[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) studies often use one anode to increase cortical excitability in one hemisphere. However, mental processes may involve cortical regions in both hemispheres. This study's aim was to assess the safety and possible effects on affect and working memory of tDCS using two anodes for bifrontal stimulation. A group of healthy subjects participated in two bifrontal tDCS sessions on two different days, one for real and the other for sham stimulation. They performed a working memory task and reported their affect immediately before and after each tDCS session. Relative to sham, real bifrontal stimulation did not induce significant adverse effects, reduced decrement in vigor-activity during the study session, and did not improve working memory. These preliminary findings suggest that bifrontal anodal stimulation is feasible and safe and may reduce task-related fatigue in healthy participants. Its effects on neuropsychiatric patients deserve further study.
The Yale journal of biology and medicine 09/2015; 88(3):219-225.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Substance use during pregnancy and the postpartum period may have significant implications for both mother and the developing child. However, the neurobiological basis of the impact of substance use on parenting is less well understood. Here, we examined the impact of maternal substance use on cortical gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes and whether this was associated with individual differences in motivational systems of behavioral activation and inhibition. Mothers were included in the substance-using group if any addictive substance was used during pregnancy and/or in the immediate postpartum period (within 3 months of delivery). GM volume was reduced in substance-using mothers compared to non-substance-using mothers, particularly in frontal brain regions. In substance-using mothers, we also found that frontal GM was negatively correlated with levels of behavioral activation (i.e., the motivation to approach rewarding stimuli). This effect was absent in non-substance-using mothers. Taken together, these findings indicate a reduction in GM volume is associated with substance use and that frontal GM volumetric differences may be related to approach motivation in substance-using mothers.
The Yale journal of biology and medicine 09/2015; 88(3).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ready availability of data via searches on the Internet has changed how many people seek and perhaps store and recall information, although the brain mechanisms underlying these processes are not well understood. This study investigated brain mechanisms underlying Internet-based versus non-Internet-based searching. The results showed that Internet searching was associated with lower accuracy in recalling information as compared to traditional book searching. During fMRI, Internet searching was associated with less regional brain activation in the left ventral stream, the association area of the temporal-parietal-occipital cortices, and the middle frontal cortex. When comparing novel items to remembered trials, Internet-based searching was associated with higher brain activation in right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and lower brain activation in right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) when facing those novel trials. Brain activations in the MTG were inversely correlated with response times, and brain activations in the OFC were positively correlated with self-reported search impulses. Taken together, the results suggest that while Internet-based searching may have facilitated the information-acquisition process, this process may have been performed more hastily and be more prone to difficulties in recollection. In addition, people appear less confident in recalling information learned through Internet searching and that recent Internet searching may promote motivations to use the Internet. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
European Journal of Neuroscience 08/2015; DOI:10.1111/ejn.13039 · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although craving states are important to both cocaine dependence (CD) and pathological gambling (PG), few studies have directly investigated neurobiological similarities and differences in craving between these disorders. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess brain activity in 103 participants (30 CD, 28 PG, and 45 Controls) while they watched videos depicting cocaine, gambling, and sad scenarios to investigate the neural correlates of craving. We observed a three-way urge type x video-type x diagnostic group interaction in self-reported craving, with CD participants reporting strong cocaine cravings to cocaine videos, and PG participants reporting strong gambling urges to gambling videos. Neuroimaging data revealed a diagnostic group x video interaction in anterior cingulate cortex/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activating predominantly to cocaine videos in CD participants, and a more dorsal mPFC region that was most strongly activated for cocaine videos in CD participants, gambling videos in PG participants, and sad videos in control participants. Gender x diagnosis x video interactions identified dorsal mPFC and a region in posterior insula/caudate in which female but not male PG participants showed increased responses to gambling videos. Findings illustrate both similarities and differences in the neural correlates of drug cravings and gambling urges in CD and PG. Future studies should investigate diagnostic- and gender-specific therapies targeting the neural systems implicated in craving/urge states in addictions.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 29 June 2015. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.193.
Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 06/2015; DOI:10.1038/npp.2015.193 · 7.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compulsive sexual behavior: Individual, neurobiological, and psychological considerations
Chair: Shane W. Kraus
VISN 1 MIRECC, VA CT Healthcare System
Yale University School of Medicine
The current symposium will review data from four studies discussing the role of individual, neurobiological, and psychological factors in the assessment and treatment of compulsive sexual behavior.
Abstract (2500 characters)
Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is characterized by inappropriate or excessive sexual fantasies or behaviors that lead to subjective distress or impairment in one’s daily functioning across several important life domains. Currently, there is no widely accepted framework on how to best conceptualize and/or treat individuals with CSB, and it is debated as to whether to view CSB as an impulse-control disorder, a feature of hypersexual disorder, or a behavioral addiction. Recent data suggest that “behavioral addictions” (e.g., gambling, shopping, sex) may share clinical, genetic, neurobiological, and phenomenological (e.g., escalation of behavior over time, craving, attentional bias) parallels with substance addictions, raising questions about how best to classify, prevent and treat CSB.
The symposium will describe data on individual, neurobiological, and psychological factors in CSB. Dr. Voon will present data on cue reactivity, cue conditioning, and attentional bias in CSB, with findings providing support for incentive motivation theories underlying CSB. Dr. Gola will present data on brain reward pathways in individuals with CSB. Individuals with CSB as compared to those without had increased activation of the ventral striatum for erotic but not monetary incentives. Mr. Grubbs will present data from two samples examining the relationship between pornography users’ behaviors and their perceptions of what constitutes “pornography addiction.” Individual difference variables such as religious and spiritual struggles and conservative sexual values were associated with perceived addiction to pornography. Dr. Kraus will present data from a sample of US Veterans and describe the psychometric properties of a newly developed questionnaire designed to identify behaviors, thoughts, and experiences associated with compulsive use of pornography. Item loadings from a principal component analysis, a high internal consistency reliability coefficient, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation supported interpreting the screening instrument as a single scale that demonstrated construct, convergent and discriminant validity. Finally, Dr. Potenza will serve as discussant and explore the findings in the settings of DSM-5 and ICD-11, and describe the implications for classification, assessment, prevention, treatment, and policy.
Subject Area: Clinical
Neuroimaging studies in compulsive sexual behaviours
Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge
Increased erotic incentives sensitivity but not diminished reactivity for other rewards underlies compulsive sexual behaviors.
Institute of Psychology, Polish Academy of Science and Institute for Neural Computations, University of California San Diego
Małgorzata Wordecha, Laboratory of Brain Imaging, Neurobiology Center, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Science, Warsaw University
Guillaume Sescousse, Radboud University, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour
Bartosz Kossowski, Laboratory of Brain Imaging, Neurobiology Center, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Science and Institute of Radioelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology
Artur Marchewka, Laboratory of Brain Imaging, Neurobiology Center, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Science
Predicting perceived addiction to internet pornography over time: The role of personality and religious beliefs
Joshua B. Grubbs
Case Western Reserve University
Joshua Wilt, Case Western Reserve University
Julie J. Exline, Case Western Reserve University
Kenneth I. Pargament, Bowling Green State University
Pornography Use Screener: Psychometric properties
Shane W. Kraus, VISN 1 MIRECC, VA CT Healthcare System and Yale University School of Medicine
Steve Martino, VISN 1 MIRECC, VA CT Healthcare System and Yale University School of Medicine
Rani A. Hoff, VISN 1 MIRECC, VA CT Healthcare System and Yale University School of Medicine
Elizabeth Dombrowski, VA CT Healthcare System
Marc N. Potenza, Yale University School of Medicine
Marc N. Potenza
Yale University School of Medicine
Association of Psychological Science, New York City; 05/2015
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article highlights the research presentations at the satellite symposium on "Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence" held at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. The purpose of this symposium was to provide an up to date overview of research efforts focusing on understanding brain mechanisms that contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence. A panel of scientists from the alcohol and addiction research field presented their insights and perspectives on brain mechanisms that may underlie both recovery and lack of recovery from alcohol dependence. The four sessions of the symposium encompassed multilevel studies exploring mechanisms underlying relapse and craving associated with sustained alcohol abstinence, cognitive function deficit and recovery, and translational studies on preventing relapse and promoting recovery. Gaps in our knowledge and research opportunities were also discussed.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: "Food addiction" is an emerging area, and behavioral and biological overlaps have been observed between eating and addictive disorders. Potential misconceptions about applying an addiction framework to problematic eating behavior may inhibit scientific progress. Critiques of "food addiction" that focus on descriptive differences between overeating and illicit drugs are similar to early criticisms of the addictiveness of tobacco. Although food is necessary for survival, the highly processed foods associated with addictive-like eating may provide little health benefit. Individual differences are important in determining who develops an addiction. If certain foods are addictive, the identification of possible risk factors for "food addiction" is an important next step. Not all treatments for addiction require abstinence. Addiction interventions that focus on moderation or controlled use may lead to novel approaches to treating eating-related problems. Finally, addiction-related policies that focus on environmental (instead of educational) targets may have a larger public health impact in reducing overeating.
Current Psychiatry Reports 04/2015; 17(4):563. DOI:10.1007/s11920-015-0563-3 · 3.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Impulsivity critically relates to many psychiatric disorders. Given the multifaceted construct that impulsivity represents, defining core aspects of impulsivity is vital for the assessment and understanding of clinical conditions. Choice impulsivity (CI), involving the preferential selection of smaller sooner rewards over larger later rewards, represents one important type of impulsivity. The International Society for Research on Impulsivity (InSRI) convened to discuss the definition and assessment of CI and provide recommendations regarding measurement across species. Commonly used preclinical and clinical CI behavioral tasks are described, and considerations for each task are provided to guide CI task selection. Differences in assessment of CI (self-report, behavioral) and calculating CI indices (e.g., area-under-the-curve, indifference point, and steepness of discounting curve) are discussed along with properties of specific behavioral tasks used in preclinical and clinical settings. The InSRI group recommends inclusion of measures of CI in human studies examining impulsivity. Animal studies examining impulsivity should also include assessments of CI and these measures should be harmonized in accordance with human studies of the disorders being modeled in the preclinical investigations. The choice of specific CI measures to be included should be based on the goals of the study and existing preclinical and clinical literature using established CI measures. (PsycINFO Database Record
(c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that is a core feature of multiple psychiatric conditions and personality disorders. However, progress in understanding and treating impulsivity is limited by a lack of precision and consistency in its definition and assessment. Rapid-response impulsivity (RRI) represents a tendency toward immediate action that occurs with diminished forethought and is out of context with the present demands of the environment. Experts from the International Society for Research on Impulsivity (InSRI) met to discuss and evaluate RRI measures in terms of reliability, sensitivity, and validity, with the goal of helping researchers and clinicians make informed decisions about the use and interpretation of findings from RRI measures. Their recommendations are described in this article. Commonly used clinical and preclinical RRI tasks are described, and considerations are provided to guide task selection. Tasks measuring two conceptually and neurobiologically distinct types of RRI, "refraining from action initiation" (RAI) and "stopping an ongoing action" (SOA) are described. RAI and SOA tasks capture distinct aspects of RRI that may relate to distinct clinical outcomes. The InSRI group recommends that (a) selection of RRI measures should be informed by careful consideration of the strengths, limitations, and practical considerations of the available measures; (b) researchers use both RAI and SOA tasks in RRI studies to allow for direct comparison of RRI types and examination of their associations with clinically relevant measures; and (c) similar considerations be made for human and nonhuman studies in an effort to harmonize and integrate preclinical and clinical research. (PsycINFO Database Record
(c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is generally characterized by inappropriate or excessive sexual fantasies or behaviors that lead to distress or impairment in a person’s daily functioning. Information will be presented on CSB and other psychopathology in two samples of adults recruited from the United States. In Sample 1, 103 men seeking treatment for CSB were assessed for psychopathology at a private and a public university clinic. In Sample 2, 626 male and female veterans were assessed for the prevalence of CSB and other co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Among treatment-seeking men, 94% met criteria for at least one Axis-I psychiatric disorder, and 57% of the sample met criteria for two or more psychiatric disorders. Among a national representative sample of returning veterans, approximately 11% (13.5% of men, 6.2% of women) endorsed symptoms associated with CSB. For the 71 veterans reporting problems managing their sexual behavior, high rates of co-occurring disorders such as PTSD (69%), insomnia (55%), depression (45%), panic (43%), alcohol dependence (17%), and drug dependence (17%) were observed. Areas in which additional research is needed to better understand the complex treatment needs of individuals seeking treatment for CSB will be discussed.
2nd International Conference on Behavioral Addictions, Budapest, Hungary; 03/2015
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Resting brain spontaneous neural activities across cortical regions have been correlated with specific functional properties in psychiatric groups. Individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) demonstrate impaired executive control. Thus, it is important to examine executive control networks (ECNs) during resting states and their relationships to executive control during task performance.
Thirty-five IGD and 36 healthy control participants underwent a resting-state fMRI scan and performed a Stroop task inside and outside of the MRI scanner. Correlations between Stroop effect and functional connectivity among ECN regions of interest (ROIs) were calculated within and between groups.
IGD subjects show lower functional connectivity in ECNs than do HC participants during resting state; functional-connectivity measures in ECNs were negatively correlated with Stroop effect and positively correlated with brain activations in executive-control regions across groups. Within groups, negative trends were found between Stroop effect and functional connectivity in ECNs in IGD and HC groups, separately; positive trends were found between functional connectivity in ECNs and brain activations in Stroop task in IGD and HC groups, separately.
Higher functional connectivity in ECNs may underlie better executive control and may provide resilience with respect to IGD. Lower functional connectivity in ECNs may represent an important feature in understanding and treating IGD.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 03/2015; 57. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.10.012 · 3.69 Impact Factor