Marques A

Hospital de Sant Joan Despí Moisès Broggi, Juan del Puerto, Andalusia, Spain

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Publications (16)51.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: SEIMC) para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la gripe A/H1N1 en pacientes adultos graves hospitalizados en las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos
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    ABSTRACT: SEIMC) para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la gripe A/H1N1 en pacientes adultos graves hospitalizados en las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos
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    ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of influenza A/H1N1 is mainly clinical, particularly during peak or seasonal flu outbreaks. A diagnostic test should be performed in all patients with fever and flu symptoms that require hospitalization. The respiratory sample (nasal or pharyngeal exudate or deeper sample in intubated patients) should be obtained as soon as possible, with the immediate start of empirical antiviral treatment. Molecular methods based on nucleic acid amplification techniques (RT-PCR) are the gold standard for the diagnosis of influenza A/H1N1. Immunochromatographic methods have low sensitivity; a negative result therefore does not rule out active infection. Classical culture is slow and has low sensitivity. Direct immunofluorescence offers a sensitivity of 90%, but requires a sample of high quality. Indirect methods for detecting antibodies are only of epidemiological interest. Patients with A/H1N1 flu may have relative leukopenia and elevated serum levels of LDH, CPK and CRP, but none of these variables are independently associated to the prognosis. However, plasma LDH> 1500 IU/L, and the presence of thrombocytopenia <150 x 10(9)/L, could define a patient population at risk of suffering serious complications. Antiviral administration (oseltamivir) should start early (<48 h from the onset of symptoms), with a dose of 75 mg every 12h, and with a duration of at least 7 days or until clinical improvement is observed. Early antiviral administration is associated to improved survival in critically ill patients. New antiviral drugs, especially those formulated for intravenous administration, may be the best choice in future epidemics. Patients with a high suspicion of influenza A/H1N1 infection must continue with antiviral treatment, regardless of the negative results of initial tests, unless an alternative diagnosis can be established or clinical criteria suggest a low probability of influenza. In patients with influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia, empirical antibiotic therapy should be provided due to the possibility of bacterial coinfection. A beta-lactam plus a macrolide should be administered as soon as possible. The microbiological findings and clinical or laboratory test variables may decide withdrawal or not of antibiotic treatment. Pneumococcal vaccination is recommended as a preventive measure in the population at risk of suffering severe complications. Although the use of moderate- or low-dose corticosteroids has been proposed for the treatment of influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia, the existing scientific evidence is not sufficient to recommend the use of corticosteroids in these patients. The treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with influenza A/H1N1 must be based on the use of a protective ventilatory strategy (tidal volume <10 ml / kg and plateau pressure <35 mmHg) and positive end-expiratory pressure set to high patient lung mechanics, combined with the use of prone ventilation, muscle relaxation and recruitment maneuvers. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation cannot be considered a technique of choice in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, though it may be useful in experienced centers and in cases of respiratory failure associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation or heart failure. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a rescue technique in refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome due to influenza A/H1N1 infection. The scientific evidence is weak, however, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is not the technique of choice. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation will be advisable if all other options have failed to improve oxygenation. The centralization of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in referral hospitals is recommended. Clinical findings show 50-60% survival rates in patients treated with this technique. Cardiovascular complications of influenza A/H1N1 are common. Such problems may appear due to the deterioration of pre-existing cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, ischemic heart disease and right ventricular dysfunction. Early diagnosis and adequate monitoring allow the start of effective treatment, and in severe cases help decide the use of circulatory support systems. Influenza vaccination is recommended for all patients at risk. This indication in turn could be extended to all subjects over 6 months of age, unless contraindicated. Children should receive two doses (one per month). Immunocompromised patients and the population at risk should receive one dose and another dose annually. The frequency of adverse effects of the vaccine against A/H1N1 flu is similar to that of seasonal flu. Chemoprophylaxis must always be considered a supplement to vaccination, and is indicated in people at high risk of complications, as well in healthcare personnel who have been exposed.
    Medicina Intensiva 03/2012; 36(2):103-37. · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the first pandemic, some patients with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza were treated with corticosteroids. The objective of this study was to assess the effect on survival of corticosteroid therapy in patients with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza. Prospective, observational, multicenter study performed in 148 ICU. Data were recorded in the GTEI/SEMICYUC registry. Adult patients with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza confirmed by rt-PCR were included in the analysis. Database records specified corticosteroid type and reason for corticosteroid treatment. 372 patients with the diagnosis of primary viral pneumonia and completed outcomes treated in an ICU were included in the database. Mechanical ventilation was used in 70.2% of the patients. 136 (36.6%) patients received corticosteroids after a diagnosis of primary viral pneumonia. Obesity (35.6% vs 47.8% p = 0.021) and asthma (7.6% vs 15.4% p = 0.018), were more frequent in the group treated with corticosteroids. A Cox regression analysis adjusted for severity and potential confounding factors found that the use of corticosteroid therapy was not significantly associated with mortality (HR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.626-1.801; p = 0.825). Corticosteroid therapy in a selected group of patients with primary viral pneumonia due to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza does not improve survival.
    The Journal of infection 03/2012; 64(3):311-8. · 4.13 Impact Factor
  • Medicina Intensiva 03/2012; 36(2):103–137. · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: The role of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in acute respiratory failure caused by viral pneumonia remains controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the use of NIV in a cohort of (H1N1)v pneumonia. Usefulness and success of NIV were assessed in a prospective, observational registry of patients with influenza A (H1N1) virus pneumonia in 148 Spanish intensive care units (ICUs) in 2009-10. Significant variables for NIV success were included in a multivariate analysis. In all, 685 patients with confirmed influenza A (H1N1)v viral pneumonia were admitted to participating ICUs; 489 were ventilated, 177 with NIV. The NIV was successful in 72 patients (40.7%), the rest required intubation. Low Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, low Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and absence of renal failure were associated with NIV success. Success of NIV was independently associated with fewer than two chest X-ray quadrant opacities (OR 3.5) and no vasopressor requirement (OR 8.1). However, among patients with two or more quadrant opacities, a SOFA score ≤7 presented a higher success rate than those with SOFA score >7 (OR 10.7). Patients in whom NIV was successful required shorter ventilation time, shorter ICU stay and hospital stay than NIV failure. In patients in whom NIV failed, the delay in intubation did not increase mortality (26.5% versus 24.2%). Clinicians used NIV in 25.8% of influenza A (H1N1)v viral pneumonia admitted to ICU, and treatment was effective in 40.6% of them. NIV success was associated with shorter hospital stay and mortality similar to non-ventilated patients. NIV failure was associated with a mortality similar to those who were intubated from the start.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 02/2012; · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a vast amount of information published regarding the impact of 2009 pandemic Influenza A (pH1N1) virus infection. However, a comparison of risk factors and outcome during the 2010-2011 post-pandemic period has not been described. A prospective, observational, multi-center study was carried out to evaluate the clinical characteristics and demographics of patients with positive RT-PCR for H1N1 admitted to 148 Spanish intensive care units (ICUs). Data were obtained from the 2009 pandemic and compared to the 2010-2011 post-pandemic period. Nine hundred and ninety-seven patients with confirmed An/H1N1 infection were included. Six hundred and forty-eight patients affected by 2009 (pH1N1) virus infection and 349 patients affected by the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period were analyzed. Patients during the post-pandemic period were older, had more chronic comorbid conditions and presented with higher severity scores (Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA)) on ICU admission. Patients from the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period received empiric antiviral treatment less frequently and with delayed administration. Mortality was significantly higher in the post-pandemic period. Multivariate analysis confirmed that haematological disease, invasive mechanical ventilation and continuous renal replacement therapy were factors independently associated with worse outcome in the two periods. HIV was the only new variable independently associated with higher ICU mortality during the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period. Patients from the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period had an unexpectedly higher mortality rate and showed a trend towards affecting a more vulnerable population, in keeping with more typical seasonal viral infection.
    Critical care (London, England) 11/2011; 15(6):R286. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the 2009 influenza pandemic, several reports were published, nevertheless, data on the clinical profiles of critically ill patients with the new virus infection during this second outbreak are still lacking. MATERIAL METHODS: Prospective, observational, multi-center study conducted in 148 Spanish intensive care units (ICU) during epidemiological weeks 50-52 of 2010 and weeks 1 - 4 of 2011. Three hundred patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with confirmed An/H1N1 infection were analyzed. The median age was 49 years [IQR=38-58] and 62% were male. The mean APACHE II score was 16.9 ± 7.5 and the mean SOFA score was 6.3 ± 3.5 on admission. Comorbidities were present in 76% (n=228) of cases and 111 (37.4%) patients were reportedly obese and 59 (20%) were COPD. The main presentation was viral pneumonia with severe hypoxemia in 65.7% (n=197) of the patients whereas co-infection was identified in 54 (18%) patients. All patients received antiviral treatment and initiated empirically in 194 patients (65.3%), however only 53 patients (17.6%) received early antiviral treatment. Vaccination was only administered in 22 (7.3%) patients. Sixty-seven of 200 patients with ICU discharge died. Haematological disease, severity of illness, infiltrates in chest X-ray and need for mechanical ventilation were variables independently associated with ICU mortality. In patients admitted to the ICU in the post-pandemic seasonal influenza outbreak vaccination was poorly implemented and appear to have higher frequency of severe comorbidities, severity of illness, incidence of primary viral pneumonia and increased mortality when compared with those observed in the 2009 pandemic outbreak.
    Medicina Intensiva 05/2011; 35(4):208-16. · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A large proportion of patients infected with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) (A[H1N1]) are obese. Obesity has been proposed as a risk factor influencing outcome in these patients. However, its role remains unclear. We evaluate the outcome of patients who are obese and infected with A(H1N1) in the ICU, determining whether obesity is a risk factor for mortality. This was a prospective, observational, and multicenter study performed in 144 ICUs in Spain. Data were obtained from the Grupo de Trabajo en Enfermedades Infecciosas de la Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva, Crítica y Unidades Coronarias (GTEI/SEMICYUC) registry. Adult patients with A(H1N1) that was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction were included in the analysis. Patients who were obese (BMI > 30) were compared with patients who were nonobese. Cox regression analysis was used to determine adjusted mortality. Differences of P < .05 were considered significant. In January 2010, the GTEI/SEMICYUC registry had complete records for 416 patients. One hundred and fifty patients (36.1%) were obese, of whom 67 (44.7%) were morbidly obese (BMI > 40). Mechanical ventilation (MV) was more frequently applied in patients who were obese (64% vs 52.4%, P < .01) Patients with obesity remained on MV longer than patients who were nonobese (6.5 ± 10.3 days vs 9.3 ± 9.7 days, P = .02), had longer ICU length of stay (10.8 ± 12.1 days vs 13.7 ± 11.7 days, P = .03), and had longer hospitalization (18.2 ± 14.6 days vs 22.2 ± 16.5 days, P = .02). Mortality adjusted by severity and potential confounders identified that obesity was not significantly associated with ICU mortality (hazard ratio, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.69-1.75; P = .68). In our cohort, patients who were obese and infected with A(H1N1) did not have increased mortality. However, there was an association between obesity and higher ICU resource consumption.
    Chest 02/2011; 139(2):382-6. · 7.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little information exists about the impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients with the pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. We conducted a prospective, observational, multicenter study in 148 Spanish intensive care units (ICUs). Patients with chronic renal failure were excluded. AKI was defined according to Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. A total of 661 patients were analyzed. One hundred eighteen (17.7%) patients developed AKI; of these, 37 (31.4%) of the patients with AKI were classified as AKI I, 15 (12.7%) were classified as AKI II and 66 (55.9%) were classified as AKI III, among the latter of whom 50 (75.7%) required continuous renal replacement therapy. Patients with AKI had a higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (19.2 ± 8.3 versus 12.6 ± 5.9; P < 0.001), a higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (8.7 ± 4.2 versus 4.8 ± 2.9; P < 0.001), more need for mechanical ventilation (MV) (87.3% versus 56.2%; P < 0.01, odds ratio (OR) 5.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0 to 9.4), a greater incidence of shock (75.4% versus 38.3%; P < 0.01, OR 4.9, 95% CI, 3.1 to 7.7), a greater incidence of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (92.4% versus 54.7%; P < 0.01, OR 10.0, 95% CI, 4.9 to 20.21) and a greater incidence of coinfection (23.7% versus 14.4%; P < 0.01, OR 1.8, 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.0). In survivors, patients with AKI remained on MV longer and ICU and hospital length of stay were longer than in patients without AKI. The overall mortality was 18.8% and was significantly higher for AKI patients (44.1% versus 13.3%; P < 0.01, OR 5.1, 95% CI, 3.3 to 7.9). Logistic regression analysis was performed with AKIN criteria, and it demonstrated that among patients with AKI, only AKI III was independently associated with higher ICU mortality (P < 0.001, OR 4.81, 95% CI 2.17 to 10.62). In our cohort of patients with H1N1 virus infection, only those cases in the AKI III category were independently associated with mortality.
    Critical care (London, England) 02/2011; 15(1):R66. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background and objective: The impact of pandemic influenza A (H1N1)v infection is still unknown but it is associated with a high case-fatality rate. Methods: This was a prospective, observational, multicentre study conducted in 144 Spanish intensive care units. Demographic and clinical data were reviewed for all cases of pandemic influenza A (H1N1)v infection reported from 23 June 2009 through 11 February 2010 and confirmed by reverse transcriptase PCR assay. Results: Out of 872 cases reported by statewide surveillance, data for the first 131 deceased patients were analysed. Thirty-seven patients (28.2%) died within the first 14 days. The median age of these patients was 46 years (interquartile range 35–58) and 60.3% were male. Twenty-eight patients (21.4%) did not present with any comorbidities on admission. Forty-six per cent of patients were reported to be obese and 22 (16.8%) had COPD. The vast majority of the patients (72.5%) had viral pneumonia; 95.4% of these had bilateral patchy alveolar opacities (predominantly basal), affecting three or four quadrants. One hundred and fifteen patients (87.8%) developed multi-organ dysfunction syndrome. Ninety-seven patients (74%) required vasopressor drugs, 37 (27.2%) received renal replacement therapy, and 47 (35.1%) received intravenous corticosteroids on admission to the intensive care unit. Only 68 patients (51.9%) received empirical antiviral treatment. Conclusions: One-third of patients with pandemic influenza A (H1N1)v infection died within the first two weeks and these were young patients, with rapidly progressive viral pneumonia as the primary cause of admission. Obese patients were at high risk but one in four patients did not present with any risk factors on admission. Only half the patients received empirical antiviral therapy and this was administered late.
    Respirology 01/2011; 16(1). · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the severity of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1v illness among pregnant women admitted to Spanish intensive care units. Prospective, observational, multicenter study conducted in 148 Spanish intensive care units. We reviewed demographic and clinical data from the Spanish Society of Intensive Care Medicine database reported from April 23, 2009, to February 15, 2010. We included women of reproductive age (15-44 yrs) with confirmed A/H1N1v infection admitted to intensive care units. Two hundred thirty-four women of reproductive age were admitted to intensive care units, 50 (21.4%) of them pregnant. Seven deaths were recorded in pregnant and 22 in nonpregnant women. Among intensive care unit admissions, there were no statistically significant differences between pregnant women and nonpregnant in Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores, chest x-rays, inotrope requirement, or need for mechanical ventilation or steroid therapy. Mortality risk was significantly associated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, and obesity. Viral pneumonia was more frequent in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women, with an odds ratio (adjusted for asthma, time from onset influenza symptoms to hospital admission and obesity) of 4.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.4-17.2). The development of primary viral pneumonia in women of reproductive age appeared to be related to the time of commencement of antiviral treatment, the lowest rates being reported with initiation of antiviral therapy within 48 hrs of symptom onset (63.6% vs. 82.6%, p = .03). However, antiviral therapy was started within this time span in only 14% of pregnant women. More than 20% of women of reproductive age admitted to intensive care unit for pH1N1 infection were pregnant. Pregnancy was significantly associated with primary viral pneumonia. Pregnant women should receive prompt treatment with oseltamivir within 48 hrs of the onset of influenza symptoms.
    Critical care medicine 01/2011; 39(5):945-51. · 6.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of oseltamivir on mortality in critically ill patients with 2009 pandemic influenza A (2009 H1N1) is not clear. The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the timing of antiviral administration and intensive care unit (ICU) outcomes. Prospective, observational study of a cohort of ICU patients with confirmed 2009 H1N1 infection. Clinical data, treatment and outcome were compared between patients receiving early treatment (ET) with oseltamivir, initiated within 2 days, and patients administered late treatment (LT), initiated after this timepoint. Multivariate analysis and propensity score were used to determine the effect of oseltamivir on ICU mortality. Six hundred and fifty-seven patients were enrolled. Four hundred and four (61.5%) patients required mechanical ventilation (MV; mortality 32.6%). Among them, 385 received effective antiviral therapy and were included in the study group. All patients received oseltamivir for a median duration of 10 days (interquartile range 8-14 days). Seventy-nine (20.5%) ET patients were compared with 306 LT patients. The two groups were comparable in terms of main clinical variables. ICU length of stay (22.7 ± 16.7 versus 18.4 ± 14.2 days; P = 0.03), hospital length of stay (34.0 ± 20.3 versus 27.2 ± 18.2 days; P = 0.001) and MV days (17.4 ± 15.2 versus 14.0 ± 12.4; P = 0.04) were higher in the LT group. ICU mortality was also higher in LT (34.3%) than in ET (21.5%; OR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.06-3.41). A multivariate model identified ET (OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.21-0.87) as an independent variable associated with reduced ICU mortality. These results were confirmed by propensity score analysis (OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.22-0.90; P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that early oseltamivir administration was associated with favourable outcomes among critically ill ventilated patients with 2009 H1N1 virus infection.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 01/2011; 66(5):1140-9. · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of pandemic influenza A (H1N1)v infection is still unknown but it is associated with a high case-fatality rate. This was a prospective, observational, multicentre study conducted in 144 Spanish intensive care units. Demographic and clinical data were reviewed for all cases of pandemic influenza A (H1N1)v infection reported from 23 June 2009 through 11 February 2010 and confirmed by reverse transcriptase PCR assay. Out of 872 cases reported by statewide surveillance, data for the first 131 deceased patients were analysed. Thirty-seven patients (28.2%) died within the first 14 days. The median age of these patients was 46 years (interquartile range 35-58) and 60.3% were male. Twenty-eight patients (21.4%) did not present with any comorbidities on admission. Forty-six per cent of patients were reported to be obese and 22 (16.8%) had COPD. The vast majority of the patients (72.5%) had viral pneumonia; 95.4% of these had bilateral patchy alveolar opacities (predominantly basal), affecting three or four quadrants. One hundred and fifteen patients (87.8%) developed multi-organ dysfunction syndrome. Ninety-seven patients (74%) required vasopressor drugs, 37 (27.2%) received renal replacement therapy, and 47 (35.1%) received intravenous corticosteroids on admission to the intensive care unit. Only 68 patients (51.9%) received empirical antiviral treatment. One-third of patients with pandemic influenza A (H1N1)v infection died within the first two weeks and these were young patients, with rapidly progressive viral pneumonia as the primary cause of admission. Obese patients were at high risk but one in four patients did not present with any risk factors on admission. Only half the patients received empirical antiviral therapy and this was administered late.
    Respirology 10/2010; 16(1):78-85. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with influenza A (H1N1)v infection have developed rapidly progressive lower respiratory tract disease resulting in respiratory failure. We describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of the first 32 persons reported to be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) due to influenza A (H1N1)v infection in Spain. We used medical chart reviews to collect data on ICU adult patients reported in a standardized form. Influenza A (H1N1)v infection was confirmed in specimens using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT PCR) assay. Illness onset of the 32 patients occurred between 23 June and 31 July, 2009. The median age was 36 years (IQR = 31 - 52). Ten (31.2%) were obese, 2 (6.3%) pregnant and 16 (50%) had pre-existing medical complications. Twenty-nine (90.6%) had primary viral pneumonitis, 2 (6.3%) exacerbation of structural respiratory disease and 1 (3.1%) secondary bacterial pneumonia. Twenty-four patients (75.0%) developed multiorgan dysfunction, 7 (21.9%) received renal replacement techniques and 24 (75.0%) required mechanical ventilation. Six patients died within 28 days, with two additional late deaths. Oseltamivir administration delay ranged from 2 to 8 days after illness onset, 31.2% received high-dose (300 mg/day), and treatment duration ranged from 5 to 10 days (mean 8.0 +/- 3.3). Over a 5-week period, influenza A (H1N1)v infection led to ICU admission in 32 adult patients, with frequently observed severe hypoxemia and a relatively high case-fatality rate. Clinicians should be aware of pulmonary complications of influenza A (H1N1)v infection, particularly in pregnant and young obese but previously healthy persons.
    Critical care (London, England) 09/2009; 13(5):R148. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    Chest. 139(3):555-562.

Publication Stats

317 Citations
51.24 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • Hospital de Sant Joan Despí Moisès Broggi
      Juan del Puerto, Andalusia, Spain
  • 2011–2012
    • Hospital Universitario de La Ribera
      Alcira, Valencia, Spain
    • Hospital Virgen del Camino
      Cádiz, Andalusia, Spain
    • Hospital Universitari Joan XXIII de Tarragona
      Tarraco, Catalonia, Spain