Li Gao

China Agricultural University, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (25)79.39 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Transcription regulatory sequences (TRSs) play a key role in the synthesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) subgenomic mRNAs, which resembles similarity-assisted RNA recombination. In this study, genome instability was found when a highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) strain was inserted by an additional transcription unit in which a foreign gene GFP was expressed from TRS2 while a copy of TRS6 drove ORF2a/b transcription. Structural protein gene-deleted genomes resulted from enhanced RNA recombinations were identified in the recombinant virus rHV-GFP. Moreover, rHV-GFP replicated slower than parental viruses, and caused less cell death in porcine alveolar macrophages. Pigs infected with rHV-GFP survived with no or mild syndromes, whereas all pigs infected with parental viruses died within 12 days. Our data showed that additional transcription unit insertion could confer genome instability and attenuation of HP-PRRSV.
    Vaccine. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a highly contagious immunosuppressive disease affecting all major poultry producing areas of the world. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is genetically prone to mutation so that vaccines have to be changed accordingly. However, the traditional method of vaccine development with blind passage could not fit the style of the emergency prevention of IBDV. In this study, for the first time, a segment-reassortment attenuated IBDV rXATB, consisting of modified segment A of a prevalent strain and segment B of an attenuated strain, was designed and rescued; rXATB was stable and could induce good humoral and cellular immune responses which resulted in excellent protection against the lethal challenge of vvIBDV without obvious immunosuppression in chicken. This study revolutionarily provides a new formulation based on reverse genetics to develop new vaccine against prevalent IBDV.
    Vaccine 01/2014; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes an economically significant disease of chickens worldwide. The emergence of very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) has brought more challenges for effective prevention of this disease. The molecular basis for the virulence of vvIBDV is not fully understood. In this study, twenty IBDV strains were phylogenically analyzed and clustered in three branches based on their full-length B-segments. The amino acid triplet located at 145/146/147 of VP1 was found highly conserved in branch I non-vvIBDVs as asparagine/glutamic acid/glycine (NEG), in branch II vvIBDVs as threonine/glutamic acid/glycine (TEG) while in branch III vvIBDVs as threonine/aspartic acid/asparagine (TDN). The further studies showed that the three amino acids play a critical role in the replication and pathogenicity of vvIBDV. Substitution of the TDN triplet with TEG or NEG reduced viral replication and pathogenicity of the vvIBDV HuB-1 strain in chickens. On the other hand, the replication of the attenuated IBDV Gt strain was reduced in CEF cells while was enhanced in the bursa by substituting NEG with TEG or TDN. The exchange of the three amino acids was also found to be capable of affecting the polymerase activity of VP1. The important role of segment B in the pathogenicity of IBDV was confirmed in this study. These results also provide new insights into the mechanism of the virulence of vvIBDVs and may offer new targets for their attenuation to develop potential vaccines using reverse genetics.
    Journal of General Virology 01/2014; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atypical porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by a highly pathogenic PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV) is characterized by high fever, high morbidity, high mortality, and associated with severe neurological symptoms. Microglia are the resident innate immune cells in central nervous system (CNS), and their activation has been implicated as an important contributor to the pathogenesis of CNS diseases. In the present study, we successfully cultured porcine microglia and demonstrated that microglia could support PRRSV infection and replication in vitro. We further showed that HP-PRRSV infection significantly up-regulated the key inflammatory factors including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, IL-8, CXCL10, MCP-1, CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 in cultured microglia as well as in the CNS of HP-PRRSV-infected pigs. The transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1, which are widely reported to regulate cytokine and chemokine productions, were activated by HP-PRRSV infection in microglia. Meanwhile, we found that HP-PRRSV induced cellular ROS formation in microglia and ROS scavenger was proved to significantly abolish the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8), suggesting that ROS are crucial for pro-inflammatory gene production. Importantly, incubation with supernatants from HP-PRRSV-infected microglia cell culture remarkably induced SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell death. Collectively, these results showed that PRRSV infection induced cytokine and ROS up-regulation in microglia, which might contribute to neurotoxicity. These data have implications for us to understand the neuropathogenesis of HP-PRRSV in pigs.
    Veterinary Microbiology 01/2014; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally and play critical roles in intricate networks of host–pathogen interactions and innate immunity. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most important diseases affecting swine industry worldwide. Here, we demonstrated that miR-23, miR-378, and miR-505 were antiviral host factors against PRRS virus (PRRSV). Over-expression of the three miRNAs inhibited PRRSV infection in a dose-dependent manner, respectively. Blockage of the three endogenously expressed miRNAs significantly enhanced PRRSV replication. Different type 2 PRRSV strains harbored conserved miR-23, miR-378, and miR-505 target sites (TSs) that were sufficient to confer miRNA-mediated repression of PRRSV replication. Interestingly, miR-23 was capable of inducing type I interferon expression during PRRSV infection through IRF3/IRF7 activation, which might further lead to the inhibition of virus infection. These results suggest that miR-23, miR-378, and miR-505, especially miR-23, may have the potential to be used as antiviral therapy against PRRSV infection.
    Virology 01/2014; s 450–451:182–195. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atypical porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is characterized by high fever and high mortality. However, the mechanism underlying the fever induction is still unknown. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesized by cyclooxygenase type 1/2 (COX-1/2) enzymes is essential for inducing fever. In this study, we found that PGE2, together with COX-1 was significantly elevated by HP-PRRSV. We subsequently demonstrated that ERK1/2 and p-ERK were the key nodes to trigger COX-1 expression after HP-PRRSV infection. Furthermore, we proved the direct binding of p-C/EBP-β to the COX-1 promoter by luciferase reporter and ChIP assays. In addition, silencing C/EBP-β remarkably impaired the enhancement of COX-1 production induced by HP-PRRSV infection. Taken together, our results indicate that HP-PPRSV elicits the expression of COX-1 through ERK1/2-p-C/EBP-β signaling pathway, resulting in the increase of PGE2, which might be the cause of high fever in infected pigs. Our findings might provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of HP-PRRSV infection.
    Journal of Virology 12/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the regions in the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) genome that are amenable to the introduction of a sequence encoding a virus-neutralizing epitope of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein were identified. By using the reverse genetics approach, insertions or substitutions of sequences encoding the NDV epitope were engineered in the exposed loops (PBC, PHI and PAA') of the VP2 capsid protein and the N terminus of the nonstructural VP5 protein as well as the pep7a and pep7b regions of the pVP2 precursor of a commonly used IBDV vaccine strain, Gt. Three recombinant IBDVs expressing the NDV epitopes were successfully rescued in the PBC, pep7b and VP5 regions and the expressed epitope was recognized by anti-HN antibodies. Genetic analysis showed that the IBDV recombinants carrying the NDV epitopes were stable in cell cultures and in chickens. Animal studies demonstrated that the IBDV recombinants were innocuous in chickens. Vaccination with the recombinant viruses generated antibody responses against both IBDV and NDV, and provided 70-80% protection against IBDV and 50-60% protection against NDV. These results indicate that the recombinant IBDV has the potential to serve as a novel vaccine vector for other pathogens. In future studies, it is worth considering research to improve IBDV vector vaccine to get complete protection and safety of animals and humans.
    Antiviral research 11/2013; · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously showed that microRNA-181 (miR-181) could inhibit PRRSV replication by directly targeting its genomic RNA. Here, we report that miR-181 can down-regulate PRRSV receptor CD163 in blood monocytes and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) through targeting the 3' UTR of CD163 mRNA. Down-regulation of CD163 leads to the inhibition of PRRSV entry into PAMs, and subsequently suppresses PRRSV infection. Our findings implicate that delivery of miR-181 can be used as antiviral therapy against PRRSV infection.
    Journal of Virology 06/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of DNA vaccination to protect chickens against reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) infection and to determine whether codon optimization and the woodchuck hepatitis virus posttranscriptional regulatory element (WPRE) could improve the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccines. The wild-type and codon-optimized gp90 genes of REV were cloned into pCAGGS vector, and designated as pCAGgp90 and pCAGoptigp90, respectively. Plasmids pCAGWgp90 and pCAGWoptigp90 containing WPRE were also constructed. To evaluate vaccine efficacy, 3-week-old specific pathogen free chickens were injected with the constructed plasmids twice at 3-week intervals and challenged with REV 3 weeks post boost. Plasmids pCAGoptigp90 and pCAGWgp90 elicited significantly higher humoral and cellular immune responses than pCAGgp90, while chickens immunized with pCAGWoptigp90 showed the highest immune responses among the groups. Chickens immunized with pCAGgp90, pCAGoptigp90, pCAGWgp90 or pCAGWoptigp90 had 53%, 67%, 73% or 87% protection, respectively, as evidenced by the absence of REV viremia, while the empty vector pCAGGS only conferred 13% protection against viremia. These results highlight the potential value of DNA vaccination in the prevention of REV infection and suggest that codon optimization and WPRE could increase the efficacy of DNA vaccines.
    Veterinary Microbiology 05/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective efficacy of DNA vaccines against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in chickens and to determine whether codon optimization and the woodchuck hepatitis virus posttranscriptional regulatory element (WPRE) could improve the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccines. The VP2, VP243 and codon-optimized VP243 genes of IBDV were cloned into pCAGGS vector, and designated as pCAGVP2, pCAGVP243 and pCAGoptiVP243, respectively. Plasmids pCAGWVP243 and pCAGWoptiVP243 carrying the WPRE elements were also constructed as DNA vaccines. To evaluate vaccine efficacy, 2-week-old chickens were injected intramuscularly with the constructed plasmids twice at 2-week intervals and challenged with very virulent IBDV 2 weeks post-boost. Plasmid pCAGVP243 induced better immune responses than pCAGVP2. Chickens immunized with pCAGoptiVP243 and pCAGWVP243 had higher levels of antibody titers, lymphoproliferation responses and cytokine production compared with pCAGVP243. Furthermore, plasmid pCAGWoptiVP243 induced the highest levels of immune responses among the groups. After challenged, DNA vaccines pCAGVP2, pCAGVP243, pCAGoptiVP243, pCAGWVP243 and pCAGWoptiVP243 conferred protection for 33%, 60%, 80%, 87% and 100% of chickens, respectively, as evidenced by the absence of clinical signs, mortality, and bursal atrophy. These results indicate that codon optimization and WPRE could enhance the protective efficacy of DNA vaccines against IBDV and these two approaches could work together synergistically in a single DNA vaccine.
    Virus Research 04/2013; · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) causes an oncogenic, immunosuppressive and runting syndrome in multiple avian hosts worldwide. In this study, an optimal vaccination strategy was developed to enhance the immune responses against REV infection. Chickens were vaccinated twice intramuscularly with plasmid pCAGgp90 encoding gp90 protein of REV, or with recombinant gp90 protein, or vaccinated with plasmid pCAGgp90 and then boosted with recombinant gp90 protein. The humoral immune responses were monitored by ELISA and virus neutralizing test. In addition, lymphocyte proliferation response, cytokine production and protection effectiveness against REV infection were also evaluated. Although all vaccinated groups developed immune responses, chickens primed with pCAGgp90 plasmid and boosted with rgp90 protein developed higher levels of antibodies compared with those immunized with pCAGgp90 plasmid or rgp90 protein alone. Furthermore, enhanced cellular immune responses were induced following priming with the pCAGgp90 plasmid and boosting with the rgp90 protein. In addition, the DNA prime-protein boost vaccine yielded 100% protection of chickens from REV viremia caused by challenge infection. These findings demonstrated that a DNA prime-protein boost vaccination strategy could enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses in chickens, highlighting the potential value of such an approach in the prevention of REV infection.
    Vaccine 02/2013; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an important cytokine with multiple functions in innate and acquired immunity. In this study, chicken IL-18 was evaluated for its adjuvant effects on the protective immunity of a DNA vaccine carrying the VP243 gene of IBDV. Groups of 14-day-old SPF chickens were given twice at 2-week intervals with 100μg of the plasmid DNA vaccine pCAGVP243, pCAGVP243-IL-18 and the blank vector pCAGGS, respectively, and challenged with vvIBDV (HLJ0504 strain) 2 weeks later. Chickens immunized with plasmid pCAGVP243-IL-18 carrying both VP243 and IL-18 genes induced significantly higher levels of antibodies, lymphocyte proliferation responses and of the cytokines IL-4 and IFN-γ than those injected with pCAGVP243 encoding the VP243 gene alone. Furthermore, pCAGVP243-IL-18 provided higher protection (93%) against vvIBDV challenge in chickens than pCAGVP243 (60%), as evidenced by the absence of clinical signs, mortality, and bursal atrophy. These results indicated that the cytokine IL-18 could enhance the immune responses and protection efficacy of DNA vaccine against IBDV infection in chickens, highlighting the potential value of chicken IL-18 as an adjuvant in the prevention of vvIBDV infection.
    Vaccine 02/2013; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infectious bursal disease virus causes an acute contagious immunosuppressive disease in chickens. Using VP2 protein from IBDV (Gx strain) as the immunogen, the goal of the current study was to evaluate the immune responses and protective efficacy elicited by different prime-boost vaccination regimens (DNA only, protein only, and DNA plus protein) in chickens. The results indicated that both pCAGoptiVP2 plasmid and rVP2 protein induced humoral and cellular immune responses. Chickens in the DNA prime-protein boost group developed significantly higher levels of ELISA and neutralizing antibodies to IBDV compared with those immunized with either the DNA vaccine or the protein vaccine alone (P<0.05). Furthermore, the highest levels of lymphocyte proliferation response, IL-4 and IFN-γ production were induced following priming with the DNA vaccine and boosting with the rVP2 protein. Additionally, chickens inoculated with the DNA prime-protein boost vaccine had 100% protection against challenge with vvIBDV, as evidenced by the absence of clinical signs, mortality, and bursal atrophy. In contrast, chickens receiving the DNA vaccine and the rVP2 protein vaccine had 67% and 80% protection, respectively. These findings demonstrated that the DNA prime-protein boost immunization strategy was effective in eliciting both humoral and cellular immune responses in chickens, highlighting the potential value of such an approach in the prevention of vvIBDV infection.
    Veterinary Microbiology 02/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important arterivirus that can cause significant losses in swine industry. At present, there are no adequate control strategies against PRRSV. Thus, there is an urgent need for new treatment regimens that have efficacious antiviral activity to compensate for vaccines. Cryptoporus volvatus commonly serves as an anti-infective agent in Tradational Chinese Medicines. In this report, we exploited whether the aqueous extract from the fruiting body of Cryptoporus volvatus had the potential to inhibit PRRSV infection. Our results showed that the extract significantly inhibited PRRSV infection by repressing virus entry, viral RNA expression, and possibly viral protein synthesis, cell-to-cell spread, and releasing of virus particles. However, it did not block PRRSV binding to cells. Further studies confirmed that the extract directly inhibited PRRSV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity, thus interfering with PRRSV RNA and protein synthesis. More importantly, the extract efficiently inhibited highly pathologic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) infection in vivo, reduced virus load in serum, and increased the survival rate of pigs inoculated with HP-PRRSV strain. Collectively, our findings imply that the aqueous extract from the fruiting body of Cryptoporus volvatus has the potential to be used for anti-PRRSV therapies.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e63767. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a pathogen of worldwide significance to the poultry industry. Although the PDE and PFG domains of the capsid protein VP2 contribute significantly to virulence and fitness, the detailed molecular basis for the pathogenicity of IBDV is still not fully understood. Because residues 253 and 284 of VP2 are not the sole determinants of virulence, we hypothesized that other residues involved in virulence and fitness might exist in the PDE and PFG domains of VP2. To test this, five amino acid changes selected by sequence comparison of the PDE and PFG domains of VP2 were introduced individually using a reverse genetics system into the virulent strain (rGx-F9VP2). Then reverse mutations of the selected residues 249 and 256 were introduced individually into the attenuated strain (rGt). Seven modified viruses were generated and evaluated in vitro (CEF cells) and in vivo (SPF chicken). For residue 249, Q249R could elevate in vitro and reduce in vivo the replication of rGx-F9VP2 while R249Q could reduce in vitro and elevate in vivo the replication of rGt; meanwhile Q249R reduced the virulence of rGx-F9VP2 while R249Q increased the virulence of rGt, which indicated that residue 249 significantly contributed to the replication and virulence of IBDV. For residue 256, I256V could elevate in vitro and reduce in vivo the replication of rGx-F9VP2 while V256I could reduce in vitro but didn't change in vivo the replication of rGt; although V256I didn't increase the virulence of rGt, I256V obviously reduced the virulence of virulent IBDV. The present results demonstrate for the first time, to different extent, residues 249 and 256 of VP2 are involved in the replication efficiency and virulence of IBDV; this is not only beneficial to further understanding of pathogenic mechanism but also to the design of newly tailored vaccines against IBDV.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e70982. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) represents a significant challenge to the swine industry worldwide. Current control strategies against PRRSV are still inadequate and there is an urgent need for new antiviral therapies. Flavaspidic acid AB (FA-AB) is a compound derived from Dryopteris crassirhizoma, a traditional antiviral Chinese medicine. Here, we first identified its anti-PRRSV activity through targeting multiple stages in PRRSV infection in vitro. Our studies demonstrated that FA-AB could inhibit the internalization and cell-to-cell spreading of PRRSV, but not block PRRSV binding to cells. By monitoring the kinetics of PRRSV replication, we showed that FA-AB significantly suppressed PRRSV replication when treatment was initiated 24 hours after virus infection. Furthermore, we confirmed that FA-AB was able to significantly induce IFN-α, IFN-β, and IL1-β expression in porcine alveolar macrophages, suggesting that induction of antiviral cytokines by FA-AB could contribute to FA-AB induced inhibition of PRRSV replication. In conclusion, we provide a foundation for the possibility to develop a new therapeutic agent to control PRRSV infection.
    Antiviral research 11/2012; · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most important viral pathogens in swine industry. Emerging evidence indicates that the host microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in host-pathogen interactions. However, whether host miRNAs can target PRRSV and be used to inhibit PRRSV infection has not been reported. Recently, miR-181 has been identified as a positive regulator of immune response, and here we report that miR-181 can directly impair PRRSV infection. Our results showed that delivered miR-181 mimics can strongly inhibit PRRSV replication in vitro through specifically binding to a highly conserved region (over 96%) in the downstream of open reading frame 4 (ORF4) of the viral genomic RNA. The inhibition of PRRSV replication was specific and dose-dependent. In PRRSV-infected Marc-145 cells, the viral mRNAs could compete with miR-181-targeted sequence in luciferase vector to interact with miR-181 and result in less inhibition of luciferase activity, further demonstrating the specific interactions between miR-181 and PRRSV RNAs. As expected, miR-181 and other potential PRRSV-targeting miRNAs (such as miR-206) are expressed much more abundantly in low-permissive cells or tissues than in high-permissive cells or tissues. Importantly, highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) strain-infected pigs treated with miR-181 mimics showed substantially decreased viral load in blood and relief from PRRSV-induced fever compared to negative control (NC)-treated controls. These results implicate the important role of host miRNAs in modulating PRRSV infection and viral pathogenesis, and also support the idea that host miRNAs could be useful for RNAi-mediated antiviral therapeutic strategies.
    Journal of Virology 11/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) causes an oncogenic, immunosuppressive and runting syndrome in multiple avian hosts worldwide. In this study, the gp90 protein of REV was secretory expressed in Pichia pastoris with high production level and good antigenicity. To fully utilize the expression potential of the P. pastoris expression system, a panel of Pichia clones carrying increasing copies of the gp90 expression cassette was created using an in vitro multimerization approach and the effects of gene dosage on gp90 expression were investigated. Results demonstrated that an increase in gp90 copy number can significantly improve the yields of gp90 protein. Following expression and scale-up, the gp90 protein production level could reach up to 400mg/L, and the protein could be detected by gp90-specific monoclonal antibody. Investigations of its vaccine efficacy demonstrated that the recombinant gp90 protein was able to induce sustained high levels of antibodies against REV as being detected by ELISA and virus neutralizing test. Furthermore, immunization of chickens with the recombinant gp90 vaccine fully protected the animals from viremia after REV infection. Overall, the yeast-expressed gp90 protein retains good immunogenicity and could be used as a potential subunit vaccine candidate for REV prevention.
    Vaccine 03/2012; 30(13):2273-81. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reverse genetic systems for efficient generation of very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) are currently limited. In this study, we have developed a simple and efficient way to rescue vvIBDV using SPF chickens. The genome of a vvIBDV strain, HLJ0504, flanked by hammerhead and hepatitis delta ribozyme sequences, was cloned downstream of the cytomegalovirus enhancer and the chicken beta-actin promoter of the vector pCAGGS. After transfection of DF-1 cells, cell suspensions were injected into the bursa organ of three-week-old SPF chickens. Using this system, vvIBDV was recovered at high titers after one passage, and the rescued vvIBDV remained highly lethal to SPF chickens. This simple and efficient method to rescue vvIBDV will be a valuable tool for better understanding the molecular virulence determinants of vvIBDV.
    Archives of Virology 02/2012; 157(5):969-73. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to express the gp90 protein of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) in Pichia pastoris and evaluate its potential use as a diagnostic antigen in ELISA. The full-length gp90 gene of REV was cloned into pPIC9k vector and then integrated into the chromosome of P. pastoris for induced expression. SDS-PAGE and western blot assay demonstrated that gp90 protein was expressed and secreted into the culture medium at about 100mg/L of culture under optimized condition. An indirect ELISA was then established by using the recombinant gp90 protein as the coating antigen. The optimal concentration of coated antigen was 0.1 μg/well at a serum dilution of 1:200 and the optimal positive threshold value of the assay was 0.409. Cross-reactivity assay showed that this antigen was REV specific. The reproducibility experiment displayed good consistency. Furthermore, the gp90 protein based indirect ELISA showed good correlation rates of 96.3% and 97.5% with virus neutralization test and a commercially whole virus based indirect ELISA, respectively. This study demonstrates the efficacy of recombinant gp90 protein as an antigen in ELISA for seroepidemiological study of REV infection on a large scale.
    Journal of virological methods 12/2011; 180(1-2):43-8. · 2.13 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

57 Citations
79.39 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • China Agricultural University
      • • State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology
      • • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2009–2014
    • Harbin Veterinary Research Institute
      Charbin, Heilongjiang Sheng, China
  • 2010
    • Northeast Agricultural University
      Charbin, Heilongjiang Sheng, China