[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Co-occurrence of major depressive (MDD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) is frequent, causing more burden than each disorder separately. Since the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is critically involved in both mood and reward and dysfunctional in both conditions, we aimed to evaluate the effects of dTMS stimulation of bilateral DLPFC with left prevalence in patients with MDD with or without concomitant AUD. Methods: Twelve MDD patients and 11 with concomitant MDD and AUD (MDD+AUD) received 20 dTMS sessions. Clinical status was assessed through the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Clinical Global Impressions severity scale (CGIs), craving through the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) in MDD+AUD, and functioning with the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in sociodemographic (age, sex, years of education and duration of illness) and baseline clinical characteristics, including scores on assessment scales. Per cent drops on HDRS and CGIs scores at the end of the sessions were respectively 62.6% and 78.2% for MDD+AUD, and 55.2% and 67.1% for MDD (p<0.001). HDRS, CGIs and GAF scores remained significantly improved after the 6-month follow-up. HDRS scores dropped significantly earlier in MDD+AUD than in MDD. Conclusions: High frequency bilateral DLPFC dTMS with left preference was well tolerated and effective in patients with MDD, with or without AUD. The antidepressant effect of dTMS is not affected by alcohol abuse in patients with depressive episodes. The potential use of dTMS for mood modulation as an adjunct to treatment in patients with a depressive episode, with or without alcohol abuse, deserves further investigation.
Journal of Affective Disorders 11/2014; · 3.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is dysfunctional in mood and substance use disorders. We predicted higher efficacy for add-on bilateral prefrontal high-frequency deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS), compared with standard drug treatment (SDT) in patients with dysthymic disorder (DD)/alcohol use disorder (AUD) comorbidity. Methods. We carried-out a 6-month open-label study involving 20 abstinent patients with DSM-IV-TR AUD comorbid with previously developed DD. Ten patients received SDT for AUD with add-on bilateral dTMS (dTMS-AO) over the DLPFC, while another 10 received SDT alone. We rated alcohol craving with the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS), depression with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), clinical status with the Clinical Global Impressions scale (CGI), and global functioning with the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Results. At the end of the 20-session dTMS period (or an equivalent period in the SDT group), craving scores and depressive symptoms in the dTMS-AO group dropped signiﬁcantly more than in the SDT group (P < 0.001 and P < 0.02, respectively). Conclusions. High frequency bilateral DLPFC dTMS with left preference was well tolerated and found to be effective as add-on in AUD. The potential of dTMS for reducing craving in substance use disorder patients deserves to be further investigated.
The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 08/2014; · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Primary objective: Early treatment of epilepsy is warranted to avoid possible severe consequences. This study aimed to assess the value of treatment in a patient who developed epilepsy after major brain surgery. Design: Case description. A 51 years-old man had a history of putative petit mal seizures since adolescence and left frontotemporal lobectomy after a major traffic accident at age 17. He subsequently developed quickly generalizing partial complex seizures, associated with severe behavioural alterations and personality changes; the condition was left untreated. A further seizure-related loss of consciousness led to another traffic accident at age 47. Methods and procedures: The patient was administered 200 mg/day topiramate, 600 mg/day quetiapine, 1000 mg/day valproate, 1200 mg/day gabapentin and 800 mg/day carbamazepine. Main outcomes and results: The instituted anti-epileptic treatment reduced seizure frequency and severity, but did not affect psychiatric symptomatology, which even worsened. An association between anti-epileptic drugs with mood stabilizing properties and an atypical anti-psychotic dramatically improved psychiatric symptoms, but did not prevent the patient from needing long-term healthcare. Conclusions: Long-term untreated epilepsy may expose to accident proneness and further psychiatric deterioration. Early diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy may help in avoiding a potentially lethal vicious circle.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 41-year-old man with comorbid binge-eating disorder, severe obesity, and bipolar disorder since the age of 20 years, resistant to drug and psychotherapy combinations, worsened progressively. Relentless weight gain forced him to immobility and dependence on others. He was hospitalized for a mixed-mood episode with anxiety, mystical delusions, and auditory hallucinations. To overcome treatment resistance, we suggested electroconvulsive therapy. After 1 electroconvulsive therapy cycle, psychological symptoms promptly improved. He received clozapine and lithium. After 2 years, he reached normal weight and fair psychopathological compensation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 24-year-old man experiencing comorbid body dysmorphic disorder since age 16 years, complicated in recent months by a major depressive episode with psychotic features, showed resistance to various drug and psychotherapy combinations. We suggested electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) to overcome treatment resistance. After 1 ECT cycle, mood and anxiety symptoms improved significantly, delusional interpretations and ideas of reference subsided, and dysmorphophobic symptoms improved as well. Six months later, the patient was doing well with a mood stabilizer/antipsychotic combination. Electroconvulsive therapy may improve symptoms of comorbid body dysmorphic disorder along with mood improvement in treatment-resistant depressive disorder.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Craving for alcohol is associated with abnormal activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) has shown promise in the treatment of depression. There are few treatment options for treatment-resistant dysthymic disorder comorbid with alcohol use disorder. Objective: To investigate the possible anticraving efficacy of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex high-frequency dTMS in 3 patients with comorbid long-term DSM-IV-TR dysthymic disorder and alcohol use disorder. Method: Three patients with alcohol use disorder with dysthymic disorder in their detoxification phase (abstaining for > 1 month) underwent twenty 20-minute sessions of 20 Hz dTMS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex over 28 days between 2011 and 2012. Alcohol craving was rated with the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale and depressive symptoms with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results: All 3 patients responded unsatisfactorily to initial intravenous antidepressant and antianxiety combinations but responded after 10 dTMS sessions, improving on both anxiety-depressive symptoms and craving. This improvement enabled us to reduce antidepressant dosages after dTMS cycle completion. Discussion: High-frequency bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex dTMS with left prevalence was found to produce significant anticraving effects in alcohol use disorder comorbid with dysthymic disorder. The potential of dTMS for reducing craving in patients with substance use disorder deserves to be further investigated.
The Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 01/2013; 15(1).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of maintenance electroconvulsive therapy (mECT) in elderly patients with treatment-resistant Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition major depressive episode. METHODS: Seven elderly patients with treatment-resistant major depressive episode were treated with a complete ECT cycle. Thereafter, they received one monthly ECT session as maintenance for 1 year. Response to treatment was defined as at least a 50% drop from baseline on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HamD) and remission as not meeting criteria for major depression, a HamD score of 7 or less, and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness score of 1. We compared their response with the response of 7 elderly patients with treatment-resistant major depression who were treated with a full cycle of ECT but did not receive mECT (non-mECT). We compared the 2 groups for the number of relapses or recurrences of major depressive episodes after remission was achieved; a relapse or a recurrence occurred when HamD scores were 14 or higher, or when Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision major depressive episode criteria were met, or when Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness score was 3 or higher and increased by at least 2 points from response/remission. RESULTS: The mECT group (4 women and 3 men; mean age, 73 years) had significantly less mean relapses/recurrences (0 vs 1.57) and hospitalizations (0 vs 1) and received less drug treatment than the nonMECT group (similar for age and sex composition) during the 12-month follow-up period. All patients with mECT improved during treatment and did not relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Maintenance ECT protected elderly patients from recurrent depressive episodes from relapsing/recurring more than standard ECT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A woman with bipolar disorder I, histrionic personality disorder, and suicidal ideation with repeated suicide attempts, who had been treated for 2 years with mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and benzodiazepines, received a total of 8 bitemporal-biparietal electroconvulsive therapy sessions. Her suicidal ideation and self-harm behavior disappeared immediately after the first session and her psychopathology soon after. This supports the existence of a relatively independent suicidal syndrome and confirms data on its immediate responsiveness to electroconvulsive therapy. Electroconvulsive therapy must not be long withheld from patients with such characteristics to reduce unnecessary sufferance and suicidality.
The journal of ECT 03/2012; 28(1):57-8. · 1.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A young woman with bipolar I disorder and comorbid catatonia on enteral nutrition from several months, developed a form of near-lethal catatonia with weight loss, pressure sores, muscle atrophy, electrolyte imbalance, and depression of vital signs. A compulsory treatment was necessary, and informed consent was obtained from her mother for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). After 7 ECT sessions, the patient recovered and resumed feeding. ECT may save the life of a patient with catatonia provided that legal obstacles are overcome. Clinicians should carefully evaluate patients with near-lethal catatonia, taking into account the risk of pulmonary embolism and other fatal events. The medical-legal issues, which vary across state regulations, should be addressed in detail to avoid unnecessary and potentially harmful delay in intervention.
Rivista di Psichiatria 01/2012; 47(6):535-537. · 0.20 Impact Factor