[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The amyloid β peptide (Aβ) is a critical initiator that triggers the progression of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) via accumulation and aggregation, of which the process may be caused by Aβ overproduction or perturbation clearance. Aβ is generated from amyloid precursor protein through sequential cleavage of β- and γ-secretases while Aβ removal is dependent on the proteolysis and lysosome degradation system. Here, we overviewed the biogenesis and toxicity of Aβ as well as the regulation of Aβ production and clearance. Moreover, we also summarized the animal models correlated with Aβ that are essential in AD research. In addition, we discussed current immunotherapeutic approaches targeting Aβ to give some clues for exploring the more potentially efficient drugs for treatment of AD.
Frontiers in Pharmacology 09/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2015.00221 · 3.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gpbar1 (TGR5), a membrane-bound bile acid receptor, is well known for its roles in regulation of energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. Here we show that TGR5 is a suppressor of gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration through antagonizing STAT3 signaling pathway. We firstly show that TGR5 activation greatly inhibited proliferation and migration of human gastric cancer cells and strongly induced gastric cancer cell apoptosis. We then found that TGR5 activation antagonized STAT3 signaling pathway through suppressing the phosphorylation of STAT3 and its transcription activity induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interleukin-6. TGR5 overexpression with ligand treatment inhibited gene expression mediated by STAT3. It suggests that TGR5 antagonizes gastric cancer proliferation and migration at least in part by inhibiting STAT3 signaling. These findings identify TGR5 as a suppressor of gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration that may serve as an attractive therapeutic tool for human gastric cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a key metabolic and homeostatic regulator in the liver. In the present work, we identify a novel role of FXR in antagonizing c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in liver carcinogenesis by activating SOD3 transcription. Compared with wild-type (WT) mouse liver, FXR(-/-) mouse liver showed elevated JNK phosphorylation. JNK1 deletion suppressed the increase of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced tumor number in FXR(-/-) mice. These results suggest that JNK1 plays a key role in chemical-induced liver carcinogenesis in FXR(-/-) mice. We found that ligand-activated FXR was able to alleviate H2O2 or tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA)-induced JNK phosphorylation in HepG2 cells or mouse primary hepatocytes. FXR ligand decreased H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in WT but not FXR(-/-) mouse hepatocytes. FXR knockdown abolished the inhibition of GW4064 on JNK phosphorylation and ROS production induced by H2O2 in HepG2 cells. The gene expression of SOD3, an antioxidant defense enzyme, was increased by FXR activation in vitro and in vivo. An FXR responsive element (FXRE), inverted repeat (IR-1) in SOD3 promoter was identified by a combination of transcriptional reporter assays, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assays, which indicated that SOD3 could be a direct FXR target gene. SOD3 knockdown abolished the inhibition of GW4064 on JNK phosphorylation induced by H2O2 in HepG2 cells. In summary, FXR may regulate SOD3 expression to suppress ROS production, resulting in decreasing JNK activity. These results suggest that FXR, as a novel JNK suppressor, may be an attractive therapeutic target for liver cancer treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the major health concerns worldwide. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is considered a therapeutic target for treatment of NAFLD. However, the mechanism by which activation of FXR lowers hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels remains unknown. Here we investigated the role of hepatic carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) in regulating both normal and FXR-controlled lipid homeostasis. Overexpression of hepatic CES1 lowered hepatic TG and plasma glucose levels in both wild-type and diabetic mice. In contrast, knockdown of hepatic CES1 increased hepatic TG and plasma cholesterol levels. These effects likely resulted from the TG hydrolase activity of CES1, with subsequent changes in fatty acid oxidation and/or de novo lipogenesis. Activation of FXR induced hepatic CES1, and reduced the levels of hepatic and plasma TG as well as plasma cholesterol in a CES1-dependent manner.
Hepatic CES1 plays a critical role in regulating both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and FXR-controlled lipid homeostasis.
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Gpbar1 (TGR5), a membrane-bound bile acid receptor, is well known for its roles in regulation of energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. TGR5 activation also inhibits nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)-mediated inflammation. Here we show that TGR5 deficiency enhances chemically induced liver carcinogenesis, and that TGR5 is a negative regulator of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling. Mice lacking TGR5 were much more susceptible to diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced acute liver injury and liver carcinogenesis than wildtype (WT) mice. Consistent with the increasing incidence of liver cancer in TGR5(-/-) mice, hepatocyte death, compensatory proliferation, and gene expression of certain inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases were more sensitive to DEN induction in the absence of TGR5 signaling. In vitro, TGR5 activation greatly inhibited proliferation and migration of human liver cancer cells. We then found that TGR5 activation strongly suppressed STAT3 signaling in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we observed that TGR5 antagonizes the STAT3 pathway through suppressing STAT3 phosphorylation, its transcription activity, and DNA binding activity, which suggests that TGR5 antagonizes liver tumorigenesis at least in part by inhibiting STAT3 signaling.
These findings identify TGR5 as a novel liver tumor suppressor that may serve as an attractive therapeutic tool for human liver cancer.
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Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and is the primary bile acid receptor. We previously showed that FXR was required for the promotion of liver regeneration/repair after physical resection or liver injury. However, the mechanism by which FXR promotes liver regeneration/repair is still unclear. Here we show that both hepatic-FXR and intestine-FXR contributed to promote liver regeneration/repair after either 70% partial hepatectomy or carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury. Hepatic FXR, but not intestine FXR, is required for the induction of Foxm1b gene expression in liver during liver regeneration/repair. In contrast, intestine FXR is activated to induce FGF15 expression in intestine after liver damage. Ectopic expression of FGF15 was able to rescue the defective liver regeneration/repair in intestine-specific FXR null mice.
These results demonstrate that, in addition to the cell-autonomous effect of hepatic FXR, the endocrine FGF15 pathway activated by FXR in intestine also participates in the promotion of liver regeneration/repair.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aberrant epigenetic alterations during development may result in long-term epigenetic memory and have a permanent effect on the health of subjects. Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a central regulator of drug/xenobiotic metabolism. Here, we report that transient neonatal activation of CAR results in epigenetic memory and a permanent change of liver drug metabolism. CAR activation by neonatal exposure to the CAR-specific ligand 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) led to persistently induced expression of the CAR target genes Cyp2B10 and Cyp2C37 throughout the life of exposed mice. These mice showed a permanent reduction in sensitivity to zoxazolamine treatment as adults. Compared with control groups, the induction of Cyp2B10 and Cyp2C37 in hepatocytes isolated from these mice was more sensitive to low concentrations of the CAR agonist TCPOBOP. Accordingly, neonatal activation of CAR led to a permanent increase of histone 3 lysine 4 mono-, di-, and trimethylation and decrease of H3K9 trimethylation within the Cyp2B10 locus. Transcriptional coactivator activating signal cointegrator-2 and histone demethylase JMJD2d participated in this CAR-dependent epigenetic switch. Conclusion: Neonatal activation of CAR results in epigenetic memory and a permanent change of liver drug metabolism. (HEPATOLOGY 2012).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) are a superfamily of NAD(P)H-linked oxidoreductases, which reduce aldehydes and ketones to their respective primary and secondary alcohols. AKR enzymes are increasingly being recognized to play an important role in the transformation and detoxification of aldehydes and ketones generated during drug detoxification and xenobiotic metabolism. Many transcription factors have been identified to regulate the expression of human AKR genes, which could have profound effects on the metabolism of endogenous mediators and detoxication of chemical carcinogens. This review summarizes the current knowledge on AKR regulation by transcription factors and other mediators in human diseases.
Frontiers in Pharmacology 03/2012; 3:35. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2012.00035 · 3.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is known to play important regulatory roles in bile acid, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism. Aged (>12 months old) Fxr(-/-) mice also develop spontaneous liver carcinomas. In this report, we used three mouse models to investigate the role of FXR deficiency in obesity. As compared with low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr) knockout (Ldlr(-/-)) mice, the Ldlr(-/-)Fxr(-/-) double-knockout mice were highly resistant to diet-induced obesity, which was associated with increased expression of genes involved in energy metabolism in the skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue. Such a striking effect of FXR deficiency on obesity on an Ldlr(-/-) background led us to investigate whether FXR deficiency alone is sufficient to affect obesity. As compared with wild-type mice, Fxr(-/-) mice showed resistance to diet-induced weight gain. Interestingly, only female Fxr(-/-) mice showed significant resistance to diet-induced obesity, which was accompanied by increased energy expenditure in these mice. Finally, we determined the effect of FXR deficiency on obesity in a genetically obese and diabetic mouse model. We generated ob(-/-)Fxr(-/-) mice that were deficient in both Leptin and Fxr. On a chow diet, ob(-/-)Fxr(-/-) mice gained less body weight and had reduced body fat mass as compared with ob/ob mice. In addition, we observed liver carcinomas in 43% of young (<11 months old) Ob(-/-)Fxr(-/-) mice. Together these data indicate that loss of FXR prevents diet-induced or genetic obesity and accelerates liver carcinogenesis under diabetic conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gpbar1 (TGR5), a membrane-bound bile acid receptor, is well known for its roles in regulation of energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. TGR5 also displays strong attenuation of macrophage reactivity in vitro, but the physiological roles of TGR5 in inflammatory response, and its mechanism, is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that TGR5 is a negative modulator of nuclear factor kappa light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-mediated inflammation. TGR5 activation suppresses the phosphorylation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα), the translocation of p65, NF-κB DNA-binding activity, and its transcription activity. Furthermore, TGR5 activation enhances the interaction of IκBα and β-arrestin2. Suppression of NF-κB transcription activity and its target gene expression by TGR5 agonist are specifically abolished by the expression of anti-β-arrestin2 small interfering RNA. These results show that TGR5 suppresses the NF-κB pathway by mediation of the interaction between IκBα and β-arrestin2. In a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation model, TGR5(-/-) mice show more severe liver necroses and inflammation, compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Activation of TGR5 by its agonist ligand inhibits the expression of inflammatory mediators in response to NF-κB activation induced by LPS in WT, but not TGR5(-/-), mouse liver. CONCLUSION: These findings identify TGR5 as a negative mediator of inflammation that may serve as an attractive therapeutic tool for immune and inflammatory liver diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies indicate that bile acids (BAs) promote normal liver regeneration and repair after injury. However, the impact of insufficient BA signaling, which is observed in patients with BA sequestrant medication or cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) disease, on liver injury is still unknown. Our aim is to determine the outcomes of reduced BA levels upon liver injury.
Seventy percent partial hepatectomy (PH) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) treatment were performed using CYP27(-/-) mice, a genetic animal model with low BA levels. The liver repair of CYP27(-/-) mice after the treatments was characterized by histological staining, chemical analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR.
CYP27(-/-) mice exhibited enhanced CCl(4)-induce liver injury, and defective liver regeneration and prolonged steatosis after 70% PH. Due to the insufficient BA signaling, farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activities were significantly reduced in CYP27(-/-) livers after 70% PH. Activation of FXR by either 0.2% cholic acid feeding or oral infusion of an FXR agonist greatly promoted liver regeneration in CYP27(-/-) mice.
Normal physiological levels of BAs are required for liver repair. Patients with BA sequestrant medications or CTX disease due to CYP27 gene mutations may have an increased risk of liver failure, and treatment with FXR ligands can promote liver regeneration of patients with low BA levels.
Journal of Hepatology 02/2011; 55(4):885-95. DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2010.12.037 · 11.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The liver can fully regenerate itself by a compensatory regrowth in response to partial hepatectomy or injury. This process consists of a variety of well-orchestrated phases and is mediated by many signals. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. Bile acids are FXR physiological ligands. As a metabolic regulator, FXR plays key roles in regulating metabolism of bile acids, lipids and glucose. Recently, bile acid/FXR signaling pathway is shown to be required for normal liver regeneration. Furthermore, FXR promotes liver repair after injury and activation of FXR is able to alleviate age-related defective liver regeneration. These novel findings suggest that FXR-mediated bile acid signaling is an integrated component of normal liver regeneration machinery, and also highlight the potential use of FXR ligands to promote liver regeneration after segmental liver transplantation or resection of liver tumors. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translating nuclear receptors from health to disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elucidating the mechanism of liver regeneration could lead to life-saving therapy for a large number of patients, especially elderly patients, after segmental liver transplantation or resection of liver tumors. The forkhead box m1b (Foxm1b) transcription factor is required for normal liver regeneration. Here we report that Foxm1b is the first direct farnesoid X receptor (FXR) target gene known to be involved in cell cycle regulation and that aging regenerating livers have delayed activation of FXR, which results in defective induction of Foxm1b and thereby contributes to defective liver regeneration. An inverted repeat 0 (IR-0) FXR response element, acting as an enhancer in intron 3 of the Foxm1b gene, was identified by a combination of transcriptional reporter, electrophoretic mobility shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Diminished FXR binding to the IR-0 element was found in aging regenerating livers. FXR activation by a novel ligand in aging livers induced Foxm1b expression and elevated hepatocyte DNA replication to about 70% of the levels found in young regenerating livers, which were specifically suppressed by hepatic expression of anti-Foxm1b short hairpin RNA. Conclusion: Our results have revealed Foxm1b as the first known direct FXR target gene involved in cell cycle regulation and have demonstrated that defective activation of FXR could be an intrinsic defect in aging regenerating livers. Activation of FXR alone is largely able to alleviate age-related liver regeneration defects. These findings highlight FXR as a potential target of drug design for promoting liver regeneration in older subjects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear receptor that plays key roles in hepatoprotection by maintaining the homeostasis of liver metabolism. FXR null mice display strong hepatic inflammation and develop spontaneous liver tumors. In this report, we demonstrate that FXR is a negative modulator of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB)-mediated hepatic inflammation. Activation of FXR by its agonist ligands inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators in response to NF-kappaB activation in both HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes cultured in vitro. In vivo, compared with wild-type controls, FXR(-/-) mice displayed elevated messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interferon-inducible protein 10, and interferon-gamma in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Examination of FXR(-/-) livers showed massive necroses and inflammation after treatment with LPS at a dose that does not induce significant liver damage or inflammation in wild-type mice. Moreover, transfection of a constitutively active FXR expression construct repressed the iNOS, COX-2, interferon-inducible protein 10 and interferon-gamma mRNA levels induced by LPS administration. FXR activation had no negative effects on NF-kappaB-activated antiapoptotic genes, suggesting that FXR selectively inhibits the NF-kappaB-mediated hepatic inflammatory response but maintains or even enhances the cell survival response. On the other hand, NF-kappaB activation suppressed FXR-mediated gene expression both in vitro and in vivo, indicating a negative crosstalk between the FXR and NF-kappaB signaling pathways. Our findings reveal that FXR is a negative mediator of hepatic inflammation, which may contribute to the critical roles of FXR in hepatoprotection and suppression of hepatocarcinogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. As a metabolic regulator, FXR plays key roles in bile acid, cholesterol, lipid, and glucose metabolism. Therefore, FXR is a potential drug target for a number of metabolic disorders, especially those related to the metabolic syndrome. More recently, our group and others have extended the functions of FXR to more than metabolic regulation, which include anti-bacterial growth in intestine, liver regeneration, and hepatocarcinogenesis. These new findings suggest that FXR has much broader roles than previously thought, and also highlight FXR as a drug target for multiple diseases. This review summarizes the basic information of FXR but focuses on its new functions.
Cell Research 10/2008; 18(11):1087-95. DOI:10.1038/cr.2008.289 · 12.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a key metabolic regulator in the liver by maintaining the homeostasis of liver metabolites. Recent findings suggest that FXR may have a much broader function in liver physiology and pathology. In the present work, we identify a novel role of FXR in protecting liver cell from apoptosis induced by nutritional withdrawal including serum deprivation in vitro or starvation in vivo. Two FXR ligands, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and GW4064, rescued HepG2 cells from serum deprivation-induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. This effect of FXR on apoptotic suppression was compromised when FXR was knocked down by short interfering RNA. Similarly, the effects of both CDCA and GW4064 were abolished after inhibition of the MAPK pathway by a specific inhibitor of MAPK kinase 1/2. Immunoblotting results indicated that FXR activation by CDCA and GW4064 induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which was attenuated by serum deprivation. In vivo, FXR(-/-) mice exhibited an exacerbated liver apoptosis and lower levels of phosphorylated-ERK1/2 compared to wild-type mice after starvation. In conclusion, our results suggest a novel role of FXR in modulating liver cell apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Great progress has been made in the understanding of the physiological roles of the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) during the last several years. Roles for FXR were initially identified in the regulation of bile acid, cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose metabolism. More recently, our group has identified additional functional roles of FXR. Specifically, we have shown that FXR regulates normal liver regeneration and plays a protective role in liver carcinogenesis. These exciting findings suggest that FXR has a broader role than previously thought, and also highlight potential new opportunities for using FXR as a drug target for different diseases. Here we summarize the latest results from studies on FXR response elements, target genes and functions in different diseases.
Histology and histopathology 06/2008; 23(5):621-7. · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ion-exchange equilibrium of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to an anion exchanger, DEAE Spherodex M, has been studied by batch adsorption experiments at pH values ranging from 5.26 to 7.6 and ionic strengths from 10 to 117.1 mmol/l. Using the unadjustable adsorption equilibrium parameters obtained from batch experiments, the applicability of the steric mass-action (SMA) model was analyzed for describing protein ion-exchange equilibrium in different buffer systems. The parametric sensitivity analysis was performed by perturbing each of the model parameters, while holding the rest constant. The simulation results showed that, at high salt concentrations or low pHs close to the isoelectric point of the protein, the precision of the model prediction decreased. Parametric sensitivity analysis showed that the characteristic charge and protein steric factor had the largest effects on ion-exchange equilibrium, while the effect of equilibrium constant was about 70%–95% smaller than those of characteristic charge and steric factor under all conditions investigated. The SMA model with the relationship between the adjusted characteristic charge and the salt concentration can well predict the protein adsorption isotherms in a wide pH range from 5.84 to 7.6. It is considered that the SMA model could be further improved by taking into account the effect of salt concentration on the intermolecular interactions of proteins.
Chemical Engineering Science 11/2006; 61(21-61):7068-7076. DOI:10.1016/j.ces.2006.07.036 · 2.34 Impact Factor