[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adult disease severity subclassification systems for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) are concordant with the decision to treat pediatric patients with cyclophosphamide (CYC). METHODS: We applied the European Vasculitis Study (EUVAS) and Wegener's Granulomatosis Etanercept Trial (WGET) disease severity subclassification systems to pediatric patients with AAV in A Registry for Childhood Vasculitis (ARChiVe). Modifications were made to the EUVAS and WGET systems to enable their application to this cohort of children. Treatment was categorized into 2 groups, "cyclophosphamide" and "no cyclophosphamide." Pearson's chi-square and Kendall's rank correlation coefficient statistical analyses were used to determine the relationship between disease severity subgroup and treatment at the time of diagnosis. RESULTS: In total, 125 children with AAV were studied. Severity subgroup was associated with treatment group in both the EUVAS (chi-square 45.14, p < 0.001, Kendall's tau-b 0.601, p < 0.001) and WGET (chi-square 59.33, p < 0.001, Kendall's tau-b 0.689, p < 0.001) systems; however, 7 children classified by both systems as having less severe disease received CYC, and 6 children classified as having severe disease by both systems did not receive CYC. CONCLUSION: In this pediatric AAV cohort, the EUVAS and WGET adult severity subclassification systems had strong correlation with physician choice of treatment. However, a proportion of patients received treatment that was not concordant with their assigned severity subclass.
The Journal of Rheumatology 08/2012; 39(10):2012-2020. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's; GPA) and other antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV) are rare in childhood and are sometimes difficult to discriminate. We compared use of adult-derived classification schemes for GPA against validated pediatric criteria in the ARChiVe (A Registry for Childhood Vasculitis e-entry) cohort, a Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance initiative.
Time-of-diagnosis data for children with physician (MD) diagnosis of AAV and unclassified vasculitis (UCV) from 33 US/Canadian centers were analyzed. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) classification algorithm and European League Against Rheumatism/Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation/Paediatric Rheumatology European Society (EULAR/PRINTO/PRES) and American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for GPA were applied to all patients. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated (MD-diagnosis as reference).
MD-diagnoses for 155 children were 100 GPA, 25 microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), 6 ANCA-positive pauciimmune glomerulonephritis, 3 Churg-Strauss syndrome, and 21 UCV. Of these, 114 had GPA as defined by EMA, 98 by EULAR/PRINTO/PRES, and 87 by ACR. Fourteen patients were identified as GPA by EULAR/PRINTO/PRES but not by ACR; 3 were identified as GPA by ACR but not EULAR/PRINTO/PRES. Using the EMA algorithm, 135 (87%) children were classifiable. The sensitivity of the EMA algorithm, the EULAR/PRINTO/PRES, and ACR criteria for classifying GPA was 90%, 77%, and 69%, respectively, with specificities of 56%, 62%, and 67%. The relatively poor sensitivity of the 2 criteria related to their inability to discriminate patients with MPA.
EULAR/PRINTO/PRES was more sensitive than ACR criteria in classifying pediatric GPA. Neither classification system has criteria for MPA; therefore usefulness in discriminating patients in ARChiVe was limited. Even when using the most sensitive EMA algorithm, many children remained unclassified.
The Journal of Rheumatology 05/2012; 39(8):1687-97. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are no validated tools for measuring disease activity in pediatric vasculitis. The Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) is a valid disease activity tool in adult vasculitis. Version 3 (BVAS v.3) correlates well with physician's global assessment (PGA), treatment decision, and C-reactive protein in adults. The utility of BVAS v.3 in pediatric vasculitis is not known. We assessed the association of BVAS v.3 scores with PGA, treatment decision, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at diagnosis in pediatric antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV).
Children with AAV diagnosed between 2004 and 2010 at all ARChiVe centers were eligible. BVAS v.3 scores were calculated with a standardized online tool (www.vasculitis.org). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r(s)) was used to test the strength of association between BVAS v.3 and PGA, treatment decision, and ESR.
A total of 152 patients were included. The physician diagnosis of these patients was predominantly granulomatosis with polyangiitis (n = 99). The median BVAS v.3 score was 18.0 (range 0-40). The BVAS v.3 correlations were r(s) = 0.379 (95% CI 0.233 to 0.509) with PGA, r(s) = 0.521 (95% CI 0.393 to 0.629) with treatment decision, and r(s) = 0.403 (95% CI 0.253 to 0.533) with ESR.
Applied to children with AAV, BVAS v.3 had a weak correlation with PGA and moderate correlation with both ESR and treatment decision. Prospective evaluation of BVAS v.3 and/or pediatric-specific modifications to BVAS v.3 may be required before it can be formalized as a disease activity assessment tool in pediatric AAV.
The Journal of Rheumatology 02/2012; 39(5):1088-94. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the criteria for Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) with those of the European League Against Rheumatism/Pediatric Rheumatology European Society (EULAR/PRES) in a cohort of children with WG and other antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAVs), and to describe the interval to diagnosis, presenting features, and initial treatment for WG.
Eligible patients had been diagnosed by site rheumatologists (termed the "MD diagnosis") since 2004. This diagnosis was used as a reference standard for sensitivity and specificity testing of the 2 WG classification criteria. Descriptive analyses were confined to ACR-classified WG patients.
MD diagnoses of 117 patients (82 of whom were female) were WG (n = 76), microscopic polyangiitis (n = 17), ANCA-positive pauci-immune glomerulonephritis (n = 5), Churg-Strauss syndrome (n = 2), and unclassified vasculitis (n = 17). The sensitivities of the ACR and EULAR/PRES classification criteria for WG among the spectrum of AAVs were 68.4% and 73.6%, respectively, and the specificities were 68.3% and 73.2%, respectively. Two more children were identified as having WG by the EULAR/PRES criteria than by the ACR criteria. For the 65 ACR-classified WG patients, the median age at diagnosis was 14.2 years (range 4-17 years), and the median interval from symptom onset to diagnosis was 2.7 months (range 0-49 months). The most frequent presenting features by organ system were constitutional (89.2%), pulmonary (80.0%), ear, nose, and throat (80.0%), and renal (75.4%). Fifty-four patients (83.1%) commenced treatment with the combination of corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, with widely varying regimens; the remainder received methotrexate alone (n = 1), corticosteroids alone (n = 4), or a combination (n = 6).
The EULAR/PRES criteria minimally improved diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for WG among a narrow spectrum of children with AAVs. Diagnostic delays may result from poor characterization of childhood WG. Initial therapy varied considerably among participating centers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the need for, and feasibility of, establishing a web-based USA/Canadian registry of children with chronic systemic vasculitis--an otherwise insufficiently studied population.
Physician members of the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA; n = 126) were invited to complete 2 surveys exploring vasculitis-related experience, beliefs about childhood versus adult vasculitis, and commitment to contribute patients to a prospective registry. Diagnoses included Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), childhood polyarteritis nodosa, microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), Takayasu's arteritis, primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), vasculitis, and unclassified vasculitis.
One or both surveys were completed by 102 (81%) physicians. Almost half of first-survey respondents had been in practice for > 15 years. Collective estimated lifetime experience was >1500 patients (WG and unclassified vasculitis were the most common diagnoses). Three hundred seventeen children with vasculitis were seen in the year preceding the survey, with most physicians seeing only 2-5 patients. The majority of respondents believed that childhood vasculitis differed from adult disease, particularly with respect to classification criteria and disease activity markers. Fifty-nine members committed to contribute 2 years' data (approximately 120 patients) to a pilot registry limited to time of diagnosis, focusing on WG, MPA, Churg-Strauss syndrome, PACNS, and unclassified vasculitis.
We obtained overwhelming consensus from an experienced body of pediatric rheumatologists on the need to study childhood-onset vasculitis independently from adult disease, together with commitment from sufficient members to prospectively contribute 2 years' data to a limited pilot registry to answer some basic questions about presenting and diagnostic features and initial treatment practices at disease onset.
The Journal of Rheumatology 01/2007; 34(1):224-6. · 3.19 Impact Factor