, P. le Vincenzo Tecchio, 80, Napoli, NA I80125, Italy; email: domenico.accardo@unina.it, References: (2007) EUROCONTROL EUROCONTROL Specifications for the Use of Military Unmanned Aerial Vehicles As Operational Air Traffic Outside Segregated Airspace, , EUROCONTROL-SPEC-0102 1.0, Bruxelles, Belgium, July 27;
    IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems 01/2013; 49(2):1139-1160. · 1.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes the target detection algorithm for the image processor of a vision-based system that is installed onboard an unmanned helicopter. It has been developed in the framework of a project of the French national aerospace research center Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA) which aims at developing an air-to-ground target tracking mission in an unknown urban environment. In particular, the image processor must detect targets and estimate ground motion in proximity of the detected target position. Concerning the target detection function, the analysis has dealt with realizing a corner detection algorithm and selecting the best choices in terms of edge detection methods, filtering size and type and the more suitable criterion of detection of the points of interest in order to obtain a very fast algorithm which fulfills the computation load requirements. The compared criteria are the Harris-Stephen and the Shi-Tomasi, ones, which are the most widely used in literature among those based on intensity. Experimental results which illustrate the performance of the developed algorithm and demonstrate that the detection time is fully compliant with the requirements of the real-time system are discussed.
    Sensors 01/2012; 12(1):863-77. · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • L. Forlenza, G. Fasano, D. Accardo, A. Moccia
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    ABSTRACT: Cited By (since 1996):1, Export Date: 16 October 2013, Source: Scopus, Art. No.: 542165, doi: 10.1155/2012/542165, Language of Original Document: English, Correspondence Address: Accardo, D.; Department of Aerospace Engineering (DIAS), University of Naples Federico II, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples, Italy; email: domenico.accardo@unina.it, References: (2007) Eurocontrol Specifications for the Use of Military Unmanned Aerial Vehicles As Operational Air Traffic Outside Segregated Airspace, , Eurocontrol, Bruxelles, Belgium EUROCONTROL-SPEC-0102;
    International Journal of Aerospace Engineering 01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a fully Automatic Collision Avoidance System (ACAS) for unmanned aerial vehicles. This system has been developed by the Italian Aerospace Research Center (CIRA) in collaboration with the department of Aerospace Engineering of the University of Naples “Federico II”, in the framework of the national funded research project TECVOL (Technologies for the Autonomous Flight). The proposed system is comprised of two subsystems: the Obstacle Detection and Tracking subsystem, which permits to reveal flying intruders in a selected field of regard and to estimate their motion; the Collision Avoidance subsystem, which provides conflict detection and resolution capabilities, addressed in a 3D environment using information about current position and instantaneous speed vectors. The effectiveness of the system has been demonstrated during a flight test campaign, where proper conflict scenarios have been considered. In fact, the proposed ACAS setup was installed onboard a very light aircraft named FLARE (Flight Laboratory for Aeronautical Research), which has been customized with automatic flight capabilities. System architecture and the developed algorithms are described, then some results obtained from the flight test campaign are presented and discussed which demonstrate the reliability and the efficiency of the developed system.
    Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC), 2011 IEEE/AIAA 30th; 11/2011
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    ABSTRACT: In the framework of a project to integrate autonomous Sense and Avoid capabilities onboard Unmanned Aerial Systems, an integrated Radar and Electro-Optical sensors solution has been adopted in order to fulfill the situational awareness requirement, demanded by the US Federal Aviation Administration for integrating Unmanned Aerial Systems in the civil airspace. In particular, the sensors architecture is hierarchical: radar is the main sensor, whilst Electro-Optical cameras have an auxiliary role. This paper focuses on the developed data fusion algorithm and the evaluation of its performance on the basis of flight tests data. Results demonstrate that radar/Electro-Optical fusion enables a significant improvement in tracking accuracy especially in terms of azimuth and elevation angles, and their time derivatives.
    Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems; 05/2011
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    ABSTRACT: ✓ An integrated system for obstacle detection and tracking was presented. It is based on multi-sensor architecture and central-level data fusion processing. ✓ Obstacle detection and tracking performance was evaluated in flight tests with an intruder aircraft of the same class. ✓ One important outcome was the demonstration of the effectiveness of the multiple sensor approach: compared to radar-only tracking, radar/EO fusion allows the tracking algorithm to reduce uncertainty in estimating the distance at closest point of approach. ✓ The effectiveness of radar/EO fusion for a maneuvering intruder will be analyzed and described in future works. ✓ Future developments will involve the adoption of innovative technologies in order to evaluate their impact on multi-sensor obstacle detection and tracking performances. In particular, a research activity has been started on Particle Filtering Algorithms.
    01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: Conference code: 97876, Cited By (since 1996):2, Export Date: 16 October 2013, Source: Scopus, Language of Original Document: English, Correspondence Address: Dept. of Aerospace Engineering (DIAS), University of Naples 'Federico II', P.le Tecchio, 80, Naples, I80125, Italy, References: (2007) EUROCONTROL Specifications for The Use of Military Unmanned Aerial Vehicles as Operational Air Traffic Outside Segregated Airspace, , version 1. 0, EUROCONTROL, EUROCONTROL-SPEC-0102, doc Bruxelles, Belgium, July 27th;, Sponsors: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA)
    AIAA Infotech at Aerospace Conference and Exhibit 2011, St. Louis, MO; 01/2011
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    ABSTRACT: To allow Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) accessing National Airspace System (NAS) "Equivalent levels of safety" to the ones of human vision must be guaranteed. Therefore, an appropriate "Sense and Avoid" technology must be developed that is capable of detecting, tracking, and avoiding obstacles. The Department of Aerospace Engineering at University of Naples has been involved in a project funded by the Italian Aerospace Research Centre (CIRA) for the realization of a prototypical "Obstacle Detection & Identification" (ODID) System. It is installed onboard a Very Light Aircraft (VLA) and it is characterized by a hierarchical sensor configuration in which the radar is the main sensor while EO cameras are the auxiliary ones in order to increase accuracy and data rate so that anti-collision requirements are fulfilled. This paper focuses on the Image Processing algorithm for the panchromatic camera. Among the several techniques listed in literature the edge detection - labeling one resulted as the best compromise in terms of computational load, detection range, false alarm rate, miss detection rate and adaptability at different background luminosity conditions. Moreover it has been customized in order to allow for reliable operation in a wide range of flight and luminance configurations and it has been tested and run on a sequence of real images taken during flight tests. At the end, a table that summarizes those results is presented. Indeed, the output tracking measurements accuracy increases by an order of magnitude with respect to standalone radar one.
    Proc SPIE 10/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: Conference code: 82588, Cited By (since 1996):9, Export Date: 16 October 2013, Source: Scopus, Art. No.: 2010-3421, Language of Original Document: English, Correspondence Address: Fasano, G.; Dept. of Aerospace Engineering (DIAS), University of Naples Federico II, P.le Tecchio, 80, Naples, I80125, Italy, References: (2007) EUROCONTROL Specifications for the Use of Military Unmanned Aerial Vehicles as Operational Air Traffic Outside Segregated Airspace, , EUROCONTROL, version 1.0, doc no. EUROCONTROL-SPEC-0102, Bruxelles, Belgium, July 27th;
    AIAA Infotech at Aerospace 2010, Atlanta, GA; 01/2010
  • L. Forlenza, G. Fasano, D. Accardo, A. Moccia
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    ABSTRACT: Conference code: 82588, Cited By (since 1996):6, Export Date: 16 October 2013, Source: Scopus, Art. No.: 2010-3461, Language of Original Document: English, Correspondence Address: Forlenza, L.; Dept. of Aerospace Engineering (DIAS), University of Naples Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, Naples, I80125, Italy, References: (2007) EUROCONTROL Specifications for the Use of Military Unmanned Aerial Vehicles as Operational Air Traffic Outside Segregated Airspace, , EUROCONTROL, version 1.0, doc no. EUROCONTROL-SPEC-0102, Bruxelles, Belgium, July 27th;
    AIAA Infotech at Aerospace 2010, Atlanta, GA; 01/2010
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    ABSTRACT: The Italian Aerospace Research Centre and the Department of Aerospace Engineering at University of Naples have been involved in a project for the development of an obstacle detection and tracking suite for autonomous collision avoidance of unmanned aerial systems. In this framework, a flight prototype of an autonomous obstacle detect sense and avoid system has been designed and realized. It is installed onboard a very light aircraft named FLARE. The system is based on multiple-sensor data integration and it includes several components, such as a Ka-band pulsed radar, four electro optical sensors and two processing units. A hierarchical sensor configuration has been chosen in which the radar is the main sensor while EO cameras are the auxiliary ones to increase accuracy and data rate. In order to maximize the outcome of flight tests, an indoor facility for hardware-in-the-loop tests has been developed. The indoor facility includes processing units dedicated to simulate aircraft and intruder dynamics that are provided as input to sensors. The radar is replaced by a simulator, while the real visible camera unit is used. Flight images are displayed on a LCD screen. The facility permits to test multiple critical flight configurations and different sensors combinations. Moreover, the availability of a well assessed simulator allows the research team to support several activities such as: i) tuning of the data fusion techniques (i.e. tracking based on Kalman filtering); ii) system performance validation for a wide range of scenarios; iii) evaluation of alternative architectures that are difficult to be reproduced during flights. Some results of hardware-in-the-loop tracking tests based on flight data are briefly summarized and expected flight performance of the electro-optical system as auxiliary sensor is discussed.
    01/2009;