[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the incidence of acute histologically proven rejection in children who have had a liver transplant for hepatoblastoma with a control group of children transplanted for biliary atresia (EHBA). A retrospective case notes based study was performed. Twenty patients were identified with hepatoblastoma who were transplanted at a single unit between 1991 and 2008. These were matched as closely as possible for age, gender, year of transplant and type of immunosuppression used to the control group transplanted for biliary atresia (n = 60). There was a significant decrease in rate of acute rejection as assessed by the rejection activity index (RAI) in the hepatoblastoma group (75% vs. 50%, respectively, p < 0.04). Chronic rejection was rare in both groups, but twice as common in the biliary atresia group. Equal levels of immunosuppression were achieved in both groups. Renal function was noted to be reduced one yr post-transplant in both groups, as previously reported. A modified immunosuppression regimen could be considered in children with hepatoblastoma undergoing liver transplantation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following paediatric SBMT, size discrepancy between the recipient's abdomen and the graft may lead to ACS, graft dysfunction, and death. We report our experience with SAC in these patients. Between 04/1993 and 03/2009, 57 children underwent 62 SBMTs. When abdominal wall tension seemed excessive for safe PAC, SAC was performed, using a Silastic® sheet and a vacuum occlusive dressing. Transplantations with SAC (23 combined liver and small bowel [CLB]) were compared with those with PAC [14 ISB and 25 CLB]. Indications for transplantation, preoperative status (after stratification for ISB/CLB transplants), age at transplantation, donor-to-recipient weight ratio, reduction in bowel and/or liver, and incidence of wound complications were not different in both groups. Post-operative intubation, stay in intensive care unit, and hospital stay were prolonged after SAC. Two deaths were related to ACS after PAC, none after SAC. Since 2000, one-yr patient survival is 73% after ISB transplantation and 57% vs. 75% after CLB transplantation with PAC vs. SAC, respectively (NS). SAC safely reduces severe ACS after paediatric SBMT and can be combined with graft reduction for transplantation of small recipients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early liver transplant (LT) has been advocated for patients with cystic fibrosis liver disease (CFLD) and evidence of deterioration in nutritional state and respiratory function to prevent further decline. However, the impact of single LT on long-term respiratory function and nutritional status has not been adequately addressed. We performed a retrospective analysis of the outcomes of 40 (21 adult/19 pediatric) patients with CFLD transplanted between 1987 and 2009 with median follow-up of 47.8 months (range 4-180). One and five-year actuarial survival rates were 85%/64% for adult and 90%/85% for pediatric LT cohorts, respectively. Lung function remained stable until 4 years (FEV(1) % predicted; pretransplant 48.4% vs. 45.9%, 4 years posttransplant) but declined by 5 years (42.4%). Up to 4 years posttransplant mean annual decline in FEV(1) % was lower (0.74%; p = 0.04) compared with the predicted 3% annual decline in CF patients with comorbidity including diabetes. Number of courses of intravenous antibiotics was reduced following LT, from 3.9/year pretransplant to 1.1/year, 5 years posttransplant. Body mass index was preserved posttransplant; 18.0 kg/m(2) (range 15-24.3) pretransplant versus 19.6 kg/m(2) (range 16.4-22.7) 5 years posttransplant. In conclusion, LT is an effective treatment for selected patients with cirrhosis due to CFLD, stabilizing aspects of long-term lung function and preserving nutritional status.
American Journal of Transplantation 01/2012; 12(4):954-64. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the epidemiological characteristics of infants with biliary atresia in England and Wales, since centralisation of its management in 1999.
The care of infants with biliary atresia (BA) in England and Wales is centralised to only three centres. All infants (treated from January 1999 to December 2006) were identified from a prospective national database; demographic details were ascertained from medical records and compared between two groups based on presumed aetiology (isolated biliary atresia (IBA) and developmental biliary atresia (DBA) (for example, syndromic infants, biliary atresia splenic malformation, cystic biliary atresia)).
There were 302 (133 male (44%)) infants with BA that could be divided into IBA (n = 219, 73%) and DBA (n = 76, 25%). The overall incidence was 0.58/10 000 (1 in 17,049) live births with marked regional differences along a north-west/south-east axis varying from 0.38 (north-west England) to 0.78 (south-east England)/10,000 live births (OR 2.05 (95% CI 1.26-3.41); p = 0.002). The commonest month of birth was September with December being the least common, although there was no evidence for significant seasonal variation (p = 0.2). Infants with DBA were more likely to be female (p<0.001), of white background (p = 0.01), first-born (p = 0.04) and to be formula-fed (p = 0.07). Infants of south Asian origin came to surgery at an older age (59 (IQ 45-75) versus 52 (IQ 42-65) days; p = 0.03).
There is a remarkable variation of incidence of biliary atresia within England and Wales, some of which may have been caused by factors related to a different aetiological and racial background.
Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition 06/2009; 94(6):F451-5. · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 3-yr-old girl developed severe progressive juvenile laryngeal papillomatosis (JLP) 2 yr after liver transplantation (Tx) for biliary atresia. The papillomata were resistant to withdrawal of immunosuppression, to laser surgery, and to subcutaneous interferon (3 MU/m2, three times weekly), necessitating tracheostomy. Oral ribavirin therapy (25 mg/kg/day) in combination with no immunosuppression effectively prevented the rapid recurrence of JLP over 5 yr. Hence, oral ribavirin is a potentially useful therapy in this life-threatening situation and may also be of benefit in other children with severe JLP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The emergence and spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) has presented serious therapeutic difficulties because of the lack of reliably active antibiotics. Quinupristin/dalfopristin is a new injectable streptogramin antibiotic that is active against most strains of VREF. Experience with this agent in adults with VREF infections is well-documented; however, there are few reports of its use in children. We report on eight children with VREF infections who received quinupristin/dalfopristin under a compassionate use protocol.
Quinupristin/dalfopristin was administered according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Clinical and laboratory data were recorded for each patient.
The infections treated comprised six cases of bacteremia and two of peritonitis. All patients had serious underlying conditions. Seven patients recovered fully. One patient died, having experienced a relapse of his infection after quinupristin/dalfopristin was discontinued. None of the patients experienced side effects or other adverse events.
Quinupristin/dalfopristin was well-tolerated and generally effective in children with infections caused by VREF. There is increasing evidence that it may be more effective than other currently available antibiotics in some such patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complete surgical resection after chemotherapy is the definitive treatment for hepatoblastoma. However, orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is now accepted as a treatment modality for patients with unresectable tumours. The aim of this study was to review a single center's experience of OLT for unresectable hepatoblastoma.
A retrospective review of 8 patients with unresectable hepatoblastoma who were referred for liver transplantation was conducted.
The patients assessed had an age range of 5 to 105 months at presentation; median, 24 months, (5 boys; 3 girls). Two patients have familial adenomatous polyposis, and one has right hemihypertrophy. All 8 patients had received standard chemotherapy according to SIOP (International Society of Pediatric Oncology) protocols. Extrahepatic metastases were found in 3 patients at diagnosis, but none had detectable metastases at the time of OLT. Four patients continued chemotherapy while awaiting OLT. Three patients received whole grafts, and 5 received reduced grafts. The median follow-up period was 22 months (range, 2 to 78 months). Five patients are alive and well, although 1 patient had a second OLT for biliary cirrhosis secondary to biliary stricture at 6 years. Three patients died: one 26 days post OLT of sepsis and two of disease recurrence at 22 months and 70 months posttransplant. The actuarial survival rate is 88% and 65% at 1 and 5 years, respectively, whereas the overall survival rate is 62.5%.
OLT for unresectable hepatoblastoma without extra hepatic metastases is highly successful with a low recurrence rate.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery 09/1999; 34(8):1261-4. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a life-saving procedure for end-stage liver failure. We reviewed 39 children (24 girls, 15 boys) who received OLT for biliary atresia from 1987 to 1991. Twenty had unsuccessful portoenterostomy, 6 were referred too late for a drainage operation, and the remaining 13 achieved bile drainage but developed portal hypertension. At transplant 37 had decompensated liver disease with varices (28), ascites (24), encephalopathy (17), and gastrointestinal bleeding (12). The median weight and age at transplant were 8 kg and 12.6 months, respectively. The median waiting time was 65 days. Forty-eight grafts (30 reduced and 18 whole) were performed; graft loss was 33% and 27%, respectively. Of the 30 segmental grafts, 15 were reduced conserving the left lateral segment and hepatic vein (Brisbane technique)--13 were from the left lobe and 2 from the right lobe. The overall subject survival rate is 72%. Eleven deaths occurred: primary nonfunction (3), sepsis (3), perioperative bleed (3), and other causes (2). Early complications included: hepatic artery thrombosis (5), hepatic vein thrombosis (2), bowel perforation (3), biliary leak (3), and acute rejection (8). Later complications were chronic rejection (4) and biliary stricture requiring reconstruction (3). Follow-up at 12 months confirms good quality of life for both child and family with catch up growth and normal development. Technical advances in reduction hepatectomy have allowed us to treat small babies under 1 year with an urgent requirement for OLT, with comparable results to those obtained with whole grafts. In conclusion, in the future size and age need not be a contraindication to OLT in children with biliary atresia.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery 09/1993; 28(8):1044-7. · 1.38 Impact Factor