[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reducing dietary sodium has potential to benefit patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Little research is available defining dietary sodium knowledge gaps in patients with pre-dialysis CKD. We designed a brief screening tool to rapidly identify patient knowledge gaps related to dietary sodium for patients with CKD not yet on dialysis.
A Short Sodium Knowledge Survey (SSKS) was developed and administered to patients with pre-dialysis CKD. We also asked patients if they received counseling on dietary sodium reduction and about recommended intake limits. We performed logistic regression to examine the association between sodium knowledge and patient characteristics. Characteristics of patients who answered all SSKS questions correctly were compared to those who did not.
One-hundred fifty-five patients were surveyed. The mean (SD) age was 56.6 (15.1) years, 84 (54%) were men, and 119 (77%) were white. Sixty-seven patients (43.2%) correctly identified their daily intake sodium limit. Fifty-eight (37.4%) were unable to answer all survey questions correctly. In analysis adjusted for age, sex, race, education, health literacy, CKD stage, self-reported hypertension and attendance in a kidney education class, women and patients of non-white race had lower odds of correctly answering survey questions (0.36 [0.16,0.81]; p = 0.01 women versus men and 0.33 [0.14,0.76]; p = 0.01 non-white versus white, respectively).
Our survey provides a mechanism to quickly identify dietary sodium knowledge gaps in patients with CKD. Women and patients of non-white race may have knowledge barriers impeding adherence to sodium reduction advice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early preparation for renal replacement therapy (RRT) is recommended for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), yet many patients initiate RRT urgently and/or are inadequately prepared.
We conducted audio-recorded, qualitative, directed telephone interviews of nephrology health care providers (n = 10, nephrologists, physician assistants, and nurses) and primary care physicians (PCPs, n = 4) to identify modifiable challenges to optimal RRT preparation to inform future interventions. We recruited providers from public safety-net hospital-based and community-based nephrology and primary care practices. We asked providers open-ended questions to assess their perceived challenges and their views on the role of PCPs and nephrologist-PCP collaboration in patients’ RRT preparation. Two independent and trained abstractors coded transcribed audio-recorded interviews and identified major themes.
Nephrology providers identified several factors contributing to patients’ suboptimal RRT preparation, including health system resources (e.g., limited time for preparation, referral process delays, and poorly integrated nephrology and primary care), provider skills (e.g., their difficulty explaining CKD to patients), and patient attitudes and cultural differences (e.g., their poor understanding and acceptance of their CKD and its treatment options, their low perceived urgency for RRT preparation; their negative perceptions about RRT, lack of trust, or language differences). PCPs desired more involvement in preparation to ensure RRT transitions could be as “smooth as possible”, including providing patients with emotional support, helping patients weigh RRT options, and affirming nephrologist recommendations. Both nephrology providers and PCPs desired improved collaboration, including better information exchange and delineation of roles during the RRT preparation process.
Nephrology and primary care providers identified health system resources, provider skills, and patient attitudes and cultural differences as challenges to patients’ optimal RRT preparation. Interventions to improve these factors may improve patients’ preparation and initiation of optimal RRTs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most health literacy assessments are time consuming and administered verbally. Written self-administration of measures may facilitate more widespread assessment of health literacy. This study aimed to determine the intermethod reliability and concurrent validity of the written administration of the 3 subjective health literacy questions of the Short Literacy Survey (SLS). The Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and the shortened test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) were the reference measures of health literacy. Two hundred ninety-nine participants completed the written and verbal administrations of the SLS from June to December 2012. Intermethod reliability was demonstrated when (a) the written and verbal SLS score did not differ and (b) written and verbal scores were highly correlated. The written items were internally consistent (Cronbach's α = .733). The written total score successfully identified persons with sixth-grade equivalency or less for literacy on the REALM (AUROC = 0.753) and inadequate literacy on the S-TOFHLA (AUROC = 0. 869). The written administration of the SLS is reliable, valid, and is effective in identifying persons with limited health literacy.
Journal of Health Communication 06/2015; 20(7):1-8. DOI:10.1080/10810730.2015.1018572 · 1.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Health literacy is associated with important outcomes among patients with kidney disease, but widely used measures of health literacy can be burdensome. In an effort to make a practical assessment available, we compared the performance of the three-item brief health literacy screen (BHLS) to other widely used measures of health literacy among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
Adult hemodialysis patients (n = 150) from four urban dialysis facilities participated in a cross-sectional study from 2009 to 2012. Three health literacy measures were administered including (i) the rapid estimate of adult literacy in medicine (REALM), (ii) the short test of functional health literacy in adults (S-TOFHLA) and (iii) the three-item BHLS. The mini-mental state exam assessed cognitive status, and the chronic hemodialysis knowledge survey (CHeKS) and perceived kidney disease knowledge survey (PiKS) assessed kidney knowledge. Spearman's ρs and area under the receiver-operating curves examined relationships between the aforementioned variables.
Participants had received dialysis for a mean of 4.6 years. They were 49% female, 73% African American and averaged 52 years of age. Less education and less cognitive capacity were each associated (P < 0.05) with lower health literacy for all three health literacy measures. Performance on the BHLS was significantly associated with the REALM [0.35 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.20-0.49); P < 0.001] and S-TOFHLA [0.49 (95% CI: 0.35-0.69); P < 0.001], the CHeKS [0.43 (95% CI: 0.28-0.55); P < 0.001] and PiKS [0.41 (95% CI: 0.27-0.54); P < 0.001].
The BHLS demonstrates evidence of construct validity among ESRD patients. Furthermore, health literacy was associated with kidney knowledge, supporting it as a potential intervention target to improve outcomes among patients with lower health literacy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperphosphatemia is common in end-stage renal disease and associates with mortality. Phosphate binders reduce serum phosphorus levels; however, adherence is often poor. This pilot study aims to assess patients' self-motivation to adhere to phosphate binders, its association with phosphorus control, and potential differences by race.
Cross sectional design. Subjects were enrolled from one academic medical center dialysis practice from July to November 2012. Self-motivation to adhere to phosphate binders was assessed with the autonomous regulation (AR) scale (range: 1-7) and self-reported medication adherence with the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, health literacy, and medication adherence were applied to determine associations with serum phosphorus level, including any evidence of interaction by race.
Among 100 participants, mean age was 51 years (±15 years), 53% were male, 72% were non-white, 89% received hemodialysis, and mean serum phosphorus level was 5.7 ± 1.6 mg/dL. More than half (57%) reported the maximum AR score (7). Higher AR scores were noted in those reporting better health overall (P = .001) and those with higher health literacy (P = .01). AR score correlated with better medication adherence (r = 0.22; P = .02), and medication adherence was negatively associated with serum phosphorus (r = -0.40; P < .001). In subgroup analysis among non-whites, higher AR scores correlated with lower serum phosphorus (high vs lower AR score: 5.55 [1.5] vs 6.96 [2.2]; P = .01). Associations between AR score (β 95% confidence interval: -0.37 [-0.73 to -0.01]; P = .04), medication adherence (β 95% confidence interval: -0.25 [-0.42 to -0.07]; P = .01), and serum phosphorus persisted in adjusted analyses.
Self-motivation was associated with phosphate binder adherence and phosphorus control, and this differed by race. Additional research is needed to determine if personalized, culturally sensitive strategies to understand and overcome motivational barriers may optimize mineral bone health in end-stage renal disease.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some patients referred for kidney transplant evaluation fail to attend the visit. Our goal was to compare demographic, socioeconomic, and psychologic factors between evaluation visit attendees and absentees.
A convenience sample of patients referred and scheduled for kidney transplant evaluation at a single center from November 2012 to December 2013 participated in a phone survey reporting socioeconomic, demographic, and clinical characteristics; health literacy; and perceived knowledge and concerns about transplantation. Absentees were matched by race with attendees. Analyses of differences between groups were performed with chi-square test, Fisher exact test, and t tests. Multivariable logistic regression was adjusted for relevant demographic characteristics.
One hundred four adults participated (61% men, 46% white, 52±12 years). Financial concerns were the most prevalent (67.3% affording medication, 64.1% affording operation). Previous evaluation at a different transplant center (P=0.029) and being on dialysis (P=0.008) were significantly associated with absence. Attendance was associated with concerns about finding a living donor (P=0.038) and higher perceived general knowledge about transplantation (P ≤0.001). No differences were appreciated in demographic, socioeconomic, or health literacy factors between groups.
Both attendee and absentee patients were most concerned with the financial burden of kidney transplantation. Although concerns and perceived knowledge are important correlates of behavior, other considerations such as psychologic factors and prior medical experiences may influence patients' ability to complete the kidney transplant evaluation process. Although this pilot study was conducted in a small sample and has limited generalizability, our findings can guide future research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Health numeracy is linked to important clinical outcomes. Kidney disease management relies heavily on patient numeracy skills across the continuum of kidney disease care. Little data are available eliciting stakeholder perspectives from patients receiving dialysis about the construct of health numeracy. Using focus groups, we asked patients receiving hemodialysis open-ended questions to identify facilitators and barriers to their understanding, interpretation, and application of numeric information in kidney care. Transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Twelve patients participated with a mean (standard deviation) age of 56 (12) years. All were African American, 50% were women, and 83% had an annual income <$20,000/year. Although patients felt numbers were critical to every aspect in life, they noted several barriers to understanding, interpreting and applying quantitative information specifically to manage their health. Low patient self-efficacy related to health numeracy and limited patient–provider communication about quantitatively based feedback, were emphasized as key barriers. Through focus groups of key patient stakeholders we identified important modifiable barriers to effective kidney care. Additional research is needed to develop tools that support numeracy-sensitive education and communication interventions in dialysis.
Hemodialysis International 11/2014; 19(2). DOI:10.1111/hdi.12239 · 1.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disclaimer: The authors are responsible for the content of this article, which does not necessarily represent the views of the Institute of Medicine. Disclosures: The authors report no significant conflicts or financial disclosures related to this work.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Health literacy (HL) may be a mediator for known socioeconomic and racial disparities in living kidney donation.
We evaluated the associations of patient and demographic characteristics with HL in living kidney donors (LD), living donor kidney transplant recipients (LDR), and deceased donor recipients (DDR) in a single-center retrospective review of patients undergoing kidney donation or transplantation from September 2010 to July 2012. HL and demographic data were collected. HL was assessed via the Short Literacy Survey (SLS) comprising three self-reported screening questions scored using the five-point Likert scale (low [3-8], moderate [9-14], high ). Chi-square and logistic regression were used to test factors associated with lower HL.
The sample included 360 adults (105 LD, 103 LDR, and 152 DDR; 46±14 years; 70% white; 56% male; 14±3 years of education). HL scores were skewed (49% high, 41% moderate, and 10% low). The distribution of HL categories differed significantly among groups (P=0.019). After controlling for age, race, sex, education, and a race-education interaction term, DDR was more likely to have moderate or low HL than LDR (OR, 1.911; 95%CI, 1.096-3.332; P=0.022).
Overall, living donors had high HL. The distribution of low, moderate, and high HL differed significantly between LD, DDR, and LDR. DDR had a higher likelihood of having low HL than LDR. Screening kidney transplant candidates and donors for lower HL may identify barriers to living donation. Future interventions addressing HL may be important to increase living donation and reduce disparities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) developed guidelines to care for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). While these are disseminated through the NKF's website and publications, the guidelines' usage remains suboptimal. The KDOQI Educational Committee was formed to identify barriers to guideline implementation, determine provider and patient educational needs and develop tools to improve care of patients with CKD.
An online survey was conducted from May to September 2010 to evaluate renal providers' familiarity, current use of and attitudes toward the guidelines and tools to implement the guidelines.
Most responders reported using the guidelines often and felt that they could be easily implemented into clinical practice; however, approximately one-half identified at least one barrier. Physicians and physician extenders most commonly cited the lack of evidence supporting KDOQI guidelines while allied health professionals most commonly listed patient non-adherence, unrealistic guideline goals and provider time-constraints. Providers thought that the guidelines included too much detail and identified the lack of a quick resource as a barrier to clinical implementation. Most were unaware of the Clinical Action Plans.
Perceived barriers differed between renal clinicians and allied health professionals; educational and implementation tools tailored for different providers are needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preparation for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is widely acknowledged to be suboptimal in the United States. We sought to determine whether participation in a kidney disease screening and education program resulted in improved ESRD preparation and survival in 595 adults who developed ESRD after participating in the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP), a community-based screening and education program. Non-KEEP patients were selected from a national ESRD registry and matched to KEEP participants based on demographic and clinical characteristics. The main outcomes were pre-ESRD nephrologist care, placement of permanent vascular access, use of peritoneal dialysis, pre-emptive transplant wait listing, transplantation, and mortality after ESRD. Participation in KEEP was associated with significantly higher rates of pre-ESRD nephrologist care (76.0% vs. 69.3%), peritoneal dialysis (10.3% vs. 6.4%), pre-emptive transplant wait listing (24.2% vs. 17.1%), and transplantation (9.7% vs. 6.4%) but not with higher rates of permanent vascular access (23.4% vs. 20.1%). Participation in KEEP was associated with a lower risk for mortality (hazard ratio 0.80), but this was not statistically significant after adjusting for ESRD preparation. Thus, participation in a voluntary community kidney disease screening and education program was associated with higher rates of ESRD preparation and survival.Kidney International advance online publication, 25 September 2013; doi:10.1038/ki.2013.369.
Kidney International 09/2013; 85(3). DOI:10.1038/ki.2013.369 · 8.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The National Kidney Foundation and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) convened a symposium in September 2010, bringing together more than 70 experts, including representatives from the FDA, the National Institutes of Health, the Critical Path Institute, nephrologists, patients, and the pharmaceutical industry to discuss the feasibility and process of developing patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures to access how patients feel or function to be used in clinical trials for regulatory review of treatment benefit. Three disease areas were evaluated for development of end point models in which PRO measures may be useful: anemia secondary to chronic kidney disease, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), and nephrotic syndrome. The participants thought it valuable to use observational data to generate hypotheses regarding patient baseline characteristics that are likely to predict clinically important changes in PROs in response to anemia treatment and to design adequately powered blinded randomized controlled trials of anemia treatment using PROs as primary rather than secondary end points. Validated PRO instruments that reflect the patient experience in ADPKD and nephrotic syndrome are essential to incorporate into clinical trials of new therapeutic interventions because glomerular filtration rate decline may occur late in the disease course, at which point therapeutic benefit is less likely. Conference attendees addressed how PRO measures could be used to evaluate, monitor, provide care, and facilitate the introduction of treatments for patients with these challenging conditions.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 08/2013; 62(6). DOI:10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.07.004 · 5.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Health literacy represents the communication among patients, their social networks, providers, and health systems to promote patients' understanding and engagement in their care. This is particularly relevant in kidney disease, in which the complexity of the medical condition and the extent of the health-care team require strategies to overcome health-literacy-related barriers. Limited literacy is common in patients with all stages of kidney disease and is associated with important outcomes, including reduced knowledge, less adherence, hospitalization, and death. A growing understanding and characterization of the health system, or organizational health literacy, may further our understanding of this dynamic relationship. Although various valid methods exist, assessment of health literacy within individuals or systematically within care settings has not been routinely performed. This may be in part due to the limited research in kidney-specific strategies to address limited health literacy. Future research to understand the mechanisms of health literacy will permit targeted, efficient interventions to bridge gaps and improve outcomes even in patients with complex kidney disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is currently a lack of valid instruments to measure adolescent diabetes numeracy. The Diabetes Numeracy Test (DNT) was adapted for type 1 diabetes and was administered to 2 samples of adolescents. Sample 1 was administered the 39-item version of the DNT (DNT-39) with measures of self-management, responsibility, reading, and glycemic control (A1C). Sample 2 was administered the 14-item version of the DNT (DNT-14) with measures of self-management, responsibility, problem solving, and A1C. Both versions of the DNT showed adequate internal reliability. In Sample 1, the DNT-39 and DNT-14 were related (r = .87, p = .001), and both DNT versions were related to parent education (for DNT-14, r = .31, p = .02; for DNT-39, r = .29, p = .03) and reading (for DNT-14, r = .36, p = .005; for DNT-39, r = .40, p = .001). In Sample 2, the DNT-14 was related to A1C (r =-.29, p = .001), reading skills (r = .36, p = .005), diabetes problem solving (r = .27, p = .02), adolescent age (r = .19, p = .03), and parent education (r = .31, p = .02). In combined analyses, 75% of items were answered correctly on the DNT-14 (range = 7-100), and performance was associated with age (r = .19, p = .03), pump use (r = .33 p = .001), and A1C (r =-.29, p = .001). The DNT-14 is a feasible, reliable, and valid numeracy assessment that indicated adolescents with type 1 diabetes have numeracy deficits that may affect their glycemic control.
Journal of Health Communication 04/2013; 18(7). DOI:10.1080/10810730.2012.757394 · 1.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ATTITUDES AFFECT PHOSPHATE CONTROL IN ESRD
Ebele Umeukeje1; J Carlsson2; B Preroff1; J Merighi3; T Browne4; K Wallston1; TA Ikizler1; K Cavanaugh1
1Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN; 2UW, Seattle, WA; 3BU, Boston, MA; 4USC, Columbia, SC
Hyperphosphatemia in ESRD is a risk factor for mortality. This study aims to assess patients’ attitudes towards phosphate binders, associations between adherence and serum phosphorus level, and any differences by race.
In a cross-sectional study of 100 dialysis patients within 1 academic center, we administered the Autonomous Regulation (AR) scale (range: 0-7) to assess attitudes about phosphate therapy, and the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) to measure self-reported adherence to binders. Scores were compared to serum phosphate. Linear regression models were used to determine independent factors of phosphorous control and any evidence of interaction by race.
Patients were 51(SD15) yrs, 53% male, 72% non-white (1% American Indian), 89% hemodialysis, and with mean serum phosphorus of 5.7(1.6) mg/dl. 57% reported the maximum AR score of 7. Higher AR score was noted in females (p=0.07), those reporting better health overall (p=0.001), and with higher health literacy (p=0.01). AR score also correlated with better medication adherence (p=0.04), although no differences by race. Medication adherence was strongly associated with serum phosphorus (p<0.001). Among non-whites, higher AR scores correlated with lower serum phosphorus (p=0.01). In adjusted analyses, AR score (p=0.03) and medication adherence (p=0.05) were both independently associated with serum phosphorus among non-whites.
Our findings suggest a potential association between AR score, adherence to phosphate binders, and phosphorus control among non-whites. Personalized, culturally sensitive strategies to understand and overcome motivational barriers may be critical to optimize mineral bone health in ESRD.
International Conference on Glomerular Diseases; 04/2013
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Limited research exists on physician-delivered education interventions. We examined the feasibility and impact of an educational tool on facilitating physician-patient kidney disease communication. STUDY DESIGN: Pilot feasibility clinical trial with a historical control to examine effect size on patient knowledge and structured questions to elicit physician and patient feedback. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 1-5, seen in nephrology clinic. INTERVENTION: 1-page educational worksheet, reviewed by physicians with patients. OUTCOMES: Kidney knowledge between patient groups and provider/patient feedback. MEASUREMENTS: Patient kidney knowledge was measured using a previously validated questionnaire compared between patients receiving the intervention (April to October 2010) and a historical cohort (April to October 2009). Provider input was obtained using structured interviews. Patient input was obtained through survey questions. Patient characteristics were abstracted from the medical record. RESULTS: 556 patients were included, with 401 patients in the historical cohort and 155 receiving the intervention. Mean age was 57 ± 16 (SD) years, with 53% men, 81% whites, and 78% with CKD stages 3-5. Compared with the historical cohort, patients receiving the intervention had higher adjusted odds of knowing they had CKD (adjusted OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.16-4.17; P = 0.02), knowing their kidney function (adjusted OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.27-3.97; P = 0.005), and knowing their stage of CKD (adjusted OR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.49-6.92; P = 0.003). Physicians found the intervention tool easy and feasible to integrate into practice and 98% of patients who received the intervention recommended it for future use. LIMITATIONS: Study design did not randomly assign patients for comparison and enrollment was performed in clinics at one center. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, a physician-delivered education intervention was feasible to use in practice and was associated with higher patient kidney disease knowledge. Further examination of physician-delivered education interventions for increasing patient disease understanding should be tested through randomized trials.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 03/2013; 62(1). DOI:10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.01.023 · 5.90 Impact Factor