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Publications (14)31.69 Total impact

  • Critical Care 03/2012; 16(1). · 4.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the effects of a 29-h total sleep deprivation (TSD) on local cold tolerance, 10 healthy men immersed their right hand for 30 min in a 5°C water bath (CWI) after a 30-min rest period in a thermoneutral environment (Control), after a normal night (NN) and after a 29-h TSD. CWI was followed by a 30-min passive rewarming (Recovery). Finger 2 and 4 skin temperatures (Tfi2, Tfi4) and finger 2 cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) were monitored to study cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD). Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature ([Formula: see text]), heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were also measured. Blood samples were collected at the end of the Control, at the lower and at the first maximal Tfi2 values during CWI and at Recovery. Tfi2, Tfi4 and CVC did not differ after TSD at Control, whereas they were reduced during CWI (-2.6 ± 0.7°C for Tfi2; -2 ± 0.8°C for Tfi4, -79 ± 25% for relative CVC, P < 0.05) as during Recovery (-4.9 ± 1.9°C for Tfi2, -2.6 ± 1.8°C for Tfi4, -70 ± 22% for relative CVC, P < 0.05). After TSD, the lower CVC values appeared earlier during CWI (-59 ± 19.6 s, P < 0.05). After TSD at Control and CWI, plasma endothelin levels were higher and negatively correlated with Tfi2, Tfi4 and CVC. However, no effect of TSD was found on the number and amplitude of CIVD and in Tre, HR, BP and catecholamines, for all periods. We concluded that TSD induced thermal and vascular changes in the hand which impair the local cold tolerance, suggesting that TSD increases the risk of local cold injuries.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 01/2012; 112(9):3239-50. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Total sleep deprivation in humans is associated with increased daytime sleepiness, decreased performance, elevations in inflammatory cytokines, and hormonal/metabolic disturbances. To assess the effects of 40 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD) under constant and well controlled conditions, on plasma levels of TNF-α and its receptor (TNFR1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), cortisol and C-reactive protein (CRP), sleepiness and performance, 12 healthy men (29±3 years) participated in a 5-days sleep deprivation experiment (two control nights followed by a night of sleep loss and one recovery night). Between 0800 and 2300 (i.e. between 25 and 40 h of sleep deprivation), a serial of blood sampling, multiple sleep latency, subjective levels of sleepiness and reaction time tests were completed before (day 2: D2) and after (day 4: D4) one night of sleep loss. We showed that an acute sleep deprivation (i.e. after 34 and 37 h of sleep deprivation) induced a significant increase in TNF-α (P<0.01), but there were no significant changes in TNFR1, IL-6, cortisol and CRP. In conclusion, our study in which constant and controlled experimental conditions were realized with healthy subjects and in absence of psychological or physical stressors, an acute total sleep deprivation (from 34 h) was sufficient to induce secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as TNF-α, a marker more described in chronic sleep restriction or deprivation and as mediators of excessive sleepiness in humans in pathological conditions.
    Cytokine 07/2011; 56(2):318-24. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sleep disorders are associated with inflammation and sympathetic activation, which are suspected to induce endothelial dysfunction, a key factor in the increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Less is known about the early effects of acute sleep deprivation on vascular function. We evaluated microvascular reactivity and biological markers of endothelial activation during continuous 40 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD) in 12 healthy men (29 +/- 3 yr). The days before [day 1 (D1)] and during TSD (D3), at 1200 and 1800, endothelium-dependent and -independent cutaneous vascular conductance was assessed by iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively, coupled to laser-Doppler flowmetry. At 0900, 1200, 1500, and 1800, heart rate (HR) and instantaneous blood pressure (BP) were recorded in the supine position. At D1, D3, and the day after one night of sleep recovery (D4), markers of vascular endothelial cell activation, including soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin, and interleukin-6 were measured from blood samples at 0800. Compared with D1, plasma levels of E-selectin were raised at D3, whereas intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-6 were raised at D4 (P < 0.05). The endothelium-dependent and -independent CVC were significantly decreased after 29 h of TSD (P < 0.05). By contrast, HR, systolic BP, and the normalized low-frequency component of HR variability (0.04-0.15 Hz), a marker of the sympathetic activity, increased significantly within 32 h of TSD (P < 0.05). In conclusion, acute exposure to 40 h of TSD appears to cause vascular dysfunction before the increase in sympathetic activity and systolic BP.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 11/2009; 108(1):68-75. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated effects of a high protein (PROT) versus a high carbohydrate (CHO) diet on performance and physiological responses during an ultraendurance climbing race at moderate altitude. On two different periods, in a randomised crossover design, ten climbers (30.0+/-0.9 years) participated in the race (duration 29 h approximately, energy expenditure 43.6+/-1.2 MJ.day (-1)) and were fed either with the PROT (30% protein content) or the CHO diet (68% carbohydrate) each providing 16.74 MJ. Mental performance was assessed by the Stroop test and we estimated maximal voluntary strength of quadriceps muscle. We quantified metabolic and hormonal circulating concentrations. Mental performance was unaffected after the two races, while muscular performance and body weight were decreased (both p<0.01) with no diet effects. Decreases were measured for IGF-I concentration and its binding protein IGFBP-3 (p<0.001), and increases for cortisol and norepinephrine (p<0.01) with no diet effects. Glucose concentration decreased (p<0.05) without diet effects, while amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, valine, and tyrosine) decreased in CHO group (p<0.001). Leptin concentration decreased (p<0.001) without diet effects, whereas total ghrelin increased in CHO group (p<0.01). Our results showed that a high PROT or high CHO intake during physical exertion at moderate altitude maintained mental performance, but did not limit muscle force reduction and body weight loss. There was decreased glucose availability, and hormonal responses indicated both catabolism and extreme energy deficiency induced by exercise with opposite responses of ghrelin and leptin. The ghrelin response was additionally indicative of macronutrient intake during the race.
    Hormone and Metabolic Research 10/2009; 42(1):31-7. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    Diabetes & Metabolism - DIABETES METAB. 01/2009; 35.
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate reports of energy expenditure (EE) during prolonged mountaineering activity are sparse. The purpose of this study was to estimate EE during a winter ultraendurance climbing race and individual mountaineering activities in Mont Blanc, France. Seven days before the race, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2(max)) were measured in 10 experienced male climbers (30.0 +/- 0.9 years). Three days before (reference period) and during the race, heart rate (HR) was recorded for estimation of total daily EE (TDEE), and the type and duration of all activities were collected through questionnaires. Total DEE was calculated by adding DEE during sleep (DEE sleep), sedentary (DEE sedentary), and during exercise (DEE exercise). Daily energy expenditure during exercise was determined through assumption of the rectilinear relationship between heart rate (HR) and Vo2. Anthropometric measurements were performed 7 days before, just before, and immediately after the race. Total time of the race averaged approximately 29 hours and 29 minutes, including 11 hours and 24 minutes in the hut, plus 18 hours and 5 minutes dedicated to climbing. During the race, TDEE was 43.6 +/- 1.2 MJ x d(-1). Energy expenditures for cross-country skiing and alpine climbing were similar (57.3 +/- 2.1 kJ x min(-1) and 54.0 +/- 2.9 kJ x min(-1), respectively). An energy deficit of 33.5 +/- 2.3 MJ resulted after the race, with a mean weight loss of 1.52 +/- 0.31 kg (P < .001). Experienced climbers expended a high level of energy during a winter ultraendurance alpine climbing race at moderate altitude under high degrees of difficulty and risk exposure. These results provide comparative data on the energy cost of the main mountaineering activities during a race: cross-country skiing and alpine climbing.
    Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 01/2009; 20(3):225-33. · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Assessment of individual susceptibility to altitude illnesses and more particularly to acute mountain sickness (AMS) by means of tests performed in normobaric hypoxia (NH) or in hypobaric hypoxia (HH) is still debated. Eighteen subjects were submitted to HH and NH tests (PIO2=120 hPa, 30 min) before an expedition. Maximal and mean acute mountain sickness scores (AMSmax and mean) were determined using the self-report Lake Louise questionnaire scored daily. Cardio-ventilatory (f, V(T), PetO2 and PetCO2, HR and finger pulse oxymetry SpO2) were measured at times 5 and 30 min of the tests. Arterial (PaO2, PaCO2, pH, SaO2) and capillary haemoglobin (Hb) measurements were performed at times 30 min. Hypoxic ventilatory (HVR) and cardiac (HCR) responses, peripheral O2 blood content (CpO2) were calculated. A significant time effect is found for DeltaSpO2 (P = 0.04). Lower PaCO2 (P = 0.005), SaO2 (P = 0.07) and higher pH (P = 0.02) are observed in HH compared to NH. AMSmax varied from 3 to12 and AMSmean between 0.6 and 3.5. In NH at 30 min, AMSmax is related to PetO2 (R = 0.61, P = 0.03), CpO2 (R = -0.53, P = 0.02) and in HH to CpO2 (R = -0.57, P = 0.01). In NH, AMSmean is related to Deltaf (R = 0.46, P = 0.05), HCR (R = 0.49, P = 0.04), CpO2 (R = -0.51, P = 0.03) and, in HH at 30 min, to V(T) (R = 0.69, P = 0.01) and a tendency for CpO2 (R = -0.43, P = 0.07). We conclude that HH and NH tests are physiologically different and they must last 30 min. CpO2 is an important variable to predict AMS. For practical considerations, NH test is proposed to quantify AMS individual susceptibility using the formulas: AMSmax = 9.47 + 0.104PetO2(hPa)-0.68CpO2 (%), (R = 0.77, P = 0.001); and AMSmean = 3.91 + 0.059Deltaf + 0.438HCR-0.135CpO2 (R = 0.71, P = 0.017).
    Arbeitsphysiologie 06/2007; 100(2):193-205. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Suggested mechanisms for the systemic, circulating cytokinemia observed during heavy physical exertion include inflammation and energy demand. We compared cytokine levels and examined the underlying physiological mechanisms between a long-distance triathlon and a 100-km run, two endurance races of similar duration but characterized by differences in muscle strain. Blood samples were collected from 12 triathletes (34.8 +/- 1.4 yr) and 11 runners (42.4 +/- 2.2 yr) the day before and at the end of races (T1, R1), and 24 h and 7 days post-race (R2, R3). At R1, significant race-related differences were observed, with greater increases in plasma levels of interleukins (IL)-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10 in the triathletes than in the runners, while levels of the chemokine IL-8 increased solely in the runners (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.001, respectively). At R1, free fatty acid (FFA) levels were 119% higher in the triathletes than in the runners, who were the most liable to muscle damage in view of increased levels of the muscle-specific enzyme, creatine kinase (CK), loss of muscle flexibility and decreased physical performance. At R1, levels of heat shock protein (HSP)72 increased in the two groups but were 173% higher in the runners. For the two groups, all parameters had returned to pre-race levels by seven days post-race. Positive correlations were noted between IL-6 and FFA in the triathletes and between IL-8 and CK and HSP72 in the runners. The differences between cytokine responses after a long distance triathlon and a 100-km run suggested that IL-6 and IL-8 could be employed as respective markers of the intensity of the muscular activity required for substrate availability and vascular inflammation.
    European cytokine network 06/2006; 17(2):117-24. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This investigation examined the impact of a multistressor situation on salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels, and incidence of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) during the French commando training (3 weeks of training followed by a 5-day combat course). For the URTI, the types of symptoms were classified according to the anatomical location of the infection. Saliva samples were collected (8 a.m.) from 21 males [21 (2) years] before entry into the commando training, the morning following the 3 weeks of training, after the 5-day combat course, and after 1 week of recovery. sIgA, protein and cortisol concentrations were measured. Symptoms of URTI were recorded during the study from health logs and medical examinations. After the 3 weeks of training, the sIgA concentration was not changed, although it was reduced after the 5-day course [from 120 (14) mg l(-1) to 71 (9) mg l(-1), P<0.01]. It returned to pre-training levels within a week of recovery. The incidence of URTI increased during the trial (chi(2)=53.48; P<0.01), but was not related to sIgA. Among the 30 episodes of URTI reported, there were 12 rhino-pharyngitis, 6 bronchitis, 5 tonsillitis, 4 sinusitis and 3 otitis. Cortisol levels were raised after the 3-week training (P<0.01), dropping below baseline after the combat course (P<0.01). Stressful situations have an adverse effect on mucosal immunity and incidence of URTI. However, the relationship between sIgA and illness remained unclear. The large proportion of rhino-pharyngitis indicated that the nasopharyngeal cavity is at a higher risk of infection.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 02/2005; 93(4):421-8. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine hormonal and metabolic changes in a group of 18 professional male cyclists ((.)VO(2)max 69.9 [95 % CI 64.9 to 74.9] mL x kg(-1) x min(-1) ) during two successive periods of adapted intensive training. The second training period included 4 days of cycling competition. Intensity was increased while volume was decreased in the second training. Anthropometric data were collected before and at the end of the two training periods. Venous blood samples were taken in a basal state before the two training sessions and after each training session. Serum concentrations of cortisol (C), testosterone (T), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAs), and catecholamines were determined as well as branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, isoleucine) (BCAA) and free fatty acids (FFAs). At the end of the two training periods, the subjects lost fat mass whereas mean body mass was unchanged. The T/C ratio was reduced transiently after the first training session (45.90 %), while DHEAs/C remained unchanged. T/C and DHEAs/C were significantly increased after the second training session compared to the first (48.40 and 97.18 %, respectively). Catecholamines and FFAs were unchanged. The significant increase in BCAA levels after the second training session was of note as it might constitute a "store shape" of amino acids in anticipation of future intense training loads. Based on the responses of testosterone, DHEAs, and cortisol, and on the training-induced increase in BCAA, there appeared to be hormonal and metabolic adaptation despite the inherent psychological stress of competition.
    Canadian journal of applied physiology = Revue canadienne de physiologie appliquée 01/2005; 29(6):714-30. · 1.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In human muscle the role of myoglobin (Mb) and its relationship to factors such as muscle perfusion and metabolic capacity are not well understood. We utilized nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to simultaneously study the Mb concentration ([Mb]), perfusion, and metabolic characteristics in calf muscles of athletes trained long term for either sprint or endurance running after plantar flexion exercise and cuff ischemia. The acquisitions for (1)H assessment of Mb desaturation and concentration, arterial spin labeling measurement of muscle perfusion, and (31)P spectroscopy to monitor high-energy phosphate metabolites were interleaved in a 4-T magnet. The endurance-trained runners had a significantly elevated [Mb] (0.28 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.20 +/- 0.03 mmol/kg). The time constant of creatine rephosphorylation (tauPCr), an indicator of oxidative capacity, was both shorter in the endurance-trained group (34 +/- 6 vs. 64 +/- 20 s) and negatively correlated with [Mb] across all subjects (r = 0.58). The time to reach maximal perfusion after cuff release was also both shorter in the endurance-trained group (306 +/- 74 vs. 560 +/- 240 s) and negatively correlated with [Mb] (r = 0.56). Finally, Mb reoxygenation rate tended to be higher in the endurance-trained group and was positively correlated with tauPCr (r = 0.75). In summary, these NMR data reveal that [Mb] is increased in human muscle with a high oxidative capacity and a highly responsive vasculature, and the rate at which Mb resaturates is well correlated with the rephosphorylation rate of Cr, each of which support a teleological role for Mb in O(2) transport within highly oxidative human skeletal muscle.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 01/2005; 287(6):R1441-9. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Erythropoiesis was studied in 11 subjects submitted to a 4-h hypoxia (HH) in a hypobaric chamber (4,500 m, barometric pressure 58.9 kPa) both before and after a 3-week sojourn in the Andes. On return to sea level, increased red blood cells (+3.27%), packed cell volume (+4.76%), haemoglobin (+6.55%) ( P<0.05), and increased arterial partial pressure of oxygen (+8.56%), arterial oxygen saturation (+7.40%) and arterial oxygen blood content ( C(a)O(2)) (+12.93%) at the end of HH ( P<0.05) attested high altitude acclimatization. Reticulocytes increased during HH after the sojourn only (+36.8% vs +17.9%, P<0.01) indicating a probable higher reticulocyte release and/or production despite decreased serum erythropoietin (EPO) concentrations (-46%, P<0.01). Hormones (thyroid, catecholamines and cortisol), iron status (serum iron, ferritin, transferrin and haptoglobin) and renal function (creatinine, renal, osmolar and free-water clearances) did not significantly vary (except for lower thyroid stimulating hormone at sea level, P<0.01). Levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) increased throughout HH on return (+14.7%, P<0.05) and an inverse linear relationship was found between 2,3-DPG and EPO at the end of HH after the sojourn only ( r=-0.66, P<0.03). Inverse linear relationships were also found between C(a)O(2) and EPO at the end of HH before ( r=-0.63, P<0.05) and after the sojourn ( r=-0.60, P=0.05) with identical slopes but different ordinates at the origin, suggesting that the sensitivity but not the gain of the EPO response to hypoxia was modified by altitude acclimatization. Higher 2,3-DPG levels could partly explain this decreased sensitivity of the EPO response to hypoxia. In conclusion, we show that altitude acclimatization modifies the control of erythropoiesis not only at sea level, but also during a subsequent hypoxia.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 11/2004; 93(1-2):47-56. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many studies have showed biological abnormalies in athletes who pratices high performance sport. in the aim of Olympic games preparation and medical survey, we have analtsed different biological factors in 160 athletes who pratise in "Ecole interarmées des sport" in Fontainebleau. We describe results in function of gender, sports en group and tray to explain metabolic and physiological mechanismes. Results are generally in the reference values, but several abnormalities need to followed, particulary in the search of exogeneous substances but they are very difficult to be showed with the automates of a laboratory of medical biological. We show that hematologicaland iron parameters need to more investigated, thus hormonological markors in the women.
    Medécine et armées 01/2003; 31(1):33-41.