[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Aging is a human developmental phase that is responsible for varied physiological and biochemical changes that intensify as age advances. It is often associated with higher risk of chronic diseases and death and these changes are influenced by many factors, including health and diet. However, healthy lifestyle such as regular exercise and a healthy diet may lead to healthy aging. This study was done to determine the effect of Tai Chi exercise on physiological and biochemical changes among middle-aged adults.
Material/Methods: Fifty pre-menopausal women aged 45 and above with sedentary lifestyles were randomly divided into 2 age- and race-matched groups: the exercise and control group. The exercise group was taught to practice Tai Chi with an appointed professional instructor twice a week for 1 hour per session. Physiological measurements such as body fat, body mass index (BMI), heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and blood biochemistry tests such as fasting blood sugar, liver function test, lipid profile, renal profile, and full blood count were analysed and compared to the baseline after 6 months.
Results: The study showed a significant reduction in fat percentage and HR of Tai Chi practitioners but not in the controls. Tai Chi practitioners also had significantly increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL), total protein, albumin, and calcium levels, with a reduction in creatinine level. Against these results, no significant changes were noted in the control group.
Conclusions: We conclude that regular Tai Chi exercise for 6 months improves health status in middle-aged adults.
Clinical and Experimental Medical Letters 12/2012; 53(3):101-105.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: K-ras gene mutations in codons 12 and 13 are one of the earliest events in colon carcinogenesis.
DNA was extracted from 25 mg of tumour tissue (n = 70) that were taken from tumour mass and pairs with normal epithelial tissue distant from the tumour of colorectal cancer patients. Exon 1 and exon 2 of the K-ras gene were amplified. Hotspot mutations were detected using polymerase chain reaction-based single-strand conformation polymorphism method and confirmed by direct DNA sequencing analysis.
Mutations were identified in 14 out of the 70 (20%) colorectal carcinoma tissues. Single-base transition from GGT to GAT (glycine to aspartate) in codon 12 was detected in nine samples, while three samples presented with GGC to GAC transition in codon 13. Patients with large adenoma had a 12-fold higher likelihood of K-ras mutations (odds ratios [OR] 12.31; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.81-83.76). Tumours located at the left colon were more likely to present with K-ras mutations (OR 4.54; 95% CI 0.96-21.54).
Our study showed a high frequency of G to A transition of codon 12 mutation of the K-ras gene, with significant correlation with tumour size and tumour location.
Singapore medical journal 01/2012; 53(1):26-31. · 0.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is a relatively easy, reliable, and safe method for bone status assessment, but reference data for Asian males remain scarce. Our study aimed to determine the values for one QUS parameter, the speed of sound (SOS) at the calcaneus, in Malaysian Chinese men and to determine the association between the SOS and several demographic characteristics, such as age, weight, height, and body mass index. Three hundred forty-eight Malaysian Chinese men aged 40 yr and older were recruited, and their calcaneal QUS value was determined using the CM-200 densitometer (Furuno Electric, Nishinomiya City, Japan). The results indicated a significant correlation between SOS and age, and multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that age and height were important predictors of SOS. A significant reduction in SOS value was observed when men 60 yr and older were compared with men aged 40-49 yr. Compared with the reference data for Japanese males, Chinese men in Malaysia showed higher SOS values across all the age groups studied. In conclusion, there is an age-related decrease in SOS values in Malaysian Chinese men, and the SOS values established in this study can be used as a reference for future studies.
Journal of Clinical Densitometry 12/2011; 15(1):86-91. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although many studies have shown the antitumor properties of ginger extract (Zingiber officinale), little is known regarding the mechanism of its effects. This study was conducted to determine the mechanism of antitumor effects of ginger extract by evaluating apoptosis rate and cell cycle progression status in colon cancer cell lines HCT 116 and p53 defective HT 29. HCT 116 and HT 29 cells were cultured in the presence of ginger extract at various concentrations for 24 h. The percentage of cell viability was determined by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-di phenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Our results showed that ginger extract inhibited proliferation of HCT 116 and HT 29 cells with an IC 50 of 496 ± 34.2 µg/ml and 455 ± 18.6 µg/ml, respectively. We also found that ginger extract at increasing concentrations induced apoptosis dose dependently in both colon cancer cells. Apoptosis rates were 11.15, 35.05 and 57.49% for HCT 116 and 4.39, 19.81 and 28.09% for HT 29 at 200, 500 and 800 µg/ml of ginger extract, respectively. Ginger extract arrested HCT 116 and HT 29 cells at G 0 /G 1 and G 2 /M phases with corresponding decreased in S-phase. This study suggests that ginger extract may exert its antitumor effects on colon cancer cells by suppressing its growth, arresting the G 0 /G 1 -phase, reducing DNA synthesis and inducing apoptosis. Key words: Zingiber officinale, HCT 116, HT 29, G 0 /G 1 phase, S phase, apoptosis.
African Journal of Biochemistry Research. 04/2010; 4:134-142.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Melanin is the pigment that determines skin color. Melanin synthesis is catalysed by the enzyme tyrosinase and is controlled by TYR, TYRP1 and TYRP2 genes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti pigmentation property of palm tocotrienol rich fraction by determining melanin synthesis and expression of genes involved in its regulation in skin melanocytes. Palm tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) which contains 75% α α α α-tocotrienol and 25% tocopherol was used to inhibit melanin synthesis which was determined by determining melanin level and tyrosinase enzyme activity. Expression of TYR, TYRP1 and TYRP2 genes was determined by quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR). Primary culture of skin melanocytes was divided into two groups; untreated control and cells that were treated with 500 µg/ml tocotrienol rich fraction for 24 h. Our results showed that there was a reduction in tyrosinase activity and melanin content in melanocytes treated with tocotrienol rich fraction compared to control (p < 0.05). Expression of TYRP2 gene in melanocytes treated with tocotrienol rich fraction was also decreased (p < 0.05) compared to control. In conclusion, palm tocotrienol rich fraction has an anti pigmentation property that inhibit melanin synthesis by inhibiting tyrosinase activity and down regulating TYRP2 gene expression.
African Journal of Biochemistry Research. 01/2010; 3:385-392.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The cornerstone of problem-based learning (PBL) tutoring is its facilitation skills and is vital to student learning. PBL is a major component in the undergraduate medical curriculum at the Univeristi Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM).
South East Asian Journal of Medical Education. 01/2009; 3.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of ovariectomy and sex hormone/s replacement in female rats was investigated by the determination of the tumour marker enzymes gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). This was compared to ovariectomized rats receiving sex hormone replacement and treated with carcinogen. Ovariectomy significantly increased the activity of plasma GGT. Plasma and microsomal ALP and microsomal GGT were unchanged. When replacements of estrogen (E), or progesterone (Prog), or combinations of both estrogen and progesterone were given to ovariectomized rats, the activity of plasma GGT was brought to the level of normal intact females. Treatment with carcinogen increased the PGGT activities in intact rats. In ovariectomized rats receiving carcinogen, the PGGT activities were significantly lower than in intact females and rats receiving both hormone replacement and carcinogen (p < 0.01). Carcinogen treatment in case of estrogen or progesterone replacement, either individually or in combination, showed GGT activities comparable to intact females receiving carcinogen. Both plasma and microsomal ALP were not affected by carcinogen administration. These results showed that ovariectomy reduced the severity of hepatocarcinogenesis while sex hormone replacement worsened the process.
Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 04/1994; 46(1):31-6. · 2.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim. Aging is attributed to neuronal loss associated with increased oxidative stress. Vitamin E, and in particular, tocotrienol are potent antioxidants, which have been shown to be neuroprotective. The main aim of the present study was to observe the effect of long term intake of vitamin E in the form of tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) and refined, bleached, deodorized palm olein (RBDPO) on the brain of experimental rats. Materials and Methods. Thirty male Wistar rats aged 3 months were either supplemented with TRF (dose of 200 mg/kg body weight), RBDPO (dose of 1 ml/kg body weight) or distilled water, continuously for 8 months. The animals were then examined in vivo for clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies before being sacrificed. The brain was extracted, measured and studied for histological changes. Results. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the lateral ventricle, cortical thickness of cingulate gyrus and hippocampus size did not show any significant changes in all three groups. The brain weight, length and width as well as histological sections of the brain showed no significant changes between the groups. Conclusion. It is thereby concluded that chronic consumption of vitamin E was not detrimental to the central nervous system. Clin Ter 2013; 164(2):119-124. doi: 10.7417/CT.2013.1529.
La Clinica terapeutica 164(2):119-124. · 0.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRAK Chlorella vulgaris (ChV), sejenis alga hijau unisel telah dilaporkan mempunyai khasiat kesihatan pada penyakit tertentu termasuk kanser. Objektif utama kajian ialah untuk mengukur dan menilai kesan antioksidan dan antitumor ekstrak air panas ChV ke atas sel kanser hepar yang dijalankan secara in vivo dan in vitro. Asai DPPH yang dijalankan menunjukkan peratus pengautan ChV yang tinggi. Dalam kajian in vivo, tikus Wistar jantan (200-250 g) dibahagikan kepada lapan kumpulan: tikus kawalan (diet normal), tikus diaruh kanser hepar (diet kurang kolin + 0.1% etionin dalam air minuman) atau singkatannya CDE, tikus diberi rawatan ChV pada tiga dos berbeza (50, 150 dan 300 mg/kg berat badan) dan tikus CDE diberi rawatan ChV pada tiga dos berbeza. Sampel darah dan tisu diambil dari semua kumpulan tikus pada minggu 0, 4, 8 dan 12 untuk penentuan kadar proliferasi dan apoptosis sel untuk melihat kesan antitumor ChV. Peratus pembentukan nodul praneoplasia adalah tinggi pada tikus diaruh kanser hepar (CDE) tetapi ChV pada semua dos berjaya mengurangkannya. Pertambahan jumlah sel kanser semasa hepatokarsinogenesis ditunjukkan dengan peningkatan proliferasi hepatosit yang signifikan (p