Ahmed Al Flaiw

King Saud medical city, Ar Riyāḑ, Ar Riyāḑ, Saudi Arabia

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Publications (16)11.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy and safety of combined pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in renal transplant recipients. This is a retrospective chart review of post renal transplant patients who were positive for anti-HCV and HCV-RNA, and who have received treatment with combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin between October 2003 and December 2008. Only patients with stable graft function and absence of evidence of cirrhosis and who received the therapy for continuous 48 wk were included. Nineteen patients (13 male and 6 female) were identified and included. The patient's complete blood count, liver and kidney profile, and calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were monitored every 6-8 wk while on treatment. HCV-RNA was tested at 12 wk for early virological response, at 48 wk for end of treatment response (ETR), and then retested at 24, and 48 wk after completion of therapy for sustained virological response (SVR). Liver biopsies were obtained before treatment from all patients and graft kidney biopsies were performed as required. Of the entire cohort, 9 patients (47.4%) showed an ETR and 8 had SVR (42.1%). Of the 8 patients with abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels at baseline, 78.9% had their ALT normalized (including the virological non responders). ALT was normal in all responders at the end of therapy and at 24 wk post therapy (100%). Only one patient (5.3%) developed an increase in creatinine and decline in GFR from baseline towards the end of treatment. This patient's kidney biopsy revealed borderline rejection. There was no impact on response by HCV-genotype, initial HCV RNA load, age or sex of the patient or duration post transplant before commencement of therapy. All patients tolerated treatment in the same way as non-transplant with no unusual or increased occurrence of side effects. The combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin is effective in suppressing HCV-RNA, with a low risk of graft rejection or failure in HCV infected renal transplant recipients.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2012; 18(1):55-63. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical and pathological features and outcome of glomerulonephritis with crescents among adult patients. This is a retrospective study of all cases of crescentic GN seen over a 9-year period (2001-2010). Histological features were assessed, and renal function at baseline and end of follow-up period was recorded. Results among different etiological groups at baseline and end of follow-up period were compared. The mean age in the whole group was 35.6 years (16.2), with the lowest mean in the lupus nephritis (LN) group [27.7 years (9.9)] and the highest in the pauciimmune glomerulonephritis (PIGN) group (P = 0.001). There were 72 cases enrolled in the study. LN accounted for 49.3% of the cases, PIGN for 26.5%, other immune complex glomerulonephritis (ICGN) for 19% and post-infectious GN accounted for 6.3% The majority (85.7%) of the patients had renal impairment at presentation (mean serum creatinine levels were 247 (85) μmol/l, 412 (75) μmol/l and 230 (141) μmol/l in LN, PICN and ICGN, respectively (P = 0.05). Women accounted for 85.3, 76.5 and 36.2% of the patients in LN, PICN and ICGN, respectively (P = 0.025). By the end of the follow-up period of 26 (22.9) months, 25.8% of the patients were requiring dialysis (16.70% in the LN group, 50% in PIGN and 25% in ICGN (P = 0.05) and 21.7% had nephrotic range proteinuria (16.7, 1 and 33.3%, respectively (P = 0.4). Using logistic multivariate analysis, the only independent factors found to predict need for dialysis of prognosis were percent of sclerosed glomeruli (P = 0.05) and presence of ATN (P = 0.028). Baseline proteinuria or SCr, gender and number of glomeruli with crescents, on the other hand, did not impact prognosis. Using linear regression multivariate analysis, SCr, protein excretion and activity score at biopsy did not influence change in SCr or final SCr during the follow-up period. Using ANOVA to compare the groups of LN, PIGN and ICGN), we found significant differences only in gender between LN and ICGN (P = 0.035), in percent glomerular global sclerosis (between LN and PIGN (P = 0.007) and between LN and ICGN (P = 0.012) and in age (between LN and PIGN (P = 0.006). Almost half of our patients with CrGN were due to LN which is higher than that reported by others where PIGN was the more prevalent etiology. Patients with PICN were older and had worse prognosis. This could be explained by the higher number of globally sclerosed glomeruli in the PIGN group.
    Clinical and Experimental Medicine 06/2011; 12(2):121-5. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are conflicting reports on the reliability of the various glomerular filtration rate formula in renal allografts, to assess the performance of various glomerular filtration rate formula in estimating renal function of renal allografts. Glomerular filtration rate was measured using an isotope Tc99m DTPA in 97 renal transplant patients and estimated using modification of diet in renal disease, Cockroft-Gault formula, Nankivell, and a cystatin C-based formula. The overall performance of these formula was evaluated by calculating bias, accuracy and precision. Mean age was 39.8 years (-/+ 12.7), body mass index was 26.9 (-/+ 6.3) and serum creatinine was 114.5 micromol/L (-/+ 39.3). The mean measured glomerular filtration rate was 58.1 mL/min (-/+ 25.6). The bias with modification of diet in renal disease was 7.7 (P = .03), with Cockroft-Gault formula it was 3.2 (P = .3), with Nankivell it was 10.3 (P = .0002), and with cystatin C it was 0.31 (P = .9) The precisions (r) for modification of diet in renal disease, Cockroft-Gault formula, Nankivell, and cystatin C were 0.26 (P = .01), 0.26 (P = .01), 0.42 (P = .0001), and 0.60 (P < .0001), respectively. We also investigated the impact of sex, age, body mass index, and glomerular filtration rate on the performance of these 4 formula. The best correlation, highest precision, accuracy, and least bias were seen when using cystatin C. The largest bias was seen when using Nankivell and modification of diet in renal disease formula.
    Experimental and clinical transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation. 12/2009; 7(4):197-202.
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    ABSTRACT: In clinical practice, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is often estimated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) or Cockcroft-Gault (CG) formulae. No data are available, however, on the performance of these formulae in Arab individuals. Plasma creatinine samples were obtained from 90 consecutive normal Arab kidney donors for the estimation of GFR (eGFR) using the simplified MDRD and CG formulae. The GFR was measured in these donors with chromium labelled EDTA {[51Cr] EDTA). Bias was assessed by calculating the difference between the measured GFR and the calculated GFR using each of the two formulae; precision was calculated using the r value of the regression analysis. The group studied consisted of 90 donors, of whom 64 were males (71%). The mean age was 30.8 years (+/- 9.8) and mean BMI was 25.7 (+/- 5.7). The measured GFR (mean 112.4 +/- 17.5) correlated better with the calculated GFR by CG formula (mean 107.7 +/- 29.7) and showed poor correlation with the GFR estimated by the MDRD (mean 89.2 +/- 13.8); bias = 4.8 and 23.3, respectively (p = 0.1 and < 0.0001, respectively). The correlation with CG formula was better in males (bias = 2, p = 0.5) and those under 30 years of age (bias = 1.0, p = 0.9). Based on our data, we calculated a correction factor to the CG formula to improve the correlation with the measured GFR in Arab individuals. By multiplying the CG formula by 1.0446, the bias was reduced from 4.8 (p = 0.1) to 0.0 (p = 0.5) with an increase in precision from 0.2 (p = 0.05) to 0.43 (p = 0.0001). Using CG formula, the frequency for values within 30% of the mean of the measured value was 75%, which improved to 80% using the revised formula. CG formula was found to be the most appropriate for calculation of GFR in Arab individuals. It is possible to reduce the bias and improve precision in Arab individuals with normal renal function by multiplying the result obtained by CG formula by 1.0446.
    Renal Failure 02/2008; 30(2):205-8. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This is a prospective cohort study in renal transplant patients who fasted or who did not fast for three consecutive Ramadans. The baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and urinary protein excretion before the first Ramadan were compared to those after the third Ramadan in 35 fasters and 33 nonfasters. The effect of age, time after transplantation, presence of diabetes mellitus (DM), and proteinuria on changes in the GFR were studied. The two groups were comparable in gender, age, donor source, time posttransplantation, presence of DM, hypertension, proteinuria, serum creatinine, and MAP. Among the fasters, there was no change in estimated GFR after fasting for three Ramadans (56.4 mL/min versus 55.4 mL/min, P=0.8) even after adjusting for age, DM, baseline GFR, proteinuria, or time after transplantation. There were no significant differences between the fasters and the nonfasters in the changes in GFR, MAP, and urinary protein excretion between baseline and the third Ramadan.
    Transplantation 02/2008; 85(1):141-4. · 3.78 Impact Factor
  • Human Immunology - HUM IMMUNOL. 01/2008; 69.
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    ABSTRACT: To assess health awareness in patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT) in Saudi Arabia. This is a cross-sectional survey using a 22-item questionnaire in 143 randomly selected adult RRT patients [40 on hemodialysis (HD), 61 on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 42 with renal transplant (TX)]. The study was carried out at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, Riyadh in April 2006. The questionnaire was designed to evaluate patients' knowledge in 5 areas: 1. causes of renal failure, 2. biology of the kidneys, 3. symptoms of kidney disease, 4. therapeutic options available, 5. national kidney patients support facilities. The association between the level of awareness (the percentage of correct answers) to different demographic factors was assessed. Three fifths of the patients had less than secondary education. The average mark for correct responses of all patients was 45.9% with a highest (58%) for the category on biology of the kidney and lowest (36.8%) for national kidney patients support facilities. The PD group had the highest score (54.4%) followed by HD (44.3%) and finally TX (35.1%). The level of our patients; health awareness is lower than satisfactory. Level of education seems to be a contributory factor.
    Saudi medical journal 06/2007; 28(5):747-51. · 0.62 Impact Factor
  • Experimental and clinical transplantation: official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation 01/2007; 4(2):571-3. · 0.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Even in the case of live related kidney donation, coercion within families is applied on the most vulnerable amongst them. This vulnerability could be financial, social or psychological In this paper we discuss how to assess the willingness or unwillingness of a kidney donor and discover if any coercion has been applied on him/her be it direct or indirect.
    Annals of transplantation: quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society 02/2005; 10(1):35-7. · 0.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have introduced an annual timetable format for addressing the "primary care" needs of the hemodialysis population. For 102 patients enrolled, fourteen interventions adapted for the dialysis population from the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations were implemented successfully in 65% areas in our pilot year, which include important features like annual history and physical examination, breast examination, mammography, pap smear, lipid profile, adult specific immunization and stool occult blood. Flexible sigmoidoscopy program was unsuccessful in our pilot year.
    Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation: an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia 01/2005; 16(3):306-10.
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    ABSTRACT: Mycophenolate Mofetil MMF has been widely used in post-transplant immunosuppression. Its role is emerging in GN. MMF demonstrated promising results compared with cyclosphosphamide in stage IV lupus nephritis, in a recently published trial. It has been found to have a wide safety profile, with mostly gastroinetestinal side effects, which can be avoided through titration. Its action is through inhibition of the enzyme IMDPH (ionosine monophosphate dehydrogenase), leading to purine antagonism and inhibition of lymphocytes. We were aiming to demonstrate the efficacy of MMF in our GN population. In this study, we reviewed 17 patients who received MMF (dose - 1 gm po bid) for the past year. They were only included if it was given for the management of resistant primary glomerulonephritis. Complete remission has been defined as proteinuria of less than 0.5 g/day and partial remission as a reduction of proteinuria 50% of starting MMF therapy; all 17 MMF therapy patients uniformly achieved good BP ((29%) achieved complete remission and this group consisted of 1 membranous GN, 2 lupus GN (type IV and membranous), one FSGS and one with MPGN. Four of 17 (23%) were non-responders to therapy. This group articles.aspx? id=41 to side effects. We conclude that the MMF appears to be an effective alternate treatment modality in resistant membranous GN, lupus nephritis (type IV and V) and possibly MPGN, and to a lesser extent in resistant FSGS. Further prospective data may demonstrate the efficacy of MMF in GN.
    Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation: an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia 01/2005; 16(1):23-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Management of nutritional status is an integral part of the management of patients with renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). We investigated whether active nutritional counseling can improve biochemical nutritional parameters and fluid overload problems in patients on HD. A total of 110 patients, on three times per week HD, were enrolled in the study. Information regarding patient characteristics was collected with the help of a questionnaire. Patients with hypoalbuminemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and more than three kilograms inter-dialytic weight gains were identified and were given active nutritional counseling. The above parameters were followed over a seven-month period. Active nutritional counseling resulted in significant decrease in the prevalence of hyperkalemia as well as high inter-dialytic weight gains (p < 0.001). However, the prevalence of hypoalbuminemia and hyperphosphatemia remained unchanged over the study period. Our study suggests that active nutritional counseling can improve certain important biochemical parameters and fluid overload problems in patients on maintenance HD.
    Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation: an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia 01/2004; 15(2):140-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Iron Supplementation is crucial in raising hematocrit as well as dosage saving for recombinant human erythropoietin therapy (rHuEPO) in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Intravenous iron has proved to be both safe and efficacious in this patient's population. However, the exact iron requirement has not been worked our. In this study we found that 1000 mg of element iron (given as iron saccharate) per moth was effective in maintaining hematocrit and hemoglobin at 33% and 110 gm/L respectively, and reducing the erythropoietin (EPO) dosage by about 20% in maintenance hemodialysis patients who were iron-replete. The serum ferritin increased from 219+/-144 to 320+/-234 microg/L (P< 0.05). There were no major side effects and patients tolerated the monthly iron therapy well. Our study suggests that intravenous iron saccharate (100 mg/month) is effective and safe in patients on maintenance hemodialysis receiving RHUEPO.
    Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation: an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia 01/1999; 10(1):21-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Brescia-Cimino arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) ad synthetic grafts are the usual forms of vascular accesses for hemodialysis. Although angiography has been the traditional means of imaging these vascular systems, colour Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) offers a non-invasive method of evaluating AVF dysfunction. We retrospectively evaluated 22 patients with clinical evidence of access dysfunction who were studied by CDFI and of whom 14 also underwent angiography. We analyzed the results of whom the 14 patients who had both CDFI and angiography as angiography was impossible in the remaining eight patients due to difficulty with cannulation. Eight patient had thrombosis on CDFI and angiopraphy in all eight patients confirmed these findings. CDFI showed six stenoses, all of which were proven on angiopraphy. Overall,, CDFI correctly identified all lesions that were seen angiographically ginging a sensitivity and specifificity of 100%. Moreover, CDFI detected two cases of pseudoaneurysms which were missed by angiography. CDFI provides an adequate means of evaluating AVF dysfunction and should be the initial imaging technique of choice.
    Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation: an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia 01/1998; 9(1):8-11.
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    ABSTRACT: Acute oliguric renal failure (ARF) developed in a patient two weeks after he was started on intermittent anti-tuberculous therapy including rifampicin. The clinical picture was compatible with acute allergic interstitial nephritis. Renal histology revealed mainly acute tubular necrosis with mild tubulo-interstitial mononuclear cellular infiltrate. Intermittent therapy, as in our patient, has been the major factor in the development of rifampicin induced ARF in cases reviewed in the literature.
    Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation: an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia 7(4):401-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Renal artery aneurysm is an uncommon clinical occurrence. We report a 32-year-old lady with refractory hypertension who was found to have renal artery aneurysm. After a long clinical course, the aneurysm was successfully treated with coil embolization.
    Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation: an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia 15(3):375-9.