[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Mmr multidrug efflux pump recognizes and actively extrudes a broad range of antimicrobial agents, and promotes the intrinsic resistance to these antimicrobials in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The expression of Mmr is controlled by the TetR-like transcriptional regulator Rv3066, whose open reading frame is located downstream of the mmr operon. To understand the structural basis of Rv3066 regulation, we have determined the crystal structures of Rv3066, both in the absence and presence of bound ethidium, revealing an asymmetric homodimeric two-domain molecule with an entirely helical architecture. The structures underscore the flexibility and plasticity of the regulator essential for multidrug recognition. Comparison of the apo-Rv3066 and Rv3066-ethidium crystal structures suggests that the conformational changes leading to drug-mediated derepression is primarily due to a rigid body rotational motion within the dimer interface of the regulator. The Rv3066 regulator creates a multidrug-binding pocket, which contains five aromatic residues. The bound ethidium is found buried within the multidrug-binding site, where extensive aromatic stacking interactions seemingly govern the binding. In vitro studies reveal that the dimeric Rv3066 regulator binds to a 14-bp palindromic inverted repeat sequence in the nanomolar range. These findings provide new insight into the mechanisms of ligand binding and Rv3066 regulation.
Nucleic Acids Research 07/2012; 40(18):9340-55. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gram-negative bacteria expel various toxic chemicals via tripartite efflux pumps belonging to the resistance-nodulation-cell division superfamily. These pumps span both the inner and outer membranes of the cell. The three components of these tripartite systems are an inner-membrane, substrate-binding transporter (or pump); a periplasmic membrane fusion protein (or adaptor); and an outer-membrane-anchored channel. These three efflux proteins interact in the periplasmic space to form the three-part complexes. We previously presented the crystal structures of both the inner-membrane transporter CusA and membrane fusion protein CusB of the CusCBA tripartite efflux system from Escherichia coli. We also described the co-crystal structure of the CusBA adaptor-transporter, revealing that the trimeric CusA efflux pump assembles with six CusB protein molecules to form the complex CusB(6)-CusA(3). We here report three different conformers of the crystal structures of CusBA-Cu(I), suggesting a mechanism on how Cu(I) binding initiates a sequence of conformational transitions in the transport cycle. Genetic analysis and transport assays indicate that charged residues, in addition to the methionine pairs and clusters, are essential for extruding metal ions out of the cell.
Journal of Molecular Biology 06/2012; 422(3):429-41. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gram-negative bacteria frequently expel toxic chemicals through tripartite efflux pumps that span both the inner and outer membranes. The three parts are the inner membrane, substrate-binding transporter (or pump); a periplasmic membrane fusion protein (MFP, or adaptor); and an outer membrane-anchored channel. The fusion protein connects the transporter to the channel within the periplasmic space. One such efflux system CusCBA is responsible for extruding biocidal Cu(I) and Ag(I) ions. We previously described the crystal structures of both the inner membrane transporter CusA and the MFP CusB of Escherichia coli. We also determined the co-crystal structure of the CusBA adaptor-transporter efflux complex, showing that the transporter CusA, which is present as a trimer, interacts with six CusB protomers and that the periplasmic domain of CusA is involved in these interactions. Here, we summarize the structural information of these efflux proteins, and present the accumulated evidence that this efflux system uses methionine residues to bind and export Cu(I) and Ag(I). Genetic and structural analyses suggest that the CusA pump is capable of picking up the metal ions from both the periplasm and the cytoplasm. We propose a stepwise shuttle mechanism for this pump to export metal ions from the cell.
Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 04/2012; 367(1592):1047-58. · 6.23 Impact Factor