[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HOX cluster genes are activated sequentially in their positional order along the chromosome during vertebrate development. This
phenomenon, known as temporal colinearity, depends on transcriptional silencing of 5′ HOX genes. Chromatin looping was recently identified as a conserved feature of silent HOX clusters, with CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) binding sites located at the loop bases. However, the potential contribution of
CTCF to HOX cluster silencing and the underlying mechanism have not been established. Here, we demonstrate that the HOXA locus is organized by CTCF into chromatin loops and that CTCF depletion causes significantly enhanced activation of HOXA3 to -A7, -A9 to -A11, and -A13 in response to retinoic acid, with the highest effect observed for HOXA9. Our subsequent analyses revealed that CTCF facilitates the stabilization of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and trimethylated
lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) at the human HOXA locus. Our results reveal that CTCF functions as a controller of HOXA cluster silencing and mediates PRC2-repressive higher-order chromatin structure.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 08/2014; DOI:10.1128/MCB.00567-14 · 4.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrix attachment region (MAR)-binding protein (MARBP) has profound influence on gene transcriptional control by tethering genes to the nuclear scaffold. MARBP SATB2 is recently known as a versatile regulator functioning in the differentiation of multiple cell types including embryonic stem cells, osteoblasts and immunocytes. Roles of SATB2 in erythroid cells and its working mechanism in orchestrating target gene expression are largely unexplored. We show here that SATB2 is expressed in erythroid cells and activates γ-globin genes by binding to MARs in their promoters and recruiting histone acetylase PCAF. Further analysis in higher-order chromatin structure shows that SATB2 affects physical proximity of human (G)γ- and (A)γ-globin promoters via self-association. We also found that SATB2 interacts with SATB1, which specifically activates ε-globin gene expression. Our results establish SATB2 as a novel γ-globin gene regulator and provide a glimpse of the differential and cooperative roles of SATB family proteins in modulating clustered genes transcription and mediating higher-order chromatin structures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The higher order chromatin structure has recently been revealed as a critical new layer of gene transcriptional control. Changes in higher order chromatin structures were shown to correlate with the availability of transcriptional factors and/or MAR (matrix attachment region) binding proteins, which tether genomic DNA to the nuclear matrix. How posttranslational modification to these protein organizers may affect higher order chromatin structure still pending experimental investigation. The type III histone deacetylase silent mating type information regulator 2, S. cerevisiae, homolog 1 (SIRT1) participates in many physiological processes through targeting both histone and transcriptional factors. We show that MAR binding protein SATB1, which mediates chromatin looping in cytokine, MHC-I and β-globin gene loci, as a new type of SIRT1 substrate. SIRT1 expression increased accompanying erythroid differentiation and the strengthening of β-globin cluster higher order chromatin structure, while knockdown of SIRT1 in erythroid k562 cells weakened the long-range interaction between two SATB1 binding sites in the β-globin locus, MAR(HS2) and MAR(ε). We also show that SIRT1 activity significantly affects ε-globin gene expression in a SATB1-dependent manner and that knockdown of SIRT1 largely blocks ε-globin gene activation during erythroid differentiation. Our work proposes that SIRT1 orchestrates changes in higher order chromatin structure during erythropoiesis, and reveals the dynamic higher order chromatin structure regulation at posttranslational modification level.
Nucleic Acids Research 02/2012; 40(11):4804-15. DOI:10.1093/nar/gks064 · 9.11 Impact Factor