Kerri L Cavanaugh

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States

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Publications (51)176.83 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Health literacy (HL) may be a mediator for known socioeconomic and racial disparities in living kidney donation. We evaluated the associations of patient and demographic characteristics with HL in living kidney donors (LD), living donor kidney transplant recipients (LDR), and deceased donor recipients (DDR) in a single-center retrospective review of patients undergoing kidney donation or transplantation from September 2010 to July 2012. HL and demographic data were collected. HL was assessed via the Short Literacy Survey (SLS) comprising three self-reported screening questions scored using the five-point Likert scale (low [3-8], moderate [9-14], high [15]). Chi-square and logistic regression were used to test factors associated with lower HL. The sample included 360 adults (105 LD, 103 LDR, and 152 DDR; 46±14 years; 70% white; 56% male; 14±3 years of education). HL scores were skewed (49% high, 41% moderate, and 10% low). The distribution of HL categories differed significantly among groups (P=0.019). After controlling for age, race, sex, education, and a race-education interaction term, DDR was more likely to have moderate or low HL than LDR (OR, 1.911; 95%CI, 1.096-3.332; P=0.022). Overall, living donors had high HL. The distribution of low, moderate, and high HL differed significantly between LD, DDR, and LDR. DDR had a higher likelihood of having low HL than LDR. Screening kidney transplant candidates and donors for lower HL may identify barriers to living donation. Future interventions addressing HL may be important to increase living donation and reduce disparities.
    Transplantation 02/2014; · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) developed guidelines to care for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). While these are disseminated through the NKF's website and publications, the guidelines' usage remains suboptimal. The KDOQI Educational Committee was formed to identify barriers to guideline implementation, determine provider and patient educational needs and develop tools to improve care of patients with CKD. An online survey was conducted from May to September 2010 to evaluate renal providers' familiarity, current use of and attitudes toward the guidelines and tools to implement the guidelines. Most responders reported using the guidelines often and felt that they could be easily implemented into clinical practice; however, approximately one-half identified at least one barrier. Physicians and physician extenders most commonly cited the lack of evidence supporting KDOQI guidelines while allied health professionals most commonly listed patient non-adherence, unrealistic guideline goals and provider time-constraints. Providers thought that the guidelines included too much detail and identified the lack of a quick resource as a barrier to clinical implementation. Most were unaware of the Clinical Action Plans. Perceived barriers differed between renal clinicians and allied health professionals; educational and implementation tools tailored for different providers are needed.
    BMC Nephrology 10/2013; 14(1):230. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preparation for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is widely acknowledged to be suboptimal in the United States. We sought to determine whether participation in a kidney disease screening and education program resulted in improved ESRD preparation and survival in 595 adults who developed ESRD after participating in the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP), a community-based screening and education program. Non-KEEP patients were selected from a national ESRD registry and matched to KEEP participants based on demographic and clinical characteristics. The main outcomes were pre-ESRD nephrologist care, placement of permanent vascular access, use of peritoneal dialysis, pre-emptive transplant wait listing, transplantation, and mortality after ESRD. Participation in KEEP was associated with significantly higher rates of pre-ESRD nephrologist care (76.0% vs. 69.3%), peritoneal dialysis (10.3% vs. 6.4%), pre-emptive transplant wait listing (24.2% vs. 17.1%), and transplantation (9.7% vs. 6.4%) but not with higher rates of permanent vascular access (23.4% vs. 20.1%). Participation in KEEP was associated with a lower risk for mortality (hazard ratio 0.80), but this was not statistically significant after adjusting for ESRD preparation. Thus, participation in a voluntary community kidney disease screening and education program was associated with higher rates of ESRD preparation and survival.Kidney International advance online publication, 25 September 2013; doi:10.1038/ki.2013.369.
    Kidney International 09/2013; · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The National Kidney Foundation and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) convened a symposium in September 2010, bringing together more than 70 experts, including representatives from the FDA, the National Institutes of Health, the Critical Path Institute, nephrologists, patients, and the pharmaceutical industry to discuss the feasibility and process of developing patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures to access how patients feel or function to be used in clinical trials for regulatory review of treatment benefit. Three disease areas were evaluated for development of end point models in which PRO measures may be useful: anemia secondary to chronic kidney disease, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), and nephrotic syndrome. The participants thought it valuable to use observational data to generate hypotheses regarding patient baseline characteristics that are likely to predict clinically important changes in PROs in response to anemia treatment and to design adequately powered blinded randomized controlled trials of anemia treatment using PROs as primary rather than secondary end points. Validated PRO instruments that reflect the patient experience in ADPKD and nephrotic syndrome are essential to incorporate into clinical trials of new therapeutic interventions because glomerular filtration rate decline may occur late in the disease course, at which point therapeutic benefit is less likely. Conference attendees addressed how PRO measures could be used to evaluate, monitor, provide care, and facilitate the introduction of treatments for patients with these challenging conditions.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 08/2013; · 5.29 Impact Factor
  • Leigh Anne Dageforde, Kerri L Cavanaugh
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    ABSTRACT: Health literacy represents the communication among patients, their social networks, providers, and health systems to promote patients' understanding and engagement in their care. This is particularly relevant in kidney disease, in which the complexity of the medical condition and the extent of the health-care team require strategies to overcome health-literacy-related barriers. Limited literacy is common in patients with all stages of kidney disease and is associated with important outcomes, including reduced knowledge, less adherence, hospitalization, and death. A growing understanding and characterization of the health system, or organizational health literacy, may further our understanding of this dynamic relationship. Although various valid methods exist, assessment of health literacy within individuals or systematically within care settings has not been routinely performed. This may be in part due to the limited research in kidney-specific strategies to address limited health literacy. Future research to understand the mechanisms of health literacy will permit targeted, efficient interventions to bridge gaps and improve outcomes even in patients with complex kidney disease.
    Advances in chronic kidney disease 07/2013; 20(4):311-9. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is currently a lack of valid instruments to measure adolescent diabetes numeracy. The Diabetes Numeracy Test (DNT) was adapted for type 1 diabetes and was administered to 2 samples of adolescents. Sample 1 was administered the 39-item version of the DNT (DNT-39) with measures of self-management, responsibility, reading, and glycemic control (A1C). Sample 2 was administered the 14-item version of the DNT (DNT-14) with measures of self-management, responsibility, problem solving, and A1C. Both versions of the DNT showed adequate internal reliability. In Sample 1, the DNT-39 and DNT-14 were related (r = .87, p = .001), and both DNT versions were related to parent education (for DNT-14, r = .31, p = .02; for DNT-39, r = .29, p = .03) and reading (for DNT-14, r = .36, p = .005; for DNT-39, r = .40, p = .001). In Sample 2, the DNT-14 was related to A1C (r =-.29, p = .001), reading skills (r = .36, p = .005), diabetes problem solving (r = .27, p = .02), adolescent age (r = .19, p = .03), and parent education (r = .31, p = .02). In combined analyses, 75% of items were answered correctly on the DNT-14 (range = 7-100), and performance was associated with age (r = .19, p = .03), pump use (r = .33 p = .001), and A1C (r =-.29, p = .001). The DNT-14 is a feasible, reliable, and valid numeracy assessment that indicated adolescents with type 1 diabetes have numeracy deficits that may affect their glycemic control.
    Journal of Health Communication 04/2013; · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Limited research exists on physician-delivered education interventions. We examined the feasibility and impact of an educational tool on facilitating physician-patient kidney disease communication. STUDY DESIGN: Pilot feasibility clinical trial with a historical control to examine effect size on patient knowledge and structured questions to elicit physician and patient feedback. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 1-5, seen in nephrology clinic. INTERVENTION: 1-page educational worksheet, reviewed by physicians with patients. OUTCOMES: Kidney knowledge between patient groups and provider/patient feedback. MEASUREMENTS: Patient kidney knowledge was measured using a previously validated questionnaire compared between patients receiving the intervention (April to October 2010) and a historical cohort (April to October 2009). Provider input was obtained using structured interviews. Patient input was obtained through survey questions. Patient characteristics were abstracted from the medical record. RESULTS: 556 patients were included, with 401 patients in the historical cohort and 155 receiving the intervention. Mean age was 57 ± 16 (SD) years, with 53% men, 81% whites, and 78% with CKD stages 3-5. Compared with the historical cohort, patients receiving the intervention had higher adjusted odds of knowing they had CKD (adjusted OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.16-4.17; P = 0.02), knowing their kidney function (adjusted OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.27-3.97; P = 0.005), and knowing their stage of CKD (adjusted OR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.49-6.92; P = 0.003). Physicians found the intervention tool easy and feasible to integrate into practice and 98% of patients who received the intervention recommended it for future use. LIMITATIONS: Study design did not randomly assign patients for comparison and enrollment was performed in clinics at one center. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, a physician-delivered education intervention was feasible to use in practice and was associated with higher patient kidney disease knowledge. Further examination of physician-delivered education interventions for increasing patient disease understanding should be tested through randomized trials.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 03/2013; · 5.29 Impact Factor
  • Saugar Maripuri, T Alp Ikizler, Kerri L Cavanaugh
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Pre-end-stage renal disease (ESRD) care is associated with improved outcomes among patients receiving dialysis. It is unknown what proportion of US micropolitan and rural dialysis patients receive pre-ESRD care and benefit from such care when compared to urban. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed using data from the US Renal Data System. Patients ≥18 years old who initiated dialysis in 2006 and 2007 were classified as rural, micropolitan or urban and the prevalence of pre-ESRD care (early nephrology care >6 months, permanent vascular access, -dietary education) was determined using the medical evidence report. The association of pre-ESRD care with dialysis mortality and transplantation was assessed using Cox regression with stratification for geographic residence. Results: Of 204,463 dialysis patients, 80% were urban, 10.2% were micropolitan and 9.8% were rural. Overall attainment of pre-ESRD care was poor. After adjustment, there were no significant geographic differences in attainment of early nephrology care or permanent dialysis access. Receiving care reduced all-cause mortality and increased the likelihood of transplantation to a similar degree regardless of geographic residence. Both micropolitan and rural patients received less dietary education (relative risk = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.76-0.84 and relative risk = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.80-0.89, respectively). Conclusion: Among patients who receive dialysis, the prevalence of early nephrology care and permanent dialysis access is poor and does not vary by geographic residence. Micropolitan and rural patients receive less dietary education despite an observed mortality benefit, suggesting that barriers may exist to quality dietary care in more remote locations.
    American Journal of Nephrology 03/2013; 37(3):274-280. · 2.62 Impact Factor
  • Kerri L Cavanaugh
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 03/2013; 61(3):368-70. · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Because existing numeracy measures may not optimally assess 'health numeracy', we developed and validated the General Health Numeracy Test (GHNT). METHODS: An iterative pilot testing process produced 21 GHNT items that were administered to 205 patients along with validated measures of health literacy, objective numeracy, subjective numeracy, and medication understanding and medication adherence. We assessed the GHNT's internal consistency reliability, construct validity, and explored its predictive validity. RESULTS: On average, participants were 55.0±13.8 years old, 64.9% female, 29.8% non-White, and 51.7% had incomes ≤$39K with 14.4±2.9 years of education. Psychometric testing produced a 6-item version (GHNT-6). The GHNT-21 and GHNT-6 had acceptable-good internal consistency reliability (KR-20=0.87 vs. 0.77, respectively). Both versions were positively associated with income, education, health literacy, objective numeracy, and subjective numeracy (all p<.001). Furthermore, both versions were associated with participants' understanding of their medications and medication adherence in unadjusted analyses, but only the GHNT-21 was associated with medication understanding in adjusted analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The GHNT-21 and GHNT-6 are reliable and valid tools for assessing health numeracy. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Brief, reliable, and valid assessments of health numeracy can assess a patient's numeracy status, and may ultimately help providers and educators tailor education to patients.
    Patient Education and Counseling 02/2013; · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeThe purpose of this study is to describe the association between numeracy and self-reported dietary intake in patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods Numeracy and dietary intake were assessed with the validated Diabetes Numeracy Test and a validated food frequency questionnaire in a cross-sectional study of 150 primary care patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial at an academic medical center between April 2008 and October 2009. Associations between numeracy and caloric and macronutrient intakes were examined with linear regression models.ResultsPatients with lower numeracy consumed a higher percentage of calories from carbohydrates and lower percentages from protein and fat. However, no differences in energy consumption or the percentage of energy intake owing to carbohydrates, fat, or protein were observed in adjusted analyses. Patients with lower numeracy were significantly more likely to report extremely high or low energy intake inconsistent with standard dietary intake.Conclusions Numeracy was not associated with dietary intake in adjusted analyses. Low numeracy was associated with inaccurate dietary reporting. Providers who take dietary histories in patients with diabetes may need to consider numeracy in their assessment of dietary intake.
    The Diabetes Educator 02/2013; · 1.94 Impact Factor
  • Kerri L Cavanaugh, T Alp Ikizler
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 01/2013; · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Evidence Based Practice. 12/2012; 10(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Micropolitan and rural patients face challenges when initiating dialysis, including healthcare access. Previous studies have shown little association of nonurban residence with dialysis outcomes but have not examined the association of dialysis modality with residence location. This retrospective cohort study used data from the U.S. Renal Data System. Adults who initiated maintenance dialysis between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2007, were classified as rural, micropolitan, or urban. Early and long-term mortality and kidney transplantation were examined with Cox regression stratified by dialysis modality. Of 204,463 patients, 80% were urban; 10.2%, micropolitan; and 9.8%, rural. Micropolitan and rural patients were older, were less racially diverse, had more comorbid conditions, and were more likely to start peritoneal dialysis (PD). Median follow-up was 2.0 years. Early mortality or long-term hemodialysis (HD) mortality did not significantly differ by geographic residence. After adjustment, micropolitan and rural PD patients had higher risk for long-term mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.21 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.35] and 1.12 [95% CI, 1.01-1.24], respectively) than urban PD patients. After adjustment, kidney transplantation was more likely in micropolitan and rural HD patients (HR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.11-1.28] and 1.30 [CI, 1.21-1.40]) than urban HD patients, and micropolitan PD patients (HR, 1.31 [95%, CI 1.13-1.51]) than urban PD patients. Micropolitan and rural residence is associated with higher mortality in PD patients and similar or higher likelihood of kidney transplantation among HD and PD patients. Studies examining the underlying mechanisms of these associations are warranted.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 04/2012; 7(7):1121-9. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe patient hypertension knowledge and associations with blood pressure measurements. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were asked about the impact of high blood pressure on kidneys and their target blood pressure goal. Systolic blood pressure was measured using automated sphygmomanometers. In 338 adults with hypertension and pre-dialysis CKD, the median [IQR] age was 59 [47,68] years, 45% [n = 152] were women, and 18% [n = 62] were non-white. Lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) was associated with female sex (SBP mmHg median [IQR] 132 [117,149] women vs. 137 [124,152] men; p = 0.04), less advanced CKD (SBP 134 [122,147] stages 1-2 vs. 132 [118,148] stage 3 vs. 140 [125,156] stages 4-5; p = 0.01), and patient ability to correctly identify SBP goal (SBP 134 [119,150] correct vs. 141 [125,154] incorrect; p = 0.05). In adjusted analysis, knowledge of blood pressure goal remained independently associated with lower SBP (-9.96 mmHg [-19.97, -1.95] in correct respondents vs. incorrect; p<0.001). Patient knowledge of goal blood pressure is independently associated with improved blood pressure control. Interventions to improve patient knowledge of specific blood pressure targets may have an important role in optimizing blood pressure management.
    Patient Education and Counseling 03/2012; 88(2):184-8. · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the United States are unaware of their condition, creating challenges in implementing early interventions to delay disease progression. Whether characteristics expected to enhance health care access are associated with greater CKD awareness has not been studied adequately. Data from volunteer participants in the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP), 2000-2010, with presumed CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or albumin-creatinine ratio >30 mg/g) were analyzed. Given that the diagnosis of CKD was based on a single measurement of kidney function, the diagnosis is presumed, but not confirmed. Associations of CKD awareness with measures of access to care (health insurance coverage, type of health insurance, prescription drug coverage, and self-reported level of difficulty obtaining care) were examined using logistic regression. Of 29,144 participants with CKD, 6,751 (23%) reported CKD awareness. No significant association was found between availability of health insurance or prescription drug coverage and CKD awareness; results did not vary by diabetic status or in analyses restricted to participants with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Participants reporting extreme or some difficulty obtaining medical care were more likely than those reporting no difficulty to be aware of CKD (adjusted OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.05-1.50). Most KEEP participants with CKD are unaware of the condition, results that are not modified by the availability of health insurance or prescription drug coverage. The mechanisms underlying the association of perceived difficulty in access to care with greater CKD awareness require further study.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 03/2012; 59(3 Suppl 2):S16-23. · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    Jennifer K Green, Russell L Rothman, Kerri L Cavanaugh
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    ABSTRACT: The association between depressive symptoms and patient-provider communication was examined in adult primary care patients with diabetes. Most communication was not patient-centered, but did not differ by level of patient's depressive symptoms.
    Diabetes research and clinical practice 01/2012; 95(1):e10-3. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated whether black race is associated with higher incidence of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) among a cohort of blacks and whites of similar, generally low socioeconomic status, and whether risk factor patterns differ among blacks and whites and explain the poorly understood racial disparity in ESRD. Incident diagnoses of ESRD among 79,943 black and white participants in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS) were ascertained by linkage with the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) from 2002 through 2009. Person-years of follow up were calculated from date of entry into the SCCS until date of ESRD diagnosis, date of death, or September 1, 2009, whichever occurred first. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for incident ESRD among black and white participants in relation to baseline characteristics. After 329,003 person-years of follow-up, 687 incident cases of ESRD were identified in the cohort. The age-adjusted ESRD incidence rate was 273 (per 100,000) among blacks, 3.5-fold higher than the rate of 78 among whites. Risk factors for ESRD included male sex (HR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.4-1.9), low income (HR = 1.5; 95% CI 1.2-1.8 for income below vs. above $15,000), smoking (HR = 1.2; 95% CI 1.02-1.4) and histories of diabetes (HRs increasing to 9.4 (95% CI 7.4-11.9) among those with ≥20 years diabetes duration) and hypertension (HR = 2.9; 95% CI 2.3-3.7). Patterns and magnitudes of association were virtually identical among blacks and whites. After adjustment for these risk factors, blacks continued to have a higher risk for ESRD (HR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.9-3.0) relative to whites. The black-white disparity in risk of ESRD was attenuated but not eliminated after control for known risk factors in a closely socioeconomically matched cohort. Further research characterizing biomedical factors, including CKD progression, in ESRD occurrence in these two racial groups is needed.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(10):e48407. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although low health literacy and suboptimal medication adherence are more prevalent in racial/ethnic minority groups than Whites, little is known about the relationship between these factors in adults with diabetes, and whether health literacy or numeracy might explain racial/ethnic disparities in diabetes medication adherence. Previous work in HIV suggests health literacy mediates racial differences in adherence to antiretroviral treatment, but no study to date has explored numeracy as a mediator of the relationship between race/ethnicity and medication adherence. This study tested whether health literacy and/or numeracy were related to diabetes medication adherence, and whether either factor explained racial differences in adherence. Using path analytic models, we explored the predicted pathways between racial status, health literacy, diabetes-related numeracy, general numeracy, and adherence to diabetes medications. After adjustment for covariates, African American race was associated with poor medication adherence (r = -0.10, p < .05). Health literacy was associated with adherence (r = .12, p < .02), but diabetes-related numeracy and general numeracy were not related to adherence. Furthermore, health literacy reduced the effect of race on adherence to nonsignificance, such that African American race was no longer directly associated with lower medication adherence (r = -0.09, p = .14). Diabetes medication adherence promotion interventions should address patient health literacy limitations.
    Journal of Health Communication 09/2011; 16 Suppl 3:268-78. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is likely that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a limited understanding of their illness. Here we studied the relationships between objective and perceived knowledge in CKD using the Kidney Disease Knowledge Survey and the Perceived Kidney Disease Knowledge Survey. We quantified perceived and objective knowledge in 399 patients at all stages of non-dialysis-dependent CKD. Demographically, the patient median age was 58 years, 47% were women, 77% had stages 3-5 CKD, and 83% were Caucasians. The overall median score of the perceived knowledge survey was 2.56 (range: 1-4), and this new measure exhibited excellent reliability and construct validity. In unadjusted analysis, perceived knowledge was associated with patient characteristics defined a priori, including objective knowledge and patient satisfaction with physician communication. In adjusted analysis, older age, male gender, and limited health literacy were associated with lower perceived knowledge. Additional analysis revealed that perceived knowledge was associated with significantly higher odds (2.13), and objective knowledge with lower odds (0.91), of patient satisfaction with physician communication. Thus, our results present a mechanism to evaluate distinct forms of patient kidney knowledge and identify specific opportunities for education tailored to patients with CKD.
    Kidney International 08/2011; 80(12):1344-51. · 8.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

533 Citations
176.83 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      Dallas, Texas, United States
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2007–2013
    • Vanderbilt University
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Division of Nephrology and Hypertension
      • • Center for Health Services Research
      Nashville, MI, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 2009
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, MD, United States