Genevieve Calder

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States

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Publications (3)15.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric disorder characterized by restrictive eating, low body weight, and severe bone loss. Recent data show a deleterious relationship between low circulating sodium levels and bone mass, and relative or absolute hyponatremia is a known complication of anorexia nervosa. Clinical studies of other medical conditions associated with hyponatremia suggest that detrimental effects of low sodium levels on health are seen even within the normal range. We hypothesized that women with anorexia nervosa and relatively low plasma sodium levels would have lower bone mineral density (BMD) than those with higher plasma sodium levels. METHOD: In a cross-sectional study (January 1, 1997-December 31, 2009) of 404 women aged 17 to 54 years (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM] age = 25.6 ± 0.3 years) who met DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa, we measured BMD using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Bone mineral density was compared in women with plasma sodium levels < 140 mmol/L (midpoint of normal range) versus those with plasma sodium levels ≥ 140 mmol/L and in women with hyponatremia (plasma sodium < 135 mmol/L) versus those without. The study was conducted at the Neuroendocrine Unit of Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. RESULTS: Women with plasma sodium levels < 140 mmol/L had significantly lower BMD and t and z scores versus those with plasma sodium levels ≥ 140 mmol/L at the anterior-posterior (AP) spine (mean ± SEM z scores = -1.6 ± 0.1 vs -1.3 ± 0.1, P = .004) and total hip (mean ± SEM z scores = -1.2 ± 0.1 vs -0.9 ± 0.1, P = .029). In a model controlling for age, BMI, psychiatric drug use, and disease duration, differences in BMD and t and z scores remained significant at the AP spine. Women with hyponatremia had significantly lower BMD and t and z scores versus those without hyponatremia at the AP spine (mean ± SEM z scores = -2.2 ± 0.3 vs -1.3 ± 0.1, P = .009), lateral spine (mean ± SEM z scores = -2.4 ± 0.4 vs -1.5 ± 0.1, P = .031), and total hip (mean ± SEM z scores = -2.5 ± 0.5 vs -1.0 ± 0.1, P < .0001). In a model controlling for age, BMI, psychiatric drug use, and disease duration, differences in BMD and z and t scores remained significant at all sites. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that relative plasma sodium deficiency may contribute to anorexia nervosa-related osteopenia.
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 11/2012; 73(11):e1379-e1383. · 5.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Despite a lack of data demonstrating benefit, psychotropic medications are frequently prescribed for patients with anorexia nervosa. METHOD: We studied 525 women (18-54 years of age) with anorexia nervosa who presented to the Clinical Research Center at the Massachusetts General Hospital between January 1997 and December 2009. For this analysis, participants were a priori divided into two groups based on date of presentation (Group I: participants presenting between 1997 and 2002; Group II: participants presenting between 2003 and 2009). RESULTS: Overall, 53% of participants reported current use of any psychotropic medication; 48.4% reported use of an antidepressant and 13% reported use of an antipsychotic. Twice as many participants in Group II (18.5%) reported using atypical antipsychotics as compared to Group I (8.9%) (p = 0.002). DISCUSSION: A majority of participants with anorexia nervosa report using psychotropic medications despite lack of data supporting their efficacy. These data are concerning given the known adverse effects of these medications. © 2012 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2011).
    International Journal of Eating Disorders 06/2012; · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with depletion of body fat, loss of bone mineral density (BMD), and impaired thermogenesis. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is lower in obese individuals and decreases during aging. Recent studies have suggested a link between BAT and bone metabolism. Our objective was to investigate the presence and quantity of BAT in patients with AN, recovered AN (AN-R), and normal-weight controls and to study the relationship between BAT and BMD and body composition and investigate hormonal predictors of BAT. This was a cross-sectional study at a clinical research center. Patients included 15 women: five with AN (mean age 30 ± 6.3 yr), five AN-R, and five healthy nonobese controls of comparable age. Cold-activated BAT was determined by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography. BMD of total-body, spine, and hip, fat and lean mass was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Single-slice magnetic resonance imaging at L4 was done for abdominal fat compartments, and preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1), T₃, and T₄ were measured. Within the AN group, one of five; in the AN-R group, two of five; and in the healthy nonobese control group, four of five subjects were BAT positive. Subjects were divided into groups based on the presence (n = 7) or absence (n = 8) of BAT. Both groups were of comparable age and body mass index. Women with BAT had higher total-body BMD, higher T₃, and lower Pref-1 compared with women without BAT. There was a positive correlation between BAT and BMD that remained significant after controlling for disease status and body mass index. Young women with AN have low cold-activated BAT, which may be due to impaired BAT thermogenesis. Young women with BAT have higher BMD and lower Pref-1 compared with women without BAT, suggesting that BAT may be involved in the regulation of stem cell differentiation into the bone lineage at the expense of adipogenesis.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 01/2012; 97(4):E584-90. · 6.31 Impact Factor