ABSTRACT: Biofilm-material interactions are increasingly recognized as critical to success of some materials/devices and failure of others. We use a model system of dental monomers, salivary pellicles, and oral biofilms to demonstrate for the first time that degree of conversion of cross-linked dimethacrylate polymers alters biofilm metabolic activity. This response is due primarily to leachable release (not surface chemistry) and is complex, with no changes in some biofilm measurements (i.e., biomass), and time- and leachable-dependent responses in others (i.e., metabolic activity). These results highlight the need for considering biofilm-material interactions when designing/evaluating new materials.
Macromolecular Bioscience 10/2012; · 3.89 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Previous studies have developed calcium phosphate and fluoride releasing composites. Other studies have incorporated chlorhexidine (CHX) particles into dental composites. However, CHX has not been incorporated in calcium phosphate and fluoride composites. The objectives of this study were to develop nanocomposites containing amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) or calcium fluoride (CaF(2)) nanoparticles and CHX particles, and investigate Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and lactic acid production for the first time.
Chlorhexidine was frozen via liquid nitrogen and ground to obtain a particle size of 0.62 μm. Four nanocomposites were fabricated with fillers of: nano ACP; nano ACP+10% CHX; nano CaF(2); nano CaF(2)+10% CHX. Three commercial materials were tested as controls: a resin-modified glass ionomer, and two composites. S. mutans live/dead assay, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, biofilm metabolic activity, and lactic acid were measured.
Adding CHX fillers to ACP and CaF(2) nanocomposites greatly increased their antimicrobial capability. ACP and CaF(2) nanocomposites with CHX that were inoculated with S. mutans had a growth medium pH>6.5 after 3 d, while the control commercial composites had a cariogenic pH of 4.2. Nanocomposites with CHX reduced the biofilm metabolic activity by 10-20 folds and reduced the acid production, compared to the controls. CFU on nanocomposites with CHX were three orders of magnitude less than that on commercial composite. Mechanical properties of nanocomposites with CHX matched a commercial composite without fluoride.
The novel calcium phosphate and fluoride nanocomposites could be rendered antibacterial with CHX to greatly reduce biofilm formation, acid production, CFU and metabolic activity. The antimicrobial and remineralizing nanocomposites with good mechanical properties may be promising for a wide range of tooth restorations with anti-caries capabilities.
Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 02/2012; 28(5):573-83. · 2.88 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Calcium and phosphate ion-releasing resin composites are promising for remineralization. However, there has been no report on incorporating antibacterial agents to these composites. The objective of this study was to develop antibacterial and mechanically strong nanocomposites incorporating a quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM), nanoparticles of silver (NAg), and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP).
The QADM, bis(2-methacryloyloxyethyl) dimethylammonium bromide (ionic dimethacrylate-1), was synthesized from 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and 2-bromoethyl methacrylate. NAg was synthesized by dissolving Ag 2-ethylhexanoate salt in 2-(tert-butylamino)ethyl methacrylate. Mechanical properties were measured in three-point flexure with bars of 2 mm×2 mm×25 mm (n=6). Composite disks (diameter=9 mm, thickness=2 mm) were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. The metabolic activity and lactic acid production of biofilms were measured (n=6). Two commercial composites were used as controls.
Flexural strength and elastic modulus of NACP+QADM, NACP+NAg, and NACP+QADM+NAg matched those of commercial composites with no antibacterial property (p>0.1). The NACP+QADM+NAg composite decreased the titer counts of adherent S. mutans biofilms by an order of magnitude, compared to the commercial composites (p<0.05). The metabolic activity and lactic acid production of biofilms on NACP+QADM+NAg composite were much less than those on commercial composites (p<0.05). Combining QADM and NAg rendered the nanocomposite more strongly antibacterial than either agent alone (p<0.05).
QADM and NAg were incorporated into calcium phosphate composite for the first time. NACP+QADM+NAg was strongly antibacterial and greatly reduced the titer counts, metabolic activity, and acid production of S. mutans biofilms, while possessing mechanical properties similar to commercial composites. These nanocomposites are promising to have the double benefits of remineralization and antibacterial capabilities to inhibit dental caries.
Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 02/2012; 28(5):561-72. · 2.88 Impact Factor