[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Until 1990, erythropoietin (EPO) was considered to have a single biological purpose and action, the stimulation of red blood cell growth and differentiation. Slowly, scientific and medical opinion evolved, beginning with the discovery of an effect on endothelial cell growth in vitro and the identification of EPO receptors (EPORs) on neuronal cells. We now know that EPO is a pleiotropic growth factor that exhibits an anti-apoptotic action on numerous cells and tissues, including malignant ones. In this article, we present a short discussion of EPO, receptors involved in EPO signal transduction, and their action on non-hematopoietic cells. This is followed by a more detailed presentation of both pre-clinical and clinical data that demonstrate EPO's action on cancer cells, as well as tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Clinical trials with reported adverse effects of chronic erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) treatment as well as clinical studies exploring the prognostic significance of EPO and EPOR expression in cancer patients are reviewed. Finally, we address the use of EPO and other ESAs in cancer patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Functional erythropoietin (EPO) signaling is not specific only to erythroid lineages and has been confirmed in several solid tumors, including breast. Three different isoforms of erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) have been reported, the soluble (EPOR-S) and truncated (EPOR-T) forms acting antagonistically to the functional EPOR. In this study, we investigated the effect of human recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEPO) on cell proliferation, early gene response and the expression of EPOR isoforms in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Materials and Methods. The MCF-7 cells were cultured with or without rHuEPO for 72 h or 10 weeks and assessed for their growth characteristics, expression of early response genes and different EPOR isoforms. The expression profile of EPOR and EPOR-T was determined in a range of breast cancer cell lines and compared with their invasive properties. Results. MCF-7 cell proliferation after rHuEPO treatment was dependent on the time of treatment andthe concentration used. High rHuEPO concentrations (40 U/ml) stimulated cell proliferation in dependently of a preceding long-term exposure of MCF-7 cells to rHuEPO, while lower concentrations increased MCF-7 proliferation only after 10 weeks of treatment. Gene expression analysis showed activation of EGR1 and FOS, confirming the functionality of EPOR. rHuEPO treatment also slightly increased the expression of the functional EPOR isoform,which, however, persisted throughout the 10 weeks of treatment. The expression levels of EPOR-T were not influenced.There were no correlations between EPOR expression and the invasiveness of MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, Hs578T, Hs578Bst, SKBR3,T-47D and MCF-10A cell lines. Conclusions. rHuEPO modulates MCF-7 cell proliferation in time- and concentration-dependent manner. We confirmed EGR1, FOS and EPOR as transcription targets of the EPO-EPOR signaling loop but could not correlate the expression of different EPOR isoforms with the invasiveness of breast cancer cell lines.
Radiology and Oncology 10/2013; 47(4):382-389. · 1.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Erythropoietin (EPO) receptor (EPOR) expression in breast cancer has been shown to correlate with the expression of estrogen receptor (ESR) and progesterone receptor (PGR) and to be associated with the response to tamoxifen in ESR+/PGR+ tumors but not in ESR- tumors. In addition, the correlation between EPOR and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 [GPER; also known as G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30)] has been reported, suggesting the prognostic potential of EPOR expression. Moreover, the involvement of colony stimulating factor 2 receptor, β, low‑affinity (CSF2RB) and ephrin type-B receptor 4 (EPHB4) as EPOR potential receptor partners in cancer has been indicated. This study analyzed the correlation between the expression of genes for EPO, EPOR, CSF2RB, EPHB4, ESR, PGR and GPER in the MCF-7, MDA-MB-361, T-47D, MDA-MB-231, Hs578Bst, SKBR3, MCF-10A and Hs578T cell lines. The cell lines were also treated with recombinant human EPO (rHuEPO) in order to determine its ability to activate the Jak/STAT5, MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways and modify cell growth characteristics. Expression analysis stratified the cell lines in 2 main clusters, hormone-dependent cell lines expressing ESR and PGR and a hormone-independent cluster. A significant correlation was observed between the expression levels of ESR and PGR and their expression was also associated with that of GPER. Furthermore, the expression of GPER was associated with that of EPOR, suggesting the connection between this orphan G protein and EPO signaling. A negative correlation between EPOR and CSF2RB expression was observed, questioning the involvement of these two receptors in the hetero-receptor formation. rHuEPO treatment only influenced the hormone-independent cell lines, since only the MDA-MB-231, SKBR3 and Hs578T cells responded to the treatment. The correlation between the expression of the analyzed receptors suggests that the receptors may interact in order to activate signaling pathways or to evade their inhibition. Therefore, breast cancer classification upon ESR, PGR and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) may not be sufficient for the selection of suitable treatment protocol. The expression of EPOR, GPER and EPHB4 may be considered as additional classification factors.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine 01/2013; · 1.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a sensitive technique for examining the influence of erythropoietin (Epo) on gene expression. A critical and fundamental step for data analysis is the selection of and normalization to the optimal reference gene(s). We identified appropriate reference gene(s) among 32 genes during chronic recombinant human Epo (rHuEpo) treatment of SH-SY5Y cells using TaqMan human Express Endogenous Control Plate. Expression stability of the selected reference gene (RPLP) was retested with qPCR, together with two commonly used reference genes (GAPDH, ACTB) and six genes of interest (EPOR, EPO, STAT5B, STAT5A, JUN, AKT). In PC12 cells, three commonly used reference genes (Gapdh, CycA and Ywhaz) and seven genes of interest (EpoR, Epo, Stat5b, Stat5a, Jun, Akt, Fos) were evaluated. For the evaluation of expression stability, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software were used. All three gave similar results. We demonstrated that among the housekeeping genes, RPLP in SH-SY5Y and CycA and Ywhaz in PC12 are the most stable genes. Additionally, we showed that normalization with GAPDH gave misleading results compared to normalization with geNorm. In conclusion, selection of the appropriate normalization gene(s) is crucial for correct interpretation of rHuEpo treatment results.
Central European Journal of Chemistry 01/2013; 11(3). · 1.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) represents a group of heterogeneous disorders characterized by skeletal, cardiac, and urogenital abnormalities that have frequently been associated with mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 or cytochrome P450 reductase genes. In some ABS patients, reduced activity of the cholesterogenic cytochrome P450 CYP51A1, an ortholog of the mouse CYP51, and accumulation of lanosterol and 24,25-dihydrolanosterol has been reported, but the role of CYP51A1 in the ABS etiology has remained obscure. To test whether Cyp51 could be involved in generating an ABS-like phenotype, a mouse knock-out model was developed that exhibited several prenatal ABS-like features leading to lethality at embryonic day 15. Cyp51(-/-) mice had no functional Cyp51 mRNA and no immunodetectable CYP51 protein. The two CYP51 enzyme substrates (lanosterol and 24,25-dihydrolanosterol) were markedly accumulated. Cholesterol precursors downstream of the CYP51 enzymatic step were not detected, indicating that the targeting in this study blocked de novo cholesterol synthesis. This was reflected in the up-regulation of 10 cholesterol synthesis genes, with the exception of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase. Lethality was ascribed to heart failure due to hypoplasia, ventricle septum, and epicardial and vasculogenesis defects, suggesting that Cyp51 deficiency was involved in heart development and coronary vessel formation. As the most likely downstream molecular mechanisms, alterations were identified in the sonic hedgehog and retinoic acid signaling pathways. Cyp51 knock-out mice provide evidence that Cyp51 is essential for embryogenesis and present a potential animal model for studying ABS syndrome in humans.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2011; 286(33):29086-97. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The level of erythropoietin, main regulator of erythropoiesis, is affected by hypoxia, anaemia, application of recombinant erythropoietin, chemotherapy and others. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) combined with double immunobloting is a method that enables distinct analysis of endogenous and recombinant erythropoietin isoforms. Aim of our study was to set up analysis of treatment effects on the pattern of endogenous erythropoietin in anaemic breast cancer patient. Urine and blood samples were collected during and after termination of the treatment and analysed by isoelectric focusing. Endogenous erythropoietin was found lower, but still detectable during darbepoetin treatment. Normal shift of erythropoietin isoforms between serum vs. urine, ordinary seen in healthy volunteers, was not observed indicating kidney damage. The patient was suffering from heavy proteinuria and had low Glomerular filtration rate indicating acute renal failure, probably caused by clinical status or cisplatin chemotherapy. IEF has not yet been used for follow up of erythropoietin profile in cancer patients. It enables to monitor the effects of treatment on the level of endogenous erythropoietin and indirectly indicates kidney function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prolonged exposure to estrogens is a significant risk factor for the development of breast cancer. Estrogens exert carcinogenic effects by stimulating cell proliferation or through oxidative metabolism that forms DNA-damaging species. In the present study, we aimed to provide a better understanding of estrogen metabolism and actions in breast cancer, and to characterize model breast cancer cell lines. We determined the expression profiles of the genes for the estrogen and progesterone receptors, and for 18 estrogen-metabolizing enzymes in eight cell lines: MCF-7, MCF-10A, T47D, SKBR3, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-361, Hs-578T and Hs-578Bst cells. Similar gene expression profiles of these receptors and enzymes for the formation of estradiol via the aromatase and sulfatase pathways were observed in the MCF-7 and T47D metastatic cell lines. The MDA-MB-361 cells expressed ESR1, ESR2 and PGR as well, but differed in expression of the estrogen-metabolizing enzymes. In the MDA-MB-231 and SKBR3 cells, all of these estrogen-forming enzymes were expressed, although the lack of ESR1 and the low levels of ESR2 expression suggested that the estrogens can only act via non-ER mediated pathways. In the non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cell line, the key enzymes of the aromatase pathway were not expressed, and the sulfatase pathway also had a marginal role. The comparison between gene expression profiles of the non-tumorigenic Hs-578Bst cells and the cancerous Hs-578T cells revealed that they can both form estrogens via the sulfatase pathway, while the aromatase pathway is less important in the Hs-578Bst cells. The Hs-578T cells showed low levels of ESR1, ESR2 and PGR expression, while only ESR1 and ESR2 expression was detected in the Hs-578Bst cells. Our data show that the cell lines examined provide the full range of model systems and should further be compared with the expression profiles of breast cancer specimens.