[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caffeic acids are known to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and tissue reparative effects. The purposes of this study were to determine the effect of caffeic acid on transforming growth factor (TGF) β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation and collagen production, and to determine whether caffeic acid is involved in the antioxidant effect in nasal polyp-derived fibroblasts (NPDFs).
NPDFs were pretreated with caffeic acid (1-10 µM) for 2 hours and stimulated with TGF-β1 (5 ng/mL) for 24 hours. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), collagen types I and III, and Nox4 mRNA was determined by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and the expression of α-SMA protein was determined by actin ned by immunofluorescence microscopy. The amount of total soluble collagen production was analyzed by the Sircol collagen dye-binding assay. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NPDFs were determined using 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein-diacetate. siNox4 was used to determine the effect of Nox4.
The expression of α-SMA and production of collagen were significantly increased following TGF-β1 treatment. In contrast, the level of expression of α-SMA and the level of production of collagen were decreased by pretreatment with caffeic acid. The activation of Nox4 and the subsequent production of ROS were also reduced by pretreatment with caffeic acid. The expression of α-SMA was prevented by inhibition of ROS generation with siNox4.
Caffeic acid may inhibit TGF-β1-induced differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and collagen production by regulating ROS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nasal polyps are associated with chronic inflammation of the sinonasal mucosa and are involved in myofibroblast differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. Ginsenoside Rg1, a compound derived from Panax ginseng, shows antifibrotic and anticancer effects. However, the molecular effects of Rg1 on myofibroblast differentiation and ECM production remain unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of Rg1 on transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation and ECM production and to determine the molecular mechanism of Rg1 in nasal polyp-derived fibroblasts (NPDFs). NPDFs were isolated from nasal polyps of seven patients who had chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyp. NPDFs were exposed to TGF-β1 with or without Rg1. Expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), fibronectin and collagen type Iα1 were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. TGF-β1 signaling molecules, including Smad2/3, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 were analyzed by Western blotting. Transcription factors involved with TGF-β1 signaling, nuclear factor (NF)-κB and activator protein 1 (AP-1) were also assessed by Western blot. The cytotoxic effect of Rg1 was measured by an established viability assay. The mRNA and protein expression levels of α-SMA, fibronectin and collagen type Iα1 were increased in TGF-β1-induced NPDFs. Rg1 inhibited these effects. The inhibitory molecular mechanism of Rg1 was involved in the ERK pathway. Rg1 inhibited the transcription factor activation of AP-1. Rg1 itself was not cytotoxic. The ginsenoside Rg1 has inhibitory effects on myofibroblast differentiation and ECM production. The inhibitory mechanism of Rg1 is involved with the ERK and AP-1 signaling pathways. Rg1 may be useful as an inhibitor of ECM deposition, and has potential to be used as a novel treatment option for nasal polyps.
Experimental Biology and Medicine 06/2012; 237(6):663-9. DOI:10.1258/ebm.2012.011342 · 2.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Statins are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Statins exert not only lipid-lowering but also other cellular effects, including antifibrotic properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of simvastatin on transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-1-induced myofibroblast differentiation and collagen production in nasal polyp-derived fibroblasts (NPDFs) and to verify the mechanism of the effect of simvastatin in TGF-beta-1-induced myofibroblast differentiation in NPDFs.
NPDFs were pretreated with simvastatin with or without mevalonate or Y-27643 for 2 hours before induction by TGF-beta-1. The expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and collagen type IV mRNA was determined by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and the expression of alpha-SMA protein was determined by immunofluorescent cytochemical staining. Total soluble collagen production was analyzed by the SirCol collagen dye-binding assay (Biocolor, Belfast, U.K.). Phosphorylation of Smad 2/3 was evaluated by Western blot analysis.
In TGF-beta-1-induced NPDFs, simvastatin significantly inhibited the expressions of α-SMA and collagen type IV mRNA and reduced alpha-SMA and collagen protein levels. Pretreatment with mevalonate reversed the effect of simvastatin. The expression of alpha-SMA mRNA and protein was significantly decreased by pretreatment with Y-27632. The TGF-beta-1-induced expression of pSmad 2/3 protein was notably decreased by pretreatment with simvastatin.
We showed that simvastatin inhibits TGF-beta-1-induced myofibroblast differentiation (expression of alpha-SMA) and collagen production in NPDFs and Rho/Rock and TGF-β/Smad signaling is involved as an underlying mechanism. The results of our study suggest that simvastatin is a possible candidate for the suppression of nasal polyp formation.
American Journal of Rhinology and Allergy 01/2012; 26(1):7-11. DOI:10.2500/ajra.2012.26.3679 · 1.81 Impact Factor