Hirotomo Saitsu

Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan

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Publications (157)639.63 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Defects in the mitochondrial translation apparatus can impair energy production in affected tissues and organs. Most components of this apparatus are encoded by nuclear genes, including GFM2, which encodes a mitochondrial ribosome recycling factor. A few patients with mutations in some of these genes have been reported to date. Here, we present two female siblings with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, optic atrophy and severe mental retardation. The younger sister had a progressive cerebellar atrophy and bilateral neuropathological findings in the brainstem. Although her cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of lactate and pyruvate were not increased, brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed a lactate peak. Additionally, her CSF lactate/pyruvate and serum beta-hydroxybutyrate/acetoacetate ratios were high, and levels of oxidative phosphorylation in skin fibroblasts were reduced. We therefore diagnosed Leigh syndrome. Genomic investigation confirmed the presence of compound heterozygous GFM2 mutations (c.206+4A>G and c.2029-1G>A) in both siblings, causing aberrant splicing with premature stop codons (p.Gly50Glufs*4 and p.Ala677Leufs*2, respectively). These findings suggest that GFM2 mutations could be causative of a phenotype of Leigh syndrome with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 28 May 2015; doi:10.1038/jhg.2015.57.
    Journal of Human Genetics 05/2015; DOI:10.1038/jhg.2015.57
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    ABSTRACT: Two siblings born to non-consanguineous parents showed nystagmus and sudden opistotonic posturing from the early infancy, and subsequent developmental delay and marked choreiform movements with hypotonia in the childhood. The brother had a mild postnatal microcephaly. Brain MRI of the sister showed mild delay of myelination, dilated anterior horn and mild cerebellar atrophy. Whole exome sequencing (WES) revealed compound heterozygous mutations in MED17 gene in both siblings: c.1013-5A>G and c.1484T>G mutations transmitted from their father and mother, respectively. The c.1013-5A>G mutation caused insertion of 4 bases of intron 6 in the transcript, resulting in frameshift (p. Ser338Asnfs*15), and mutant transcript underwent nonsense-mediated mRNA decay in lymphoblastoid cells derived from two siblings. The c.1484T>G mutation substituted a leucine residue, which is highly conserved among the vertebrates, and was predicted to be damaging by in silico analysis programs. Both mutations were not registered in dbSNP data and in our 575 control exomes. These results suggest that the siblings' mutations are likely to be pathogenic. This is the second case report concerning MED17 mutations. Compared with the first reported cases of Caucasian Jewish origin, the clinical symptoms and courses are much milder and slower, respectively, in our cases. Genotype difference (a homozygous mutation versus compound heterozygous mutations) might explain these clinical differences between two cases, though early-onset nystagmus and later choreiform movements were unique in our cases. Clinical spectrum and phenotype-genotype correlations in this rare mutation should be further elucidated. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Brain & development 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.braindev.2015.05.004
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    ABSTRACT: Leigh syndrome (LS) is an early-onset progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. LS is characterised by elevated lactate and pyruvate and bilateral symmetric hyperintense lesions in the basal ganglia, thalamus, brainstem, cerebral white matter or spinal cord on T2-weighted MRI. LS is a genetically heterogeneous disease, and to date mutations in approximately 40 genes related to mitochondrial function have been linked to the disorder. We investigated a pair of female monozygotic twins diagnosed with LS from consanguineous healthy parents of Indian origin. Their common clinical features included optic atrophy, ophthalmoplegia, spastic paraparesis and mild intellectual disability. High-blood lactate and high-intensity signal in the brainstem on T2-weighted MRI were consistent with a clinical diagnosis of LS. To identify the genetic cause of their condition, we performed whole exome sequencing. We identified a homozygous nonsense mutation in C12orf65 (NM_001143905; c.346delG, p.V116*) in the affected twins. Interestingly, the identical mutation was previously reported in an Indian family with Charcot-Marie Tooth disease type 6, which displayed some overlapping clinical features with the twins. We demonstrate that the identical nonsense mutation in C12orf65 can result in different clinical features, suggesting the involvement of unknown modifiers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 05/2015; DOI:10.1136/jnnp-2014-310084
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    ABSTRACT: De novo GNAO1 variants have been found in four patients including three patients with Ohtahara syndrome and one patient with childhood epilepsy. In addition, two patients showed involuntary movements, suggesting that GNAO1 variants can cause various neurological phenotypes. Here we report an additional four patients with de novo missense GNAO1 variants, one of which was identical to that of the previously reported. All the three novel variants were predicted to impair Gαo function by structural evaluation. Two patients showed early-onset epileptic encephalopathy, presenting with migrating or multifocal partial seizures in their clinical course, but the remaining two patients showed no or a few seizures. All the four patients showed severe intellectual disability, motor developmental delay, and involuntary movements. Progressive cerebral atrophy and thin corpus callosum were common features in brain images. Our study demonstrated that GNAO1 variants can cause involuntary movements and severe developmental delay with/without seizures, including various types of early-onset epileptic encephalopathy.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 13 May 2015; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.92.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 05/2015; DOI:10.1038/ejhg.2015.92
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    ABSTRACT: Voltage-gated sodium channel Nav 1.6, encoded by the gene SCN8A, plays a crucial role in controlling neuronal excitability. SCN8A mutations that cause increased channel activity are associated with seizures. We describe a patient with epileptic encephalopathy caused by de novo SCN8A mutation (c.5614C>T, p.Arg1872Trp). Seizures began 10 days after birth at which time brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) were normal. Seizure recurrence increased with age, leading to the development of frequent status epilepticus from 1 year of age. Seizure type included generalized tonic seizures and focal motor seizures. EEG first showed focal epileptic activity at the age of 4 months, and thereafter showed multifocal spikes. Serial MRI demonstrated brain atrophy, which appeared to progress with seizure aggravation. Clinical features that may give a clue to the diagnosis include normal EEG despite frequent seizures in early infancy and an increase in epileptic activity that occurs with aging. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.
    Pediatrics International 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/ped.12622
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    ABSTRACT: Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) Type IIb is a cortical malformation characterized by cortical architectural abnormalities, dysmorphic neurons, and balloon cells. It has been suggested that FCDs are caused by somatic mutations in cells in the developing brain. Here, we explore the possible involvement of somatic mutations in FCD Type IIb. We collected a total of 24 blood-brain paired samples with FCD, including 13 individuals with FCD Type IIb, five with Type IIa, and six with Type I. We performed whole exome sequencing using paired samples from nine of the FCD Type IIb subjects. Somatic MTOR mutations were identified and further investigated using all 24 paired samples by deep sequencing of the entire gene's coding region. Somatic MTOR mutations were confirmed by droplet digital PCR. The effect of MTOR mutations on mTOR kinase signaling was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses of brain samples and by in vitro transfection experiments. We identified four lesion-specific somatic MTOR mutations in six of 13 (46%) individuals with FCD Type IIb showing mutant allele rates of 1.11-9.31%. Functional analyses showed that phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in FCD Type IIb brain tissues with MTOR mutations was clearly elevated compared with control samples. Transfection of any of the four MTOR mutants into HEK293T cells led to elevated phosphorylation of 4EBP, the direct target of mTOR kinase. We found low-prevalence somatic mutations in MTOR in FCD Type IIb, indicating that activating somatic mutations in MTOR cause FCD Type IIb. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 American Neurological Association.
    Annals of Neurology 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/ana.24444
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    ABSTRACT: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder predominantly affecting females. Females with the MECP2 mutations exhibit a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from classical Rett syndrome to asymptomatic carriers. Mutations of genes encoding cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) and forkhead box G1 (FOXG1) are also found in early onset RTT variants. Here, we present the first report of a female patient with RTT-like phenotype caused by SHANK3 (SH3 and multiple ankylin repeat domain 3) mutation, indicating that the clinical spectrum of SHANK3 mutations may extend to RTT-like phenotype in addition to (severe) developmental delay, absence of expressive speech, autistic behaviors and intellectual disability. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 04/2015; DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.36775
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    ABSTRACT: Myoclonus-dystonia syndrome (MDS) is a rare autosomal-dominant movement disorder characterized by brief, frequently alcohol-responsive myoclonic jerks that begin in childhood or early adolescence, caused by mutations in the ε-sarcoglycan gene (SGCE). The patient was a 6-year-old boy. At 2 years 8 months, he had abnormal movement when he ran due to dystonia of his left leg. At 3 years 5 months, he exhibited dystonia and myoclonic movement of his arms when eating. Myoclonus was likely to develop when he felt anxiety or exhaustion. Genomic DNA showed a heterozygous mutation in SGCE (c.109 + 1 G > T). His father and uncle with the same mutation also experienced milder dystonia or myoclonic movements. SGCE mutation can cause a broad range of clinical symptoms between and within families. We should consider MDS as a differential diagnosis for patients with paroxysmal walking abnormalities and/or myoclonic movements. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.
    Pediatrics International 04/2015; 57(2):324-6. DOI:10.1111/ped.12613
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Recently, de novo mutations in GRIN1 have been identified in patients with nonsyndromic intellectual disability and epileptic encephalopathy. Whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis of patients with genetically unsolved epileptic encephalopathies identified four patients with GRIN1 mutations, allowing us to investigate the phenotypic spectrum of GRIN1 mutations.Methods Eighty-eight patients with unclassified early onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs) with an age of onset <1 year were analyzed by WES. The effect of mutations on N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors was examined by mapping altered amino acids onto three-dimensional models.ResultsWe identified four de novo missense GRIN1 mutations in 4 of 88 patients with unclassified EOEEs. In these four patients, initial symptoms appeared within 3 months of birth, including hyperkinetic movements in two patients (2/4, 50%), and seizures in two patients (2/4, 50%). Involuntary movements, severe developmental delay, and intellectual disability were recognized in all four patients. In addition, abnormal eye movements resembling oculogyric crises and stereotypic hand movements were observed in two and three patients, respectively. All the four patients exhibited only nonspecific focal and diffuse epileptiform abnormality, and never showed suppression-burst or hypsarrhythmia during infancy. A de novo mosaic mutation (c.1923G>A) with a mutant allele frequency of 16% (in DNA of blood leukocytes) was detected in one patient. Three mutations were located in the transmembrane domain (3/4, 75%), and one in the extracellular loop near transmembrane helix 1. All the mutations were predicted to impair the function of the NMDA receptor.SignificanceClinical features of de novo GRIN1 mutations include infantile involuntary movements, seizures, and hand stereotypies, suggesting that GRIN1 mutations cause encephalopathy resulting in seizures and movement disorders.
    Epilepsia 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/epi.12987
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    ABSTRACT: Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome (WSS) is an autosomal dominant congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by hairy elbows, dysmorphic facial appearances (hypertelorism, thick eyebrows, downslanted and vertically narrow palpebral fissures), pre- and post-natal growth deficiency, and psychomotor delay. WSS is caused by heterozygous mutations in KMT2A (also known as MLL), a gene encoding a histone methyltransferase. Here, we identify six novel KMT2A mutations in six WSS patients, with four mutations occurring de novo. Interestingly, some of the patients were initially diagnosed with atypical Kabuki syndrome, which is caused by mutations in KMT2D or KDM6A, genes also involved in histone methylation. KMT2A mutations and clinical features are summarized in our six patients together with eight previously reported patients. Furthermore, clinical comparison of the two syndromes is discussed in detail. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Clinical Genetics 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/cge.12586
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type 1 gene (ITPR1) have been identified in families with early-onset spinocerebellar ataxia type 29 (SCA29) and late-onset SCA15, but have not been found in sporadic infantile-onset cerebellar ataxia. We examined if mutations of ITPR1 are also involved in sporadic infantile-onset SCA. Sixty patients with childhood-onset cerebellar atrophy of unknown etiology and their families were examined by whole-exome sequencing. We found de novo heterozygous ITPR1 missense mutations in four unrelated patients with sporadic infantile-onset, nonprogressive cerebellar ataxia. Patients displayed nystagmus, tremor, and hypotonia from very early infancy. Nonprogressive ataxia, motor delay, and mild cognitive deficits were common clinical findings. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed slowly progressive cerebellar atrophy. ITPR1 missense mutations cause infantile-onset cerebellar ataxia. ITPR1-related SCA includes sporadic infantile-onset cerebellar ataxia as well as SCA15 and SCA29.
    Journal of Neurology 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00415-015-7705-8
  • 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/mdc3.12158
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    ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a clinically heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with various genetic backgrounds. Here, we report a novel mutation in the pogo transposable element-derived protein with zinc finger domain gene (POGZ) identified by trio-based whole exome sequencing. To date, a total of seven de novo POGZ mutations in ASD have been reported. POGZ contains a total of five functional domains, and this study reports the first de novo missense mutation in the centromere protein B-like DNA-binding domain. POGZ is highly expressed in the human fetal brain and is involved in mitosis and the regulation of neuronal proliferation. Therefore its loss-of-function or pathogenic missense mutations are likely to be causative of ASD.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 19 February 2015; doi:10.1038/jhg.2015.13.
    Journal of Human Genetics 02/2015; DOI:10.1038/jhg.2015.13
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial complex III (CIII) deficiency comprises a group of complex and heterogeneous genetic disorders. TTC19 mutations constitute a rare cause of CIII deficiency and are associated with neurological disorders in childhood and adulthood. Herein, we describe a 27-year-old Japanese man with cerebellar ataxia, spastic paraparesis, loss of deep sensation, mild frontal lobe dysfunction and transient psychiatric symptoms. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed cerebellar atrophy and bilateral high-intensity signals in the inferior olives and regions adjacent to periaqueductal gray matter, on T2-weighted images. On whole-exome sequencing, we detected a novel homozygous frameshift mutation c.157_158dup [p.Pro54Alafs*48] in TTC19. Mitochondrial enzyme assays confirmed mild impairment of CIII enzymatic activity in lymphoblasts, which was consistent with TTC19-related CIII deficiency. His symptoms and radiological findings demonstrated an early stage or mild form of this disease, and further clarify the characteristics of patients with rare TTC19 mutations.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 5 February 2015; doi:10.1038/jhg.2015.7.
    Journal of Human Genetics 02/2015; 60(4). DOI:10.1038/jhg.2015.7
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    ABSTRACT: Recent progress in genetic analysis reveals that a significant proportion of cryptogenic epileptic encephalopathies are single-gene disorders. Mutations in numerous genes for early-onset epileptic encephalopathies have been rapidly identified, including in SPTAN1, which encodes α-II spectrin. The aim of this review is to delineate SPTAN1 encephalopathy as a distinct clinical syndrome. To date, a total of seven epileptic patients with four different in-frame SPTAN1 mutations have been identified. The major clinical features of SPTAN1 mutations include epileptic encephalopathy with hypsarrhythmia, no visual attention, acquired microcephaly, spastic quadriplegia and severe intellectual disability. Brainstem and cerebellar atrophy and cerebral hypomyelination, as observed by magnetic resonance imaging, are specific hallmarks of this condition. A milder variant is characterized by generalized epilepsy with pontocerebellar atrophy. Only in-frame SPTAN1 mutations in the last two spectrin repeats in the C-terminal region lead to dominant negative effects and these specific phenotypes. The last two spectrin repeats are required for α/β spectrin heterodimer associations and the mutations can alter heterodimer formation between the two spectrins. From these data we suggest that SPTAN1 encephalopathy is a distinct clinical syndrome owing to specific SPTAN1 mutations. It is important that this syndrome is recognized by pediatric neurologists to enable proper diagnostic work-up for patients.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 29 January 2015; doi:10.1038/jhg.2015.5.
    Journal of Human Genetics 01/2015; 60(4). DOI:10.1038/jhg.2015.5
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    ABSTRACT: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) is becoming a standard tool for detecting nucleotide changes, and determining whether WES data can be used for the detection of copy-number variations (CNVs) is of interest. To date, several algorithms have been developed for such analyses, although verification is needed to establish if they fit well for the appropriate purpose, depending on the characteristics of each algorithm. Here, we performed WES CNV analysis using the eXome Hidden Markov Model (XHMM). We validated its performance using 27 rare CNVs previously identified by microarray as positive controls, finding that the detection rate was 59%, or higher (89%) with three or more targets. XHMM can be effectively used, especially for the detection of >200 kb CNVs. XHMM may be useful for deletion breakpoint detection. Next, we applied XHMM to genetically unsolved patients, demonstrating successful identification of pathogenic CNVs: 1.5-1.9-Mb deletions involving NSD1 in patients with unknown overgrowth syndrome leading to the diagnosis of Sotos syndrome, and 6.4-Mb duplication involving MECP2 in affected brothers with late-onset spasm and progressive cerebral/cerebellar atrophy confirming the clinical suspect of MECP2 duplication syndrome. The possibility of an 'exome-first' approach for clinical genetic investigation may be considered to save the cost of multiple investigations.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 22 January 2015; doi:10.1038/jhg.2014.124.
    Journal of Human Genetics 01/2015; 60(4). DOI:10.1038/jhg.2014.124
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    ABSTRACT: Type IV collagen α1 (COL4A1) forms a sheet-like network beneath the endothelium and surrounding smooth muscle cells. Associations of mutations in COL4A1 with porencephaly, schizencephaly, and intracranial hemorrhages are known. We report susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) findings showing hemorrhages in the peripheral portion of the region of schizencephaly, intraparenchymal hemorrhages, and tortuosity of the intracranial veins in a child with a COL4A1 mutation. SWI findings may be helpful for understanding the possible relationship between schizencephaly and COL4A1 mutations.
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    ABSTRACT: Aminoacylation is the process of attaching amino acids to their cognate tRNA, and thus is essential for the translation of mRNA into protein. This direct interaction of tRNA with amino acids is catalyzed by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified compound heterozygous mutations [c.169T>C (p.Tyr57His) and c.1485dup (p.Lys496*)] in QARS, which encodes glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase, in two siblings with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EOEE). Recessive mutations in QARS, including the loss-of-function missense mutation p.Tyr57His, have been reported to cause intractable seizures with progressive microcephaly. The p.Lys496* mutation is novel and causes truncation of the QARS protein, leading to a deletion of part of the catalytic domain and the entire anticodon-binding domain. Transient expression of the p.Lys496* mutant in neuroblastoma 2A cells revealed diminished and aberrantly aggregated expression, indicating the loss-of-function nature of this mutant. Together with the previous report, our data suggest that abnormal aminoacylation is one of the underlying pathologies of EOEE.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 4 December 2014; doi:10.1038/jhg.2014.103.
    Journal of Human Genetics 12/2014; 60(2). DOI:10.1038/jhg.2014.103
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias and autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegias (ARHSPs) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurological disorders. Herein we describe Japanese siblings with a midlife-onset, slowly progressive type of cerebellar ataxia and spastic paraplegia, without intellectual disability. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous missense mutation in DDHD2, whose mutations were recently identified as the cause of early-onset ARHSP with intellectual disability. Brain MRI of the patient showed a thin corpus callosum. Cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed an abnormal lipid peak in the basal ganglia, which has been reported as the hallmark of DDHD2-related ARHSP (SPG 54). The mutation caused a marked reduction of phospholipase A1 activity, supporting that this mutation is the cause of SPG54. Our cases indicate that the possibility of SPG54 should also be considered when patients show a combination of adult-onset spastic ataxia and a thin corpus callosum. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of patients with spastic ataxia phenotype.
    Scientific Reports 11/2014; 4:7132. DOI:10.1038/srep07132
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    ABSTRACT: Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a neurocutaneous disorder characterized by capillary malformation (port-wine stains), and choroidal and leptomeningeal vascular malformations. Previously, the recurrent somatic mutation c.548G>A (p.R183Q) in the G-α q gene (GNAQ) was identified as causative in SWS and non-syndromic port-wine stain patients using whole-genome sequencing. In this study, we investigated somatic mutations in GNAQ by next-generation sequencing. We first performed targeted amplicon sequencing of 15 blood-brain-paired samples in sporadic SWS and identified the recurrent somatic c.548G>A mutation in 80% of patients (12 of 15). The percentage of mutant alleles in brain tissues of these 12 patients ranged from 3.6 to 8.9%. We found no other somatic mutations in any of the seven GNAQ exons in the remaining three patients without c.548G>A. These findings suggest that the recurrent somatic GNAQ mutation c.548G>A is the major determinant genetic factor for SWS and imply that other mutated candidate gene(s) may exist in SWS.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 6 November 2014; doi:10.1038/jhg.2014.95.
    Journal of Human Genetics 11/2014; 59(12). DOI:10.1038/jhg.2014.95