[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Immunomodulatory therapies have been identified as interventions for secondary injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The cannabinoid receptor type-2 (CB2R) is proposed to play an important, endogenous role in regulating inflammation. The effects of CB2R stimulation, blockade, and deletion on the neurovascular inflammatory responses to TBI were assessed.Methods
Wild-type C57BL/6 or CB2R knockout mice were randomly assigned to controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury or to craniotomy control groups. The effects of treatment with synthetic, selective CB2R agonists (0-1966 and JWH-133), a selective CB2R antagonist, or vehicle solution administered to CCI groups were assessed at 1-day after injury. Changes in TNF-¿, intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), macrophage/microglial ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule, and blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeability were assessed using ELISA, quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and fluorometric analysis of sodium fluorescein uptake. CB2R knockouts and wild-type mice with CCI injury were treated with a CB2R agonist or vehicle treatment.ResultsTNF-¿ mRNA increased at 6 hours and 1 to 3 days after CCI; a CB2R antagonist and genetic knockout of the CB2R exacerbated TNF-¿ mRNA expression. Treatment with a CB2R agonist attenuated TNF-¿ protein levels indicating post-transcriptional mechanisms. Intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) mRNA was increased at 6 hours, and at 1 to 2 days after CCI, reduced in mice treated with a CB2R agonist, and increased in CB2R knockout mice with CCI. Sodium fluorescein uptake was increased in CB2R knockouts after CCI, with and without a CB2R agonist. iNOS mRNA expression peaked early (6 hours) and remained increased from 1 to 3 days after injury. Treatment with a CB2R agonist attenuated increases in iNOS mRNA expression, while genetic deletion of the CB2R resulted in substantial increases in iNOS expression. Double label immunohistochemistry confirmed that iNOS was expressed by macrophage/microglia in the injured cortex.Conclusion
Findings demonstrate that the endogenous cannabinoid system and CB2R play an important role in regulating inflammation and neurovascular responses in the traumatically injured brain. CB2R stimulation with two agonists (0-1966 and JWH-133) dampened post-traumatic inflammation, while blockade or deletion of the CB2R worsened inflammation. Findings support previous evidence that modulating the CB2R alters infiltrating macrophages and activated resident microglia. Further investigation into the role of the CB2R on specific immune cell populations in the injured brain is warranted.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 11/2014; 11(1):191. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Study Type Retrospective cohort study. Introduction Craniocervical instability is a surgical disease, most commonly due to rheumatoid arthritis, trauma, erosive pathologies such as tumors and infection, and advanced degeneration. Treatment involves stabilization of the craniovertebral junction by occipitocervical instrumentation and fusion. However, the impact of the fixed occipitocervical angle on surgical outcomes, in particular the need for revision surgery and the incidence of dysphagia, remains unknown. Occipitocervical fusions (OCFs) at a single institution were reviewed to evaluate the relationships between postoperative neck alignment, the need for revision surgery, and dysphagia. Objective The objective of this study is to determine whether an increased posterior occipital cervical angle results in an increase in the need for revision surgery, and secondary, dysphagia. Methods A retrospective review of spinal surgery patients from January 2007 to June 2013 was conducted searching for patients who underwent an occipitocervical instrumented fusion utilizing diagnostic and procedural codes. Specifically, a current procedural code of 22590 (arthrodesis, posterior technique [craniocervical]) was queried, as well those with a description of "craniocervical" or "occipitocervical" arthrodesis. Ideal neck alignment before rod placement was judged by the attending surgeon. A review of all cases for revision surgery or evidence of dysphagia was then conducted. Results From January 2007 to June 2013, 107 patients were identified (31 male, 76 female, mean age 63). Rheumatoid arthritis causing myelopathy was the most common indication for OCF, followed by trauma. Twenty of the patients were lost to follow-up and seven died within the perioperative period. Average follow-up for the remaining 80 patients was 16.4 months. The mean posterior occipitocervical angle (POCA), defined as the angle formed by the intersection of a line drawn tangential to the posterior aspect of the occipital protuberance and a line determined by the posterior aspect of the facets of the third and fourth cervical vertebrae, calculated after stabilization, was 107.1 degrees (range, 72-140 degrees). Reoperation was required in 11 patients (11/107, 10.3%). The mean POCA for the reoperation group was 109.5 degrees (range, 72-123) and was not significantly different than patients not requiring reoperation (106.5, p > 0.05). However, for all pathologies excluding infection as a cause for reoperation, the mean POCA was significantly higher, 115.14 degrees (p = 0.039) (Table 1). Seven patients (6.5%) complained of dysphagia postoperatively with a significantly higher POCA of 115 degrees (p = 0.039). Of these seven patients, six underwent posterior-only procedures. One patient underwent anterior and posterior procedures for a severe kyphotic deformity. The dysphagia resolved in six patients over a mean of 3 weeks (range, 2-4 weeks). One patient, whose surgery was posterior only, required the insertion of a gastrostomy tube. Conclusions An elevated POCA may result in need for reoperation due to increased biomechanical stress upon adjacent segments or the construct itself due to flexion in an attempt to maintain forward gaze. Further, an elevated POCA seems to also correlate with a higher incidence of dysphagia. Further investigation is necessary to determine the ideal craniocervical angle which is likely individualized to a particular patient based on global and regional spinal alignments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Open-label Laboratory Investigational Study; Non-animal Surgical Simulation OBJECTIVES:: The authors perform a comparison of dural closure strength in a durotomy simulator across two different suture materials.
Journal of spinal disorders & techniques. 09/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Object One often overlooked aspect of spinal epidural abscesses (SEAs) is the timing of surgical management. Limited evidence is available correlating earlier intervention with outcomes. Spinal epidural abscesses, once a rare diagnosis carrying a poor prognosis, are steadily becoming more common, with one recent inpatient meta-analysis citing an approximate incidence of 1 in 10,000 admissions with a mortality approaching 16%. One key issue of contention is the benefit of rapid surgical management of SEA to maximize outcomes. Timing of surgical management is definitely one overlooked aspect of care in spinal infections. Therefore, the authors performed a retrospective analysis in which they evaluated patients who underwent early (evacuation within 24 hours) versus delayed surgical intervention (> 24 hours) from the point of diagnosis, in an attempt to test the hypothesis that earlier surgery results in improved outcomes. Methods A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained adult neurosurgical database from 2009 to 2011 was conducted for patients with the diagnostic heading: epidural abscess, infection, osteomyelitis, osteodiscitis, spondylodiscitis, and abscess. The primary end point for each patient was neurological grade, measured as an American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale grade using hospital inpatient records on admission and discharge. Patients were divided into early surgical (< 24 hours) and delayed surgical cohorts. Results Eighty-seven consecutive patients were identified (25 females; mean age 55.5 years, age range 18-87 years). Fifty-four patients received surgery within 24 hours of admission (mean time from admission to incision, 11.2 hours), and 33 underwent surgery longer than 24 hours (mean 59 hours) after admission. Of the 54 patients undergoing early surgery 45 (85%) had a neurological deficit, whereas in the delayed surgical group 21 (64%) of 33 patients presented with a neurological deficit (p = 0.09). Patients in the delayed surgery cohort were significantly older by 10 years (59.6 vs 51.8 years, p = 0.01). With regard to history of prior revision, body mass index, intravenous drug abuse, tobacco use, prior radiation therapy, diabetes, chronic systemic infection, and prior osteomyelitis, there were no significant differences. There was no significant difference between early and delayed surgery groups in neurological grade on presentation, discharge, or location of epidural abscess. The most common organism isolated was Staphylococcus aureus (n = 51, 59.3%). The incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus was 21% (18 of 87). Conclusions Evacuation within 24 hours appeared to have a relative advantage over delayed surgery with regard to discharge neurological grade. However, due to a limited, variable sample size, a significant benefit could not be shown. Further subgroup analyses with larger populations are required.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prior studies published in the cardiothoracic, orthopedic and gastrointestinal surgery have identified the importance of nasal (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) MRSA screening and subsequent decolonization to reduce MRSA surgical site infection (SSI). This is the first study to date correlating nasal MRSA colonization with postoperative spinal MRSA SSI.
Clinical neurology and neurosurgery. 07/2014; 125C:94-97.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to assess the efficacy of intraoperative vancomycin powder in intrathecal baclofen pump placement patients, a high risk population. A retrospective review was conducted using prospectively collected data at an academic tertiary care unit. The neurosurgical adult patient population was queried for all intrathecal baclofen pump implantation procedures. Patients were then reviewed for the use of intraoperative crystalline vancomycin powder. Those with a history of prior surgical site infection, chronic systemic infections or osteomyelitis were excluded. Anhydrous, crystalline vancomycin was utilized in the wound bed after completion of implantation, distributed evenly in the case of multiple incisions. Patients received 500mg or 1000mg of crystallized vancomycin, evenly distributed through the wound layers based on a 70 kg weight cutoff. Intraoperative institutional standards of infection prophylaxis were unchanged throughout the study period. Infection rate of baclofen pump placement prior to the use of vancomycin powder from 2001-2009 at the same institution was monitored. Wound infection rate was tracked for a 12month postoperative period. Six patients out of 26 baclofen pump implantations (23%) in this cohort were identified to have seven infections despite vancomycin powder placement in the lumbar and catheter wounds. Prior infection rates have been investigated for intrathecal drug delivery systems from 2001 to 2009 at the same institution with an overall infection rate of 3% (8/274). The use of vancomycin powder in patients with implants in this series did not reduce infection rates compared to published historical controls, and was elevated compared to institutional controls. Further prospective study of this high risk patient population is warranted.
Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia. 06/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe national trends in prevalence, demographics, hospital length of stay (LOS), hospital charges, and mortality for burn patients with and without inhalational injury and to compare to the National Burn Repository. Burns and inhalation injury cause considerable mortality and morbidity in the United States. There remains insufficient reporting of the demographics and outcomes surrounding such injuries. The National Inpatient Sample database, the nation's largest all-payer inpatient care data repository, was utilized to select 506,628 admissions for burns from 1988 to 2008 based on ICD-9-CM recording. The data were stratified based on the extent of injury (%TBSA) and presence or absence of inhalational injury. Inhalation injury was observed in only 2.2% of burns with <20% TBSA but 14% of burns with 80 to 99% TBSA. Burn patients with inhalation injury were more likely to expire in-hospital compared to those without (odds ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.7-5.0; P < .001). Other factors associated with higher mortality were African-American race, female sex, and urban practice setting. Patients treated at rural facilities and patients with hyperglycemia had lower mortality rates. Each increase in percent of TBSA of burns increased LOS by 2.5%. Patients with burns covering 50 to 59% of TBSA had the longest hospital stay at a median of 24 days (range, 17-55). The median in-hospital charge for a burn patient with inhalation injury was US$32,070, compared to US$17,600 for those without. Overall, patients who expired from burn injury accrued higher in-hospital charges (median, US$50,690 vs US$17,510). Geographically, California and New Jersey were the states with the highest charges whereas Vermont and Maryland were states with the lowest charges. The study analysis provides a broad sampling of nationwide demographics, LOS, and in-hospital charges for patients with burns and inhalation injury.
Journal of burn care & research: official publication of the American Burn Association 06/2014; · 1.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reported incidence of concurrent traumatic brain (TBI) and spine or spinal cord injuries (SCI) is poorly defined, with widely variable literature rates from 16 to 74%.
Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 06/2014; 123C:174-180. · 1.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Study Design. Retrospective Case Series.Objective. To demonstrate the microbial trends of spinal surgical site infections(SSI) in patients who had previously received crystallized vancomycin in the operative bed.Summary of Background Data. Prior large, case control series demonstrate the significant decrease in SSI with the administration of vancomycin in the wound bed.Methods. A single institution, electronic database search was conducted for all spinal surgery patients who had received prophylactic crystalline vancomycin powder in the wound bed. Patient's with a prior history of wound infection, intrathecal pumps, or spinal stimulators were excludedResults. 981 consecutive patients (494 male, 487 female, mean age 59.4 years, range 16-95 years) were identified from January 2011 to June 2013. The average dose of vancomycin powder was 1.13 grams(range: 1-6 grams). 66 patients (6.71%) were diagnosed with a SSI of which 51 patients had positive wound cultures (5.2%). Of the 51 positive cultures the most common organism was Staphylococcus aureus. The average dose of vancomycin was 1.3 grams in the 38 cases where a gram-positive organism was cultured. A number of gram-negative infections were encountered such as Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Bacteroides fragilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter koseri and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The average dose of vancomycin was 1.2 grams in 23 cases where a gram negative infection was cultured. 15 of the 51 (29.4%) positive-cultures were polymicrobial. 8 (53%) of these 15 polymicrobial cultures contained three or more distinct organisms.Conclusion. Prophylactic intraoperative vancomycin use in the wound bed in spinal surgery may increase the incidence of gram-negative or polymicrobial spinal infections. The use of intraoperative vancomycin may correlate with postoperative seromas, due to the high incidence of non-positive cultures. Large, randomized, prospective trials are needed to demonstrate causation and dose-response relationship.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to assess the efficacy of intraoperative vancomycin powder in intrathecal baclofen pump placement patients, a high risk population. A retrospective review was conducted using prospectively collected data at an academic tertiary care unit. The neurosurgical adult patient population was queried for all intrathecal baclofen pump implantation procedures. Patients were then reviewed for the use of intraoperative crystalline vancomycin powder. Those with a history of prior surgical site infection, chronic systemic infections or osteomyelitis were excluded. Anhydrous, crystalline vancomycin was utilized in the wound bed after completion of implantation, distributed evenly in the case of multiple incisions. Patients received 500 mg or 1000 mg of crystallized vancomycin, evenly distributed through the wound layers based on a 70 kg weight cutoff. Intraoperative institutional standards of infection prophylaxis were unchanged throughout the study period. Infection rate of baclofen pump placement prior to the use of vancomycin powder from 2001–2009 at the same institution was monitored. Wound infection rate was tracked for a 12 month postoperative period. Six patients out of 26 baclofen pump implantations (23%) in this cohort were identified to have seven infections despite vancomycin powder placement in the lumbar and catheter wounds. Prior infection rates have been investigated for intrathecal drug delivery systems from 2001 to 2009 at the same institution with an overall infection rate of 3% (8/274). The use of vancomycin powder in patients with implants in this series did not reduce infection rates compared to published historical controls, and was elevated compared to institutional controls. Further prospective study of this high risk patient population is warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The reported incidence of concurrent traumatic brain (TBI) and spine or spinal cord injuries (SCI) is poorly defined, with widely variable literature rates from 16 to 74%.
To define the incidence of concurrent TBI and SCI, and compare the incidence over a twenty-year time period.
To define the longitudinal incidence and concurrent rate of TBI and SCI via a retrospective review of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database over a twenty year period.
Over the study period, the incidence of TBI declined from 143 patients/100k admissions to 95 patients/100k. However, there was a concurrent increase in SCI from 61 patients/100k admissions to 75 patients/100k admissions (P < 0.0001). Regional variations in SCI trends were noted, with specific regions demonstrating an increasing trend. Cervical fractures had the greatest increase by nearly a three-fold rise (1988: 4562–2008: 12,418). There was an increase in the incidence of TBI among SCI admission from 3.7% (1988) to 12.5% (2008) (OR = 1.067 per year; 95% CI = 1.065–1.069 per year; P < 0.0001). Concurrently, SCI patients had an increase in TBI (9.1% (1988)–15.9% (2008) (OR = 1.038 per year (95% CI 1.036–1.040; P < 0.001))).
A retrospective review of the NIS demonstrates a rising trend in the incidence of concurrent TBI and SCI. More investigative work is necessary to examine causative factors for this trend.
Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery. 01/2014; 123:174–180.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Pulmonary complications may be particularly frequent, but national data is lacking on the outcomes associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in SAH patients. The aim of this study is to determine national trends for SAH patients with ARDS.
The Nationwide Inpatient Sample Database (NIS) was utilized to sample 193,209 admissions for SAH with and without ARDS from 1993 to 2008 using ICD-9-CM coding. A multivariate stepwise regression analysis was performed.
The incidence of ARDS in SAH has increased from 35.51% in 1993 to 37.60% in 2008. However, the overall mortality in SAH patients and in SAH patients with ARDS has decreased in the same period, from 42.30% to 31.99% and from 75.13% to 60.76% respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictors of developing ARDS in SAH patients include older age, larger hospital size, and comorbidities such as epilepsy, cardiac arrest, sepsis, congestive heart failure, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and hematologic, renal, or neurological dysfunction. Predictors of mortality in SAH patients include age and hospital complications such as coronary artery disease, ARDS, cancer, and hematologic, or renal dysfunction.
SAH patients are at increased risk of developing ARDS and the identification of certain risk factors may alert and aid the practitioner in preventing worsening disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that hyperoxia was associated with higher in-hospital mortality in ventilated stroke patients admitted to the ICU.
Retrospective multicenter cohort study.
Primary admissions of ventilated stroke patients with acute ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage who had arterial blood gases within 24 hours of admission to the ICU at 84 U.S. ICUs between 2003 and 2008. Patients were divided into three exposure groups: hyperoxia was defined as PaO2 ≥300 mm Hg (39.99 kPa), hypoxia as any PaO2<60 mm Hg (7.99 kPa) or PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤300, and normoxia, not defined as hyperoxia or hypoxia. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality.
Two thousand eight hundred ninety-four patients.
Patients were divided into three exposure groups: hyperoxia was defined as PaO2 more than or equal to 300 mm Hg (39.99 kPa), hypoxia as any PaO2 less than 60 mm Hg (7.99 kPa) or PaO2/FIO2 ratio less than or equal to 300, and normoxia, not defined as hyperoxia or hypoxia. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality.
Exposure to hyperoxia.
Over the 5-year period, we identified 554 ventilated patients with acute ischemic stroke (19%), 936 ventilated patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (32%), and 1,404 ventilated patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (49%) of whom 1,084 (38%) were normoxic, 1,316 (46%) were hypoxic, and 450 (16%) were hyperoxic. Mortality was higher in the hyperoxia group as compared with normoxia (crude odds ratio 1.7 [95% CI 1.3-2.1]; p < 0.0001) and hypoxia groups (crude odds ratio, 1.3 [95% CI, 1.1-1.7]; p < 0.01). In a multivariable analysis adjusted for admission diagnosis, other potential confounders, the probability of being exposed to hyperoxia, and hospital-specific effects, exposure to hyperoxia was independently associated with in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.04-1.5]).
In ventilated stroke patients admitted to the ICU, arterial hyperoxia was independently associated with in-hospital death as compared with either normoxia or hypoxia. These data underscore the need for studies of controlled reoxygenation in ventilated critically ill stroke populations. In the absence of results from clinical trials, unnecessary oxygen delivery should be avoided in ventilated stroke patients.
Critical care medicine 10/2013; · 6.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this retrospective multi-centre cohort study, we tested the hypothesis that hyperoxia was not associated with higher in-hospital case fatality in ventilated traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU).
Admissions of ventilated TBI patients who had arterial blood gases within 24 h of admission to the ICU at 61 US hospitals between 2003 and 2008 were identified. Hyperoxia was defined as PaO2 ≥300 mm Hg (39.99 kPa), hypoxia as any PaO2 <60 mm Hg (7.99 kPa) or PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤300 and normoxia, not defined as hyperoxia or hypoxia. The primary outcome was in-hospital case fatality.
Over the 5-year period, we identified 1212 ventilated TBI patients, of whom 403 (33%) were normoxic, 553 (46%) were hypoxic and 256 (21%) were hyperoxic. The case-fatality was higher in the hypoxia group (224/553 [41%], crude OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.7-3.0, p<.0001) followed by hyperoxia (80/256 [32%], crude OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.5, p=.01) as compared to normoxia (87/403 [23%]). In a multivariate analysis adjusted for other potential confounders, the probability of being exposed to hyperoxia and hospital-specific characteristics, exposure to hyperoxia was independently associated with higher in-hospital case fatality adjusted OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.02-2.4, p=0.04.
In ventilated TBI patients admitted to the ICU, arterial hyperoxia was independently associated with higher in-hospital case fatality. In the absence of results from clinical trials, unnecessary oxygen delivery should be avoided in critically ill ventilated TBI patients.
Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 06/2013; · 4.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: To determine the prevalence of status epilepticus, associated factors, and relationship with in-hospital mortality in primary admissions of septic patients in the United States. DESIGN:: Cross-sectional study. SETTING:: Primary admissions of adult patients more than 18 years old with a diagnosis of sepsis and status epilepticus from 1988 to 2008 identified through the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. PARTICIPANTS:: A total of 7,669,125 primary admissions of patients with sepsis. INTERVENTIONS:: None. RESULTS:: During the 21-year study period, the prevalence of status epilepticus in primary admissions of septic patients increased from 0.1% in 1988 to 0.2% in 2008 (p < 0.001). Status epilepticus was also more common among later year, younger admissions, female gender, Black race, rural hospital admissions, and in those patients with organ dysfunctions. Mortality of primary sepsis admissions decreased from 20% in 1988 to 18% in 2008 (p < 0.001). Mortality in status epilepticus during sepsis decreased from 43% in 1988 to 28% in 2008. In-hospital mortality after admission for sepsis was associated with status epilepticus, older age, and Black and Native American/Eskimo race; patients admitted to a rural or urban private hospitals; and patients with organ dysfunctions. CONCLUSION:: Our analysis demonstrates that status epilepticus after admission for sepsis in the United States was rare. Despite an overall significant reduction in mortality after admission for sepsis, status epilepticus carried a higher risk of death. More aggressive electrophysiological monitoring and a high level of suspicion for the diagnosis of status epilepticus may be indicated in those patients with central nervous system organ dysfunction after sepsis.
Critical care medicine 06/2013; · 6.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To determine the epidemiology of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and impact on in-hospital mortality in admissions of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in the United States. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of admissions with a diagnosis of AIS and ARDS from 1994 to 2008 identified through the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. RESULTS: During the 15-year study period, we found 55 58 091 admissions of patients with AIS. The prevalence of ARDS in admissions of patients with AIS increased from 3% in 1994 to 4% in 2008 (P < .001). The ARDS was more common among younger men, nonwhites, and associated with history of congestive heart failure, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal failure, chronic liver disease, systemic tissue plasminogen activator, craniotomy, angioplasty or stent, sepsis, and multiorgan failures. Mortality due to AIS and ARDS decreased from 8% in 1994 to 6% in 2008 (P < .001) and 55% in 1994 to 45% in 2008 (P < .001), respectively. The ARDS in AIS increased in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 14; 95% confidence interval, 13.5-14.3). A significantly higher length of stay was seen in admissions of patients with AIS having ARDS. CONCLUSION: Our analysis demonstrates that ARDS is rare after AIS. Despite an overall significant reduction in mortality after AIS, ARDS carries a higher risk of death in this patient population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of this paper was to provide a comprehensive review of literature regarding the classification systems and surgical management of thoracolumbar spine trauma. Methods: A Pubmed search of "thoracolumbar", "spine", "fracture" was used on January 05, 2013. Exclusionary criteria included non-Human studies, case reports, and non-clinical papers. Results. One thousand five hundred twenty manuscripts were initially returned for the combined search string; 150 were carefully reviewed, and 48 manuscripts were included in the review. Discussion: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has a high prevalence in North America. The thoracolumbar junction is a point of high kinetic energy transfer and often results in thoracolumbar fractures. New classification systems for thoracolumbar spine fractures are being developed in an attempt to standardize evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment as well as reporting in the literature. Earlier classifications such as the Denis "3-column model" emphasized anatomic divisions to guide surgical planning. More modern classification systems such as the Thoracolumbar injury classification system (TLICS) emphasize initial neurologic status and structural integrity of the posterior ligamentous complex as a guide for surgical decision making and have demonstrated a high intra- and interobserver reliability. Other systems such as the Load-Sharing Classification aid as a useful tool in planning the extent of instrumentation and fusion. Conclusion: There is still much controversy over the surgical management of various thoracolumbar fractures. Level I data exists supporting the nonsurgical management of thoracolumbar burst fractures without neurologic compromise. However, for the majority of fracture types in this region, more randomized controlled trials are necessary to establish standards of care.
Journal of neurosurgical sciences 06/2013; 57(2):115-22. · 0.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Study design:Retrospective Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) study.Objectives:To determine national trends in prevalence, risk factors and mortality for vertebral column fracture (VCF) and spinal cord injury (SCI) patients with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome/acute lung injury (ARDS/ALI).Setting:United States of America, 1988 to 2008.Methods:The NIS was utilized to select 284 612 admissions for VCF with and without acute SCI from 1988 to 2008 based on ICD-9-CM. The data were stratified for in-hospital complications of ARDS/ALI.Results:Patients with SCI were more likely to develop ARDS/ALI compared with those without (odds ratio (OR): 4.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.7-5.2, P<0.001). Compared with patients with lumbar fractures, those with cervical, thoracic and sacral fractures were more likely to develop ARDS/ALI (P<0.001). ARDS/ALI was statistically more prevalent (P<0.01) in VCF/SCI patients with epilepsy, sepsis, cardiac arrest, congestive heart failure (CHF), hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and metabolic disorders. Patients with female gender, surgery at rural practice setting, and coronary artery disease and diabetes were less likely to develop ARDS/ALI (P<0.001). VCF/SCI patients who developed ARDS/ALI were more likely to die in-hospital than those without ARDS/ALI (OR 6.5, 95% CI 6.0-7.1, P<0.001). Predictors of in-hospital mortality after VCF/SCI include: older age, male sex, epilepsy, sepsis, hypertension, CHF, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and liver disease. Patients who developed ARDS/ALI stayed a mean of 25 hospital days (30-440 days) while patients without ARDS/ALI stayed a mean of 6 days (7-868 days, P<0.001).Conclusion:Our analysis demonstrates that SCI patients are more at risk for ARDS/ALI, which carries a significantly higher risk of mortality.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 12 March 2013; doi:10.1038/sc.2013.16.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: In spite of its common occurrence, the factors predictive of the rupture of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) remain poorly defined. Method: A retrospective analysis of patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of cerebral aneurysm in a single institution was done. The factors studied were age, sex, size, site, side, multiplicity, neck type, aspect ratio, positive family history, smoking and drinking habits, and hypertension. The morphological parameters were evaluated for a total of 5,138 aneurysms obtained from the 2,347 patients. Factors found significant on univariate analysis were further tested on a multivariate model. Findings: We found 1,088 patients (46.36%) had at least a single aneurysmal rupture. Among the morphologic factors, size greater than 10 mm, right sidedness, aspect ratio greater than 1.6, deviated neck type, and multiplicity were found to be associated with higher incidences of rupture. Aneurysms on posterior communicating and middle cerebral arteries were found to be more prone to rupture. The demographic factors that were more linked with the ruptured aneurysms were positive family history, smoking, and hypertension. Conclusions: Relevant cases should be started on intensive lifestyle modification, and extensive screening of those with a positive family history is highly warranted. All "at-risk" patients should be evaluated for early surgical intervention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem in the United States, yet no treatment is currently available to improve outcome after TBI. Approved for use in TBI in 59 countries, citicoline is an endogenous substance offering potential neuroprotective properties as well as facilitated neurorepair post injury.
To determine the ability of citicoline to positively affect functional and cognitive status in persons with complicated mild, moderate, and severe TBI.
The Citicoline Brain Injury Treatment Trial (COBRIT), a phase 3, double-blind randomized clinical trial conducted between July 20, 2007, and February 4, 2011, among 1213 patients at 8 US level 1 trauma centers to investigate effects of citicoline vs placebo in patients with TBI classified as complicated mild, moderate, or severe.
Ninety-day regimen of daily enteral or oral citicoline (2000 mg) or placebo.
Functional and cognitive status, assessed at 90 days using the TBI-Clinical Trials Network Core Battery. A global statistical test was used to analyze the 9 scales of the core battery. Secondary outcomes were functional and cognitive improvement, assessed at 30, 90, and 180 days, and examination of the long-term maintenance of treatment effects.
Rates of favorable improvement for the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended were 35.4% in the citicoline group and 35.6% in the placebo group. For all other scales the rate of improvement ranged from 37.3% to 86.5% in the citicoline group and from 42.7% to 84.0% in the placebo group. The citicoline and placebo groups did not differ significantly at the 90-day evaluation (global odds ratio [OR], 0.98 [95% CI, 0.83-1.15]); in addition, there was no significant treatment effect in the 2 severity subgroups (global OR, 1.14 [95% CI, 0.88-1.49] and 0.89 [95% CI, 0.72-1.49] for moderate/severe and complicated mild TBI, respectively). At the 180-day evaluation, the citicoline and placebo groups did not differ significantly with respect to the primary outcome (global OR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.72-1.04]).
Among patients with traumatic brain injury, the use of citicoline compared with placebo for 90 days did not result in improvement in functional and cognitive status.
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00545662.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 11/2012; 308(19):1993-2000. · 29.98 Impact Factor