[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Artemin (ARTN) has been implicated in promoting oncogenicity, tumor growth and invasiveness in diverse human malignancies. However, the clinical and prognostic significance of upstream ligand binding components, potentially mediating ARTN oncogenicity, largely remain to be determined.
We determined the mRNA and protein expression of three proteins demonstrated to bind ARTN, namely GFRα1, GFRα3 and Syndecan-3 (SDC3), in benign breast disease and mammary carcinoma by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Their prognostic significance combined with ARTN expression was also investigated in mammary carcinoma.
The expression of GFRα1 and GFRα3, but not SDC3, was significantly increased in mammary carcinoma and positively associated with tumor lymph node metastases, higher clinical stage and HER-2 positivity. Moreover, both GFRα1 and GFRα3 expression were significantly associated with survival outcome of patients with mammary carcinoma by univariate and multivariate analyses, whereas expression of SDC3 was not. Co-expression of ARTN with either GFRα1 or GFRα3, but not SDC3, produced synergistic increases in the odds ratio for both relapse-free and overall survival in patients with mammary carcinoma. Furthermore, significant association of GFRα1 and GFRα3 expression with survival outcome observed herein were restricted to ER negative or HER-2 negative mammary carcinoma.
The expression of GFRα1 and/or GFRα3, especially when combined with ARTN expression, may be useful predictors of disease progression and outcome in specific subtypes of mammary carcinoma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: miRNAs, endogenous oligonucleotide RNAs, play an important role in mammary gland carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Detection of their expression and investigation of their functions could lead to discovery of novel biomarkers for breast cancer.
In situ hybridization was used to detect miR-133a expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast surgical specimens from 26 benign, 34 pericancerously normal and 90 cancerous tissues. qRT-PCR was performed to assess miR-133a levels in 6 breast cell lines and 10 benign and 18 cancerous fresh breast tissue specimens. Cell viability, migration, and invasion assays were used to determine the role of miR-133a in regulation of breast cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion, respectively. Luciferase assay was performed to assess miR-133a binding to FSCN1 gene.
Expression of miR-133a was reduced from normal through benign to cancerous breast tissues. Expression of miR-133a was also low in breast cancer cell lines. The reduced miR-133a expression was associated with lymph nodes metastasis, high clinical stages, and shorter relapse-free survivals of patients with breast cancer. Furthermore, transfection of miR-133a oligonucleotides slightly inhibited growth but significantly decreased migration and invasion capacity of breast cancer cells, compared with negative controls, whereas knockdown of miR-133a expression induced breast cancer cell migration and invasion. In addition, we identified a putative miR-133a binding site in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of Fascin1 (FSCN1) gene using an online bioinformatical tool. We found that miR-133a transfection significantly reduced expression of FSCN1 mRNA and protein. The luciferase reporter assay confirmed that FSCN1 was the direct target gene of miR-133a.
miR-133a expression was lost in breast cancer tissues, loss of which was associated with lymph nodes metastasis, high clinical stages and shorter relapse-free survivals of patients with breast cancer. Functionally, miR-133a can suppress tumor cell invasion and migration and targeted the expression of FSCN1. Future study will verify whether detection of miR-133a expression can served as a novel biomarker for breast cancer progression and patient prognosis.