[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between central lymph node (CLN) metastasis and clinicopathologic characteristics of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). In addition, we investigated the incidence and risk factors for contralateral CLN metastasis in unilateral PTC. This study suggests the appropriate surgical extent for CLN dissection.
A prospective study of 500 patients with PTC who underwent total thyroidectomy and prophylactic bilateral CLN dissection was conducted.
Of 500 patients, 255 had CLN metastases. The rate of CLN metastasis was considerably higher in cases of younger patients (<45 years old) (P < 0.001; odds ratio [OR], 2.357) and of a maximal tumor size greater than 1 cm (P < 0.001; OR, 3.165). Ipsilateral CLN metastasis was detected in 83.1% of cases (133/160) of unilateral PTC, only contralateral CLN metastases in 3.7% of cases (6/160), and bilateral CLN metastases in 13.1% of cases (21/160). The rate of contralateral CLN metastasis was considerably higher in cases of PTC with a large tumor size (≥1 cm) (P = 0.019; OR, 4.440) and with ipsilateral CLN metastasis (P = 0.047; OR, 2.613).
Younger age (<45 years old) and maximal tumor size greater than 1 cm were independent risk factors for CLN metastasis. Maximal tumor size greater than 1 cm and presence of ipsilateral CLN macrometastasis were independent risk factors for contralateral CLN metastasis. Therefore, both CLN dissections should be considered for unilateral PTC with a maximal tumor size greater than 1 cm or presence of ipsilateral CLN macrometastasis.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research 02/2015; 88(2):63-8. DOI:10.4174/astr.2015.88.2.63
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
The purpose of this study is to evaluate imaging and histopathologic findings including the immunohistochemical characteristics of invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) of the breast.
Twenty-nine patients diagnosed with IMPC were included in the present study. Mammographic, sonographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were analyzed retrospectively according to the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) findings were also evaluated. Microscopic slides of surgical specimens were reviewed in consensus by two pathologists with a specialty in breast pathology.
Most IMPCs presented as a high density irregular mass with a non-circumscribed margin associated with microcalcifications on mammography, as an irregular hypoechoic mass with a spiculated margin on ultrasound, and as irregular spiculated masses with washout patterns on MRI. PET-CT showed a high maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) (mean, 11.2). Axillary nodal metastases were identified in 65.5% of the patients. Immunohistochemical studies showed high positivities for estrogen receptor and c-erbB-2 (93.1% and 51.7µ, respectively).
Even though the imaging characteristics of IMPCs are not distinguishable from typical invasive ductal carcinomas, this tumor type frequently results in nodal metastases and high positivities for both estrogen receptor and c-erbB-2. The high SUVmax value that is apparent on PET-CT might be helpful in the diagnosis of IMPC.
Journal of Breast Cancer 03/2012; 15(1):57. DOI:10.4048/jbc.2012.15.1.57 · 1.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status found in all eukaryotes. Recent studies indicate that AMPK activation strongly suppresses cell proliferation in tumor cells, which requires high rates of protein synthesis and de novo fatty acid synthesis for their rapid growth. Pomolic acid (PA) has been previously described as being active in inhibiting the growth of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated PA activated AMPK, and this activity was related to proliferation and apoptosis in MCF7 breast cancer cells. PA inhibited cell proliferation and induced sub-G(1) arrest, elevating the mRNA levels of the apoptotic genes p53 and p21. PA activated caspase-3, -9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and this effect was inhibited by z-VAD-fmk. AMPK activation was increased by treating cells with PA, inactivated by treating cells with a compound C, and co-treatment consisting of PA and aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) synergistically activated AMPK. These anti-cancer potentials of PA were accompanied by effects on de novo fatty acid synthesis as shown by the decreased expression of fatty acid synthase, and decreased acetyl-CoA carboxylase activation and incorporation of [(3)H]acetyl-CoA into fatty acids. In addition, PA inhibited key enzymes involved in protein synthesis such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1). These results suggest that PA exerts anti-cancer properties through the modulation of AMPK pathways and its value as an anti-cancer agent in breast cancer therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: The axillary lymph node status is an important prognostic factor for recurrence and survival of patients who have primary breast cancer. This study determined the accuracy of ultrasonography and 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in preoperative staging in axilla in patients with breast cancer. Methods: One hundred seventy-one patients with primary breast cancer were recruited from January 2007 to August 2008. All the patients underwent axillary ultrasonography and 18F-FDG PET/CT for the axillary staging before their operation. Results: The overall sensitivity, specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values and the accuracy of axillary ultrasonography for making the diagnosis of axillary metastasis were 73.07%, 84.87%, 67.85%, 87.82%, and 81.28%, respectively. On a visual assessment of 18F-FDG PET/CT, the diagnostic accuracy was 85.38% with 69.23% sensitivity, 92.43% specificity, a positive predictive value of 80.00%, and a negative predictive value of 87.30%. By the combined use axillary ultrasonography and 18F-FDG PET/CT to the axilla, the sensitivity, specificity, the positive and negative predictive values and the diagnostic accuracy were 82.35%, 97.91%, 93.33%, 94.00%, and 93.84%, respectively. Conclusion: The combination of 18F-FDG PET/CT and ultrasonography improves preoperative axillary staging in breast cancer that are often not found if only one imaging modalities are applied.
Journal of Breast Cancer 09/2009; 12(3):163. DOI:10.4048/jbc.2009.12.3.163 · 1.58 Impact Factor