Hirotomo Saitsu

Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan

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Publications (172)692.44 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) (MIM #606690) is a rare lung disorder leading to respiratory failure associated with progressive cystic destruction due to the proliferation and infiltration of abnormal smooth muscle-like cells (LAM cells). LAM can occur alone (sporadic LAM, S-LAM) or combined with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC-LAM). TSC is caused by a germline heterozygous mutation in either TSC1 or TSC2, and TSC-LAM is thought to occur as a result of a somatic mutation (second hit) in addition to a germline mutation in TSC1 or TSC2 (first hit). S-LAM is also thought to occur under the two-hit model involving a somatic mutation and/or loss of heterozygosity in TSC2. To identify TSC1 or TSC2 changes in S-LAM patients, the two genes were analyzed by deep next-generation sequencing (NGS) using genomic DNA from blood leukocytes (n = 9), LAM tissue from lung (n = 7), LAM cultured cells (n = 4), or LAM cell clusters (n = 1). We identified nine somatic mutations in six of nine S-LAM patients (67 %) with mutant allele frequencies of 1.7-46.2 %. Three of these six patients (50 %) showed two different TSC2 mutations with allele frequencies of 1.7-28.7 %. Furthermore, at least five mutations with low prevalence (<20 % of allele frequency) were confirmed by droplet digital PCR. As LAM tissues are likely to be composed of heterogeneous cell populations, mutant allele frequencies can be low. Our results confirm the consistent finding of TSC2 mutations in LAM samples, and highlight the benefit of laser capture microdissection and in-depth allele analyses for detection, such as NGS.
    Human Genetics 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00439-015-1611-0 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Recent studies have elucidated causative roles for genetic abnormalities in early-onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEE). Accompanying characteristic features, in addition to seizures, have also been suggested to provide important clues for an early and accurate genetic diagnosis of affected patients. In this study, we investigated the underlying genetic causes in patients with EOEE associated with infantile movement disorders. Methods: We examined 11 patients with EOEE and involuntary movements (nine with West syndrome and two with nonsyndromic epileptic encephalopathy). All showed severe developmental delay, cognitive impairment, and involuntary movements such as chorea, ballism, dyskinesia or myoclonus, and hand stereotypies. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 10 patients, while the other patient underwent high-resolution melting analysis of candidate EOEE genes. Results: We identified mutations in CDKL5, SCN2A, SETD5, ALG13, and TBL1XR1 in seven patients with West syndrome, and in SCN1A and GRIN1 in the two patients with unclassified epileptic encephalopathy. All mutations were validated as de novo events. The genetic cause was undetermined in the remaining two patients. Conclusions: We found pathogenic mutations in seven genes, in nine of 11 patients with EOEE and involuntary movements. Although the results of our study are preliminary because of the small number of patients, they nevertheless suggest that specific accompanying phenotypes such as hyperkinetic movements or hand stereotypies could be important in narrowing the disease spectrum and identifying causative genetic abnormalities.
    Brain & development 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.braindev.2015.09.011 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The voltage-gated Kv2.1 potassium channel encoded by KCNB1 produces the major delayed rectifier potassium current in pyramidal neurons. Recently, de novo heterozygous missense KCNB1 mutations have been identified in three patients with epileptic encephalopathy and a patient with neurodevelopmental disorder. However, the frequency of KCNB1 mutations in infantile epileptic patients and their effects on neuronal activity are yet unknown. We searched whole exome sequencing data of a total of 437 patients with infantile epilepsy, and found novel de novo heterozygous missense KCNB1 mutations in two patients showing psychomotor developmental delay and severe infantile generalized seizures with high-amplitude spike-and-wave electroencephalogram discharges. The mutation located in the channel voltage sensor (p.R306C) disrupted sensitivity and cooperativity of the sensor, while the mutation in the channel pore domain (p.G401R) selectively abolished endogenous Kv2 currents in transfected pyramidal neurons, indicating a dominant-negative effect. Both mutants inhibited repetitive neuronal firing through preventing production of deep interspike voltages. Thus KCNB1 mutations can be a rare genetic cause of infantile epilepsy, and insufficient firing of pyramidal neurons would disturb both development and stability of neuronal circuits, leading to the disease phenotypes.
    Scientific Reports 10/2015; 5:15199. DOI:10.1038/srep15199 · 5.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative lysosomal diseases. Fourteen distinct NCL subtypes (CLN1-CLN14) are known, and they are caused by mutations in different genes. CLN8 was first identified in Finnish patients, and the phenotype was subsequently found in Turkish, Italian, and Pakistani patients. We report a 6-year-old Japanese boy with NCL with a novel missense mutation in CLN8. At the age of 3years, he manifested frequent drop seizures, and then progressively developed motor difficulties with an ataxic gait, myoclonus, left conjugate deviation, and rotational nystagmus. At age 5, he developed profound visual difficulty and dysphagia, and he has now lost his mobility. A bone marrow examination at age 5 showed sea-blue histiocytes. An electroretinogram was non-recordable. No giant somatosensory evoked potentials were found. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral diffuse hyperintensities in the white matter around the lateral ventricles and cerebellar and pontine atrophy on T2-weighted images. In a lysosomal enzyme study, the palmitoyl-protein-thioesterase and pepinase activity was within normal limits. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a homozygous CLN8 mutation: c.620T>G (p.L207R). His parents were both heterozygous for this mutation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a CLN8 mutation in late infantile NCL in Japan.
    Brain & development 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.braindev.2015.09.008 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Warburg micro syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease where patients present with optic, neurologic and genital symptoms. Until now, four disease genes for Warburg micro syndrome, RAB3GAP1, RAB3GAP2, RAB18 and TBC1D20, have been identified. Here, we report two novel homozygous RAB3GAP1 mutations (c.22G>T, p.Glu8* and c.1353delA, p.Pro452Hisfs*5) in two consanguineous families by whole-exome sequencing.
    09/2015; 2:15034. DOI:10.1038/hgv.2015.34
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, de novo KIF1A mutations were identified in patients with intellectual disability, spasticity and cerebellar atrophy and/or optic nerve atrophy. In this study, we analyzed a total of 62 families, including 68 patients with genetically unsolved childhood cerebellar atrophy, by whole-exome sequencing (WES). We identified five de novo missense KIF1A mutations, including only one previously reported mutation (p.Arg316Trp). All the mutations are located in the motor domain of KIF1A. In all patients, initial symptom onset was during the infantile period, and included developmental delay in three patients and gait disturbance in two. Thereafter, they showed gait disturbances, exaggerated deep tendon reflexes, cerebellar symptoms and cerebellar atrophy on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Four patients showed lower limb spasticity, upper limb clumsiness and visual disturbances. Nerve conduction study revealed peripheral neuropathy in three patients. This study further delineates clinical features of de novo KIF1A mutations. Genetic testing of KIF1A should be considered in children with developmental delay, cerebellar atrophy and pyramidal features.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 10 September 2015; doi:10.1038/jhg.2015.108.
    Journal of Human Genetics 09/2015; DOI:10.1038/jhg.2015.108 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is a huge protein complex embedded in the nuclear envelope. It has central functions in nucleocytoplasmic transport, nuclear framework, and gene regulation. Nucleoporin 107 kDa (NUP107) is a component of the NPC central scaffold and is an essential protein in all eukaryotic cells. Here, we report on biallelic NUP107 mutations in nine affected individuals who are from five unrelated families and show early-onset steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). These individuals have pathologically focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, a condition that leads to end-stage renal disease with high frequency. NUP107 is ubiquitously expressed, including in glomerular podocytes. Three of four NUP107 mutations detected in the affected individuals hamper NUP107 binding to NUP133 (nucleoporin 133 kDa) and NUP107 incorporation into NPCs in vitro. Zebrafish with nup107 knockdown generated by morpholino oligonucleotides displayed hypoplastic glomerulus structures and abnormal podocyte foot processes, thereby mimicking the pathological changes seen in the kidneys of the SRNS individuals with NUP107 mutations. Considering the unique properties of the podocyte (highly differentiated foot-process architecture and slit membrane and the inability to regenerate), we propose a "podocyte-injury model" as the pathomechanism for SRNS due to biallelic NUP107 mutations.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.08.013 · 10.93 Impact Factor

  • Journal of the neurological sciences 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2015.08.008 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: No population-based surveys of porencephaly, schizencephaly, and hydranencephaly have been conducted in Japan or other Asian countries. We performed a neuroepidemiologic analysis to elucidate the incidence of porencephaly, schizencephaly, and hydranencephaly in Miyagi prefecture, Japan, during 2007-2011. Methods: We sent inquiry forms in February 2012 to three neonatal intensive care units, 25 divisions of orthopedic surgery in municipal hospitals, 33 divisions of pediatrics including one university hospital, municipal hospitals, pediatric practitioners, and institutions for physically handicapped children located in Miyagi prefecture. These covered all clinics related to pediatric neurology and orthopedic surgery in Miyagi prefecture. In the inquiry, diagnostic criteria for porencephaly, schizencephaly, and hydranencephaly were described and representative images of magnetic resonance imaging were shown. We obtained an 82% (27 of 33) response rate from the divisions of pediatrics, a 100% (3 of 3) response rate from the neonatal intensive care units, and a 68% (17 of 25) response rate from orthopedic surgery clinics. The magnetic resonance imaging scans of each patient were retrieved and inspected. Results: Five, one, and two individuals developed porencephaly, schizencephaly, and hydranencephaly, respectively. The estimated incidence rates of porencephaly, schizencephaly, and hydranencephaly were 5.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.6-9.8), 1.0 (95% CI, 0.0-3.1), and 2.1 (95% CI, 0.0-5.0) per 100,000 live births, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence rates of porencephaly, schizencephaly, and hydranencephaly at birth reported herein are compatible with results reported previously in the United States and European countries. The overall prevalence rate of these three diseases was 8.3 (95% CI, 2.6-14.1) per 100,000 live births.
    Pediatric Neurology 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.08.016 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the male germline, neonatal prospermatogonia give rise to spermatogonia, which include stem cell population (undifferentiated spermatogonia) that supports continuous spermatogenesis in adults. Although the levels of DNA methyltransferases change dynamically in the neonatal and early postnatal male germ cells, detailed genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of these cells during the stem cell formation and differentiation have not been reported. To understand the regulation of spermatogonial stem cell formation and differentiation, we examined the DNA methylation and gene expression dynamics of male mouse germ cells at the critical stages: neonatal prospermatogonia, and early postntal (day 7) undifferentiated and differentiating spermatogonia. We found large partially methylated domains similar to those found in cancer cells and placenta in all these germ cells, and high levels of non-CG methylation and 5-hydroxymethylcytosines in neonatal prospermatogonia. Although the global CG methylation levels were stable in early postnatal male germ cells, and despite the reported scarcity of differential methylation in the adult spermatogonial stem cells, we identified many regions showing stage-specific differential methylation in and around genes important for stem cell function and spermatogenesis. These regions contained binding sites for specific transcription factors including the SOX family members. Our findings show a distinctive and dynamic regulation of DNA methylation during spermatogonial stem cell formation and differentiation in the neonatal and early postnatal testes. Furthermore, we revealed a unique accumulation and distribution of non-CG methylation and 5hmC marks in neonatal prospermatogonia. These findings contrast with the reported scarcity of differential methylation in adult spermatogonial stem cell differentiation and represent a unique phase of male germ cell development.
    BMC Genomics 08/2015; 16(1):624. DOI:10.1186/s12864-015-1833-5 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: KCNT1 mutations have been found in epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS; also known as migrating partial seizures in infancy), autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, and other types of early onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs). We performed KCNT1-targeted next-generation sequencing (207 samples) and/or whole-exome sequencing (229 samples) in a total of 362 patients with Ohtahara syndrome, West syndrome, EIMFS, or unclassified EOEEs. We identified nine heterozygous KCNT1 mutations in 11 patients: nine of 18 EIMFS cases (50%) in whom migrating foci were observed, one of 180 West syndrome cases (0.56%), and one of 66 unclassified EOEE cases (1.52%). KCNT1 mutations occurred de novo in 10 patients, and one was transmitted from the patient's mother who carried a somatic mosaic mutation. The mutations accumulated in transmembrane segment 5 (2/9, 22.2%) and regulators of K(+) conductance domains (7/9, 77.8%). Five of nine mutations were recurrent. Onset ages ranged from the neonatal period (<1 month) in five patients (5/11, 45.5%) to 1-4 months in six patients (6/11, 54.5%). A generalized attenuation of background activity on electroencephalography was seen in six patients (6/11, 54.5%). Our study demonstrates that the phenotypic spectrum of de novo KCNT1 mutations is largely restricted to EIMFS. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.
    Epilepsia 07/2015; 56(9). DOI:10.1111/epi.13072 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glycine encephalopathy (GCE) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by defects in the glycine cleavage complex. Here we report a patient with GCE and elevated level of glycine in both the serum and the cerebrospinal fluid. Trio-based whole-exome sequencing identified novel compound heterozygous mutations (c.738-2A>G and c.929T>C (p.Met310Thr)) in LIAS. To date, three homozygous mutations have been reported in LIAS. All previously reported GCE patients also show elevated level of serum glycine. Our data further supports LIAS mutations as a genetic cause for GCE.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 25 June 2015; doi:10.1038/jhg.2015.72.
    Journal of Human Genetics 06/2015; DOI:10.1038/jhg.2015.72 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Defects in the mitochondrial translation apparatus can impair energy production in affected tissues and organs. Most components of this apparatus are encoded by nuclear genes, including GFM2, which encodes a mitochondrial ribosome recycling factor. A few patients with mutations in some of these genes have been reported to date. Here, we present two female siblings with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, optic atrophy and severe mental retardation. The younger sister had a progressive cerebellar atrophy and bilateral neuropathological findings in the brainstem. Although her cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of lactate and pyruvate were not increased, brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed a lactate peak. Additionally, her CSF lactate/pyruvate and serum beta-hydroxybutyrate/acetoacetate ratios were high, and levels of oxidative phosphorylation in skin fibroblasts were reduced. We therefore diagnosed Leigh syndrome. Genomic investigation confirmed the presence of compound heterozygous GFM2 mutations (c.206+4A>G and c.2029-1G>A) in both siblings, causing aberrant splicing with premature stop codons (p.Gly50Glufs*4 and p.Ala677Leufs*2, respectively). These findings suggest that GFM2 mutations could be causative of a phenotype of Leigh syndrome with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 28 May 2015; doi:10.1038/jhg.2015.57.
    Journal of Human Genetics 05/2015; 60(9). DOI:10.1038/jhg.2015.57 · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Shinichi Hirabayashi · Hirotomo Saitsu · Naomichi Matsumoto ·
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    ABSTRACT: Two siblings born to non-consanguineous parents showed nystagmus and sudden opistotonic posturing from the early infancy, and subsequent developmental delay and marked choreiform movements with hypotonia in the childhood. The brother had a mild postnatal microcephaly. Brain MRI of the sister showed mild delay of myelination, dilated anterior horn and mild cerebellar atrophy. Whole exome sequencing (WES) revealed compound heterozygous mutations in MED17 gene in both siblings: c.1013-5A>G and c.1484T>G mutations transmitted from their father and mother, respectively. The c.1013-5A>G mutation caused insertion of 4 bases of intron 6 in the transcript, resulting in frameshift (p. Ser338Asnfs*15), and mutant transcript underwent nonsense-mediated mRNA decay in lymphoblastoid cells derived from two siblings. The c.1484T>G mutation substituted a leucine residue, which is highly conserved among the vertebrates, and was predicted to be damaging by in silico analysis programs. Both mutations were not registered in dbSNP data and in our 575 control exomes. These results suggest that the siblings' mutations are likely to be pathogenic. This is the second case report concerning MED17 mutations. Compared with the first reported cases of Caucasian Jewish origin, the clinical symptoms and courses are much milder and slower, respectively, in our cases. Genotype difference (a homozygous mutation versus compound heterozygous mutations) might explain these clinical differences between two cases, though early-onset nystagmus and later choreiform movements were unique in our cases. Clinical spectrum and phenotype-genotype correlations in this rare mutation should be further elucidated. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Brain & development 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.braindev.2015.05.004 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leigh syndrome (LS) is an early-onset progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. LS is characterised by elevated lactate and pyruvate and bilateral symmetric hyperintense lesions in the basal ganglia, thalamus, brainstem, cerebral white matter or spinal cord on T2-weighted MRI. LS is a genetically heterogeneous disease, and to date mutations in approximately 40 genes related to mitochondrial function have been linked to the disorder. We investigated a pair of female monozygotic twins diagnosed with LS from consanguineous healthy parents of Indian origin. Their common clinical features included optic atrophy, ophthalmoplegia, spastic paraparesis and mild intellectual disability. High-blood lactate and high-intensity signal in the brainstem on T2-weighted MRI were consistent with a clinical diagnosis of LS. To identify the genetic cause of their condition, we performed whole exome sequencing. We identified a homozygous nonsense mutation in C12orf65 (NM_001143905; c.346delG, p.V116*) in the affected twins. Interestingly, the identical mutation was previously reported in an Indian family with Charcot-Marie Tooth disease type 6, which displayed some overlapping clinical features with the twins. We demonstrate that the identical nonsense mutation in C12orf65 can result in different clinical features, suggesting the involvement of unknown modifiers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 05/2015; DOI:10.1136/jnnp-2014-310084 · 6.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: De novo GNAO1 variants have been found in four patients including three patients with Ohtahara syndrome and one patient with childhood epilepsy. In addition, two patients showed involuntary movements, suggesting that GNAO1 variants can cause various neurological phenotypes. Here we report an additional four patients with de novo missense GNAO1 variants, one of which was identical to that of the previously reported. All the three novel variants were predicted to impair Gαo function by structural evaluation. Two patients showed early-onset epileptic encephalopathy, presenting with migrating or multifocal partial seizures in their clinical course, but the remaining two patients showed no or a few seizures. All the four patients showed severe intellectual disability, motor developmental delay, and involuntary movements. Progressive cerebral atrophy and thin corpus callosum were common features in brain images. Our study demonstrated that GNAO1 variants can cause involuntary movements and severe developmental delay with/without seizures, including various types of early-onset epileptic encephalopathy.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 13 May 2015; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.92.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 05/2015; DOI:10.1038/ejhg.2015.92 · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Voltage-gated sodium channel Nav 1.6, encoded by the gene SCN8A, plays a crucial role in controlling neuronal excitability. SCN8A mutations that cause increased channel activity are associated with seizures. We describe a patient with epileptic encephalopathy caused by de novo SCN8A mutation (c.5614C>T, p.Arg1872Trp). Seizures began 10 days after birth at which time brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) were normal. Seizure recurrence increased with age, leading to the development of frequent status epilepticus from 1 year of age. Seizure type included generalized tonic seizures and focal motor seizures. EEG first showed focal epileptic activity at the age of 4 months, and thereafter showed multifocal spikes. Serial MRI demonstrated brain atrophy, which appeared to progress with seizure aggravation. Clinical features that may give a clue to the diagnosis include normal EEG despite frequent seizures in early infancy and an increase in epileptic activity that occurs with aging. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.
    Pediatrics International 05/2015; 57(4). DOI:10.1111/ped.12622 · 0.73 Impact Factor

  • European Journal of Paediatric Neurology 05/2015; 19. DOI:10.1016/S1090-3798(15)30015-5 · 2.30 Impact Factor

  • European Journal of Paediatric Neurology 05/2015; 19:S5-S6. DOI:10.1016/S1090-3798(15)30016-7 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) Type IIb is a cortical malformation characterized by cortical architectural abnormalities, dysmorphic neurons, and balloon cells. It has been suggested that FCDs are caused by somatic mutations in cells in the developing brain. Here, we explore the possible involvement of somatic mutations in FCD Type IIb. We collected a total of 24 blood-brain paired samples with FCD, including 13 individuals with FCD Type IIb, five with Type IIa, and six with Type I. We performed whole exome sequencing using paired samples from nine of the FCD Type IIb subjects. Somatic MTOR mutations were identified and further investigated using all 24 paired samples by deep sequencing of the entire gene's coding region. Somatic MTOR mutations were confirmed by droplet digital PCR. The effect of MTOR mutations on mTOR kinase signaling was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses of brain samples and by in vitro transfection experiments. We identified four lesion-specific somatic MTOR mutations in six of 13 (46%) individuals with FCD Type IIb showing mutant allele rates of 1.11-9.31%. Functional analyses showed that phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in FCD Type IIb brain tissues with MTOR mutations was clearly elevated compared with control samples. Transfection of any of the four MTOR mutants into HEK293T cells led to elevated phosphorylation of 4EBP, the direct target of mTOR kinase. We found low-prevalence somatic mutations in MTOR in FCD Type IIb, indicating that activating somatic mutations in MTOR cause FCD Type IIb. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 American Neurological Association.
    Annals of Neurology 05/2015; 78(3). DOI:10.1002/ana.24444 · 9.98 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
692.44 Total Impact Points


  • 2007-2015
    • Yokohama City University
      Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2013
    • Yamagata University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Ямагата, Yamagata, Japan
  • 2005-2008
    • Kyoto University
      • Department of Anatomy and Development Biology
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 2003
    • Fukuoka University
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan