Kanitpong Phabphal

Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Changwat Songkhla, Thailand

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Publications (27)37.15 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Status epilepticus is a common condition in patients admitted to hospital in resource-poor countries and reports indicate that aetiology, factors of poor outcome, and treatment strategies are variable. To date, there is no report of a prospective study in Thai adults. Herein, we investigated the aetiology, clinical features, factors of predicted poor outcome, and treatment strategies in Thai adult patients who presented with convulsive status epilepticus. A total of 180 patients, whose ages ranged from 15 to 106 years, were included. Of these, 121 patients (67.2%) had acute symptomatic aetiology. The most common aetiology of status epilepticus was encephalitis (36.1%), followed by scarring of the cerebral hemisphere (15%). The median duration of status epilepticus before treatment was three hours. The rate of mortality in the study was 26.7%. Poor outcome was identified in 112 (62.2%) patients. For referral patients, all received only intravenous drugs before referral. The variables that correlated with poor outcome were aetiology and duration of status epilepticus. An approach to incorporate improved prevention of encephalitis, a more effective transportation system, and provision of the essential intravenous antiepileptic drugs would effectively increase the response to treatment.
    Epileptic disorders: international epilepsy journal with videotape 09/2013; · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a strong scientific rationale to support the view that cytochrome P450 (CYP P450) enzyme-inducing AEDs induce bone loss in patients with epilepsy. However, no study has investigated the association between CYP 2C9 polymorphism and bone mineral density (BMD), 25-hydroxyvitamin D or parathyroid hormone levels in patients with epilepsy. This study sought to determine the association between BMD and CYP 2C9 polymorphism. Ninety-three patients taking phenytoin as monotherapy were examined for CYP 2C9 polymorphism, vitamin D level and parathyroid hormone level and underwent basic chemistry testing. The bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and left femur were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The results indicated that about 18.3% of the patients with epilepsy were positive for CYP2C9*3. Furthermore, bone mineral density was associated with CYP 2C9 polymorphism epileptic patients. Specifically, patients with 2C9 polymorphism had higher T-scores and Z-scores of the femoral neck (p=0.02 and 0.04, respectively), but not of the lumbar spine (p=0.27 and 0.06, respectively). There was also a trend of having higher serum PTH levels and statistically significantly lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in patients with wild type than in those compared with CYP 2C9 polymorphism (p=0.05 and 0.03, respectively). Additionally, the patients with CYP 2C9 polymorphism had higher plasma levels of phenytoin, particularly when compared with those with wild type (p=0.01). However, there was no association between serum levels of phenytoin and low BMD at femoral neck or lumbar spine. CYP 2C9 polymorphism is associated with higher BMD, independent of plasma levels of phenytoin.
    Seizure 07/2013; · 2.00 Impact Factor
  • Kanitpong Phabphal, Alan Geater
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between the BsmI polymorphism and vascular risk factors or metabolic syndrome in patients with epilepsy treated with valproate. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study to determine glucose homeostasis, lipid profile, and evidence of metabolic syndrome, as well as the BsmI polymorphism in seizure free adults with epilepsy. RESULTS: We recruited 75 patients with epilepsy to the current study. The frequency of the BsmI polymorphism was 22.7%. We found that patients with BsmI polymorphism had significantly higher total levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C. There were no differences in terms of fasting blood glucose level and fasting insulin levels between patients with the BsmI polymorphism and those with the wild type vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. Insulin resistance was identified in 6 of 17 patients with the BsmI polymorphism, and 18 of 58 patients with the wild type VDR gene. We calculated the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index and found no difference in HOMA levels between the groups. Systolic blood pressure was higher in patients with the BsmI polymorphism. There was a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with the BsmI polymorphism than in patients with the wild type gene. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in BsmI polymorphism carriers was 64.7% compared with 41.4% in patients with the wild type VDR gene. CONCLUSION: Young patients with epilepsy taking valproate who carry the BsmI polymorphism are at an increased risk of having vascular risk factors.
    Seizure 06/2013; · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factors of seizure recurrence and the most common comorbidities in elderly patients with epilepsy. METHOD: We did a retrospective study of 278 patients older than 65 years with first seizure. We evaluated electrolytes, blood glucose, urea and creatinine levels, and performed electrocardiography (ECG), and routine electroencephalogram (EEG) on all patients. We evaluated seizure recurrence and comorbidities at 2 years. RESULTS: Univariate analysis found that significant (P<0.05) factors affecting seizure recurrence were etiology of seizure, EEG, and status epilepticus at first presentation. In multivariate regression analysis, etiology of seizure and EEG were significant statistical factors in seizure recurrence at 2 years follow up. Age, sex, duration of time between first seizure and diagnosis of seizure, seizure type, misdiagnosis of non-epileptic seizure, and use of antiepileptic drugs were not significant factors for predicting seizure recurrence. Depression and anxiety were the most common comorbidities in our study, followed by sleep-related disorders and stroke. There were no statistically significantly differences in comorbidities between patients who remained seizure free and patients who had recurrent seizure. CONCLUSION: Most of the new onset seizures in our elderly patients were focal onset. Acute symptomatic etiology, remote symptomatic etiology, progressive symptomatic etiology and abnormal EEG features were powerful predictors of seizure recurrence, and mood disorder, sleep disorder and stroke were the common comorbidities.
    Seizure 05/2013; · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to determine the effect of changing phenytoin therapy on bone mineral density (BMD) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in patients with epilepsy. Of the 90 patients, 54 patients had switched to levetiracetam, 19 patients had stopped, and 17 patients continued taking phenytoin. We proposed a 2-year period to examine 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and BMD. The patients who switched or stopped phenytoin showed a significant increase in BMD of the lumbar spine and left femur, and in 25-hydroxyvitamin D. In contrast, those who continued phenytoin had a significant decrease in BMD at both sites and in 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Patients who were taken off phenytoin and those switching to levetiracetam did not show a significant difference in BMD, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid, or calcium at follow-up. Compared with those who continued phenytoin, the BMD was significantly higher in patients switching to levetiracetam and those who stopped using phenytoin. Switching medications may be necessary in some cases to avoid low BMD.
    Epilepsia 04/2013; · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is a rare spinal cord compression disorder. Thunderclap headache mimicking subarachnoid hemorrhage as an initial manifestation of this disorder has been scarcely reported. Moreover, the neurological outcome of conservative treatment is satisfactory only in some clinical settings. The unusual presentation and mechanisms for spontaneous recovery of SSEH are discussed. To report a case of SSEH that presented with acute severe headache that mimicked subarachnoid hemorrhage. After a period of neurological deficit, spontaneous improvement was seen, which progressed to full recovery without neurosurgical intervention. A 62-year-old man presented with acute occipital headache and neck stiffness for which subarachnoid hemorrhage was initially suspected. An emergency computed tomographic brain scan and cerebrospinal fluid analysis excluded subarachnoid hemorrhage. Later, he developed acute paraparesis, hypoesthesia up to the fourth thoracic dermatomal level (T4) as well as bowel and bladder dysfunction. The magnetic resonance imaging eventually revealed spinal epidural hematoma, located anterior to C7 through T4 spinal level. He had no previous history of spinal injury, systemic, and hematological disorders. The neurological recovery began 20 hours after the onset and continued until complete recovery, 4 months after the onset without neurosurgical intervention. SSEH could sometimes imitate subarachnoid hemorrhages when it located in the cervical region. Spontaneous recovery of SSEH without surgical intervention might be possible in cases with continuing neurological recovery, although the recovery began much later in the clinical course.
    The journal of spinal cord medicine 04/2013; · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose:  This study sought to determine the association between BsmI polymorphism and bone mineral density, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and parathyroid hormone levels in patients with epilepsy. Methods:  We recruited ambulatory young adults with epilepsy who were taking phenytoin. Data regarding demographics, basic laboratory studies, history of clinical epilepsy, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D levels, as well as BsmI polymorphism of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene, were obtained. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and left femur were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Key Findings:  Ninety-four patients were included in the study. BsmI polymorphism had a statistically significant lower T-score of the lumbar spine and left femoral neck than patients with wild-type VDR gene (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). In addition, patients with BsmI polymorphism had a statistically significant lower z-score of the lumbar spine and left femoral neck than patients with wild-type VDR gene (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). The 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in patients with wild-type genes was higher than in epileptic patients with BsmI polymorphism (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). Parathyroid hormone level in patients with wild-type VDR gene or patients having BsmI polymorphism was not correlated with BMD at either site. Significance:  In patients with epilepsy taking phenytoin, having BsmI polymorphism was associated with lower BMD.
    Epilepsia 01/2013; · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We investigated the influence of the CYP2C9 polymorphism on the lipid profile, insulin resistance, and subclinical atherosclerosis in young epileptic patients. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study to evaluate the association between CYP2C9 polymorphism and lipid profile, glucose homeostasis, and subclinical atherosclerosis in young epileptic patients via the ankle brachial index. RESULTS: The frequencies of CYP2C9*1 (CYP2C9 wild type gene) and CYP2C9*3 (CYP2C9 polymorphism gene) were 75% and 25%, respectively. The mean serum total triglyceride and LDL levels were significantly higher in the wild type gene subjects than in the CYP 2C9 polymorphism gene subjects. Also, the CYP 2C9 polymorphism had marginally significant lower mean serum HDL levels than the wild type gene subjects. No patients with CYP 2C9 polymorphism gene had elevated fasting blood sugar, and insulin resistance was found in only 10 of the 75 subjects. The mean ABI was statistically significantly lower in the wild type subjects than in the CYP2C9 polymorphism gene subjects. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that young epileptic patients with the CYP2C9 polymorphism gene have a low risk of subclinical atherosclerosis.
    Seizure 11/2012; · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Though spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a very uncommon cause of spinal cord compression, early correct diagnosis is crucial for final clinical outcome. A case of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma with similar clinical presentation to transverse myelitis was reported. Careful clinical correlation and multiple sequences of spinal magnetic resonance images are critical factors for early diagnosis.
    Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 05/2012; 95(5):727-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The most common prescribed antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), phenytoin and valproate, are potent enzyme inducers and inhibitors of the cytochrome P450 system, which interfere with lipid profile and glucose homeostasis. Studies on this topic have suffered from inadequate assessment of confounders and have rarely included glucose homeostasis and lipid profile as well as both enzyme inducers and inhibitors in the same study. We sought to determine whether these drugs had an effect on lipid profile and glucose homeostasis in Thai epileptic patients. We recruited 98 patients with epilepsy (45 taking phenytoin, 27 taking valproate, and 26 not taking any AED). Fasting blood samples were obtained to measure serum lipid, and glucose homeostasis was evaluated via the oral glucose tolerance test. We calculated the homeostasis model assessment index for each patient. Our study revealed that CYP450 was induced by AEDs, and that patients on phenytoin had an increased mean value of serum total cholesterol, serum total triglycerides, and serum LDL cholesterol when compared with patients with epilepsy taking valproate and those taking no AEDs. No statistical significant difference was observed between patients taking valproate and patients taking no AEDs. In addition, patients with epilepsy taking phenytoin had higher fasting plasma glucose levels at fasting state than both those taking valproate and those taking no AEDs. Thirty percent of the patients taking phenytoin exhibited insulin resistance. We have found a negative correlation between log insulin sensitivity and log TG, but not high-density lipoprotein (HDL). CYP450-induced phenytoin produces significant amelioration in several serologic markers of atherosclerosis. These findings suggest that phenytoin may substantially increase the risk of vascular events.
    European Journal of Neurology 04/2012; 19(9):1228-34. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) is clinically defined as a syndrome of continuous focal jerking of a body part. EPC has various etiologies and outcomes depending on its cause. Most studies on EPC have been conducted in Western countries and no study on the long-term outcome in adult onset epilepsia partialis continua has been reported. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics, etiology, and treatment outcome and measurement to identify conditions that are predictive of long-term excellent outcome following epilepsia partialis continua in Thailand. Our study was characterized by a retrospective systematic data collection between 2003 and 2010 that lead to the inclusion of a total of 75 patients, with epilepsia partialis continua at Songklanagarind Hospital, Thailand. All of the patients received brain CT scans or MRIs after diagnosis with EPC. Basic laboratory investigations including blood sugar, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, electrolyte, calcium, liver function, and complete blood count tests were performed. Additionally, routine electroencephalography were performed and antiepileptic drugs were given to all patients. Therapeutic outcomes and the degree of seizure control after discharge were determined by the functional status and Seizure Frequency Scoring Systems, respectively. KEY FINDING: All of our patients manifested as motor EPC. The mean duration of EPC was 6.2 days (range 1-30 days) and the most frequent distribution of EPC involved the face and arms (42.7%). Hyperglycemia was the most common cause of EPC (34 patients, 45.3%). Fifty-one patients had an excellent outcome and 24 patients had a non-excellent outcome. All of the patients with hyperglycemia had an excellent outcome and required no antiepileptics in the long term. Predictors of excellent outcome in the scoring system for seizure frequency were metabolic or hyperglycemia-induced EPC, monotherapy and duration of EPC. The characteristics of epilepsia partialis continua in this study were different from those of EPC in Western countries. Its most common cause was hyperglycemia and prognostic factors depended on etiology, number of AEDs, and duration of EPC.
    Epilepsy research 03/2012; 100(1-2):179-87. · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Kanitpong Phabphal, Janyapon Kanjanasatien
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    ABSTRACT: This cross-sectional study examined the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) performance in cryptogenic epileptic patients aged more than 15 years with normal global cognition according to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. We tested our hypothesis that the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment and associated patient correlation factors might be increased (score < 26) according to the MoCA, in spite of a normal MMSE score, and that cognitive impairment might occur in a range of domains of the MoCA. Eighty-five patients participated in this study. The mean MoCA score was 22.44 (± 4.32). In spite of a normal MMSE score, which was an inclusion criterion, cognitive impairment was detected in 60% patients based on the MoCA score. The variable that correlated with a higher risk of cognitive impairment was the number of antiepileptic drugs (polytherapy: OR 2.71; CI 1.03-7.15). The mean scores of visuospatial and executive function, naming ability, attention, language, abstraction, delayed recall and orientation among patients with mild cognitive impairment were significantly lower than those of patients with normal cognitive function. These findings suggest that mild cognitive impairment in cryptogenic epileptic patients is common. We suggest using MoCA as a screening test for patients with epilepsy.
    Epileptic disorders: international epilepsy journal with videotape 12/2011; 13(4):375-81. · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To validate and simplify a screening questionnaire for the determination of PD. The screening questionnaire for PD was developed with the permission of the author. Reliability of the questionnaire was tested. To validate the questionnaire, 40 patients with PD and 93 controls completed the questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the questions independently associated with PD and a risk score was calculated. The predictive performance of the risk score was evaluated via the area under the curve (AUC) of a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. The questionnaire showed a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.73 with no difference between the initial and follow up scores. The mean content validity was 0.86. Of the 11 questions, 4 were independently associated with PD and were used to calculate the risk score. The scores of these questions were 2 (clumsiness)+4 (tremor)+2 (masked face)+2 (loss of balance while turning). The AUC of a ROC curve for the sum of risk score was 0.95. With a cutoff score of 5 or higher, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.88 and 0.95, respectively. The screening questionnaire for PD is a reliable and valid instrument. The predictive performance of the simplified questionnaire is as good as the original.
    Clinical neurology and neurosurgery 07/2011; 113(10):885-8. · 1.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to assess the impact of hemifacial spasm (HFS) and blepharospasm (BS) on quality of life (QOL) during long-term treatment with botulinum toxin injections. Fifty-three patients with HFS and 32 patients with BS as well as two healthy age- and sex-matched control groups were included in the study. All participants independently completed the disease-specific questionnaire for QOL, the HFS-30, and the Thai Depression Inventory, and also provided a peak improvement score assessment. The disease severity in both patient groups revealed mild functional impairment. The scores of HFS-30 in HFS patients (four of 8 subscales) and BS patients (3 of 8 subscales) were significantly higher than the control groups. In both HFS and BS, depression scores were positively correlated with the HFS-30 scores, while peak improvement and educational level were inversely correlated with the HFS-30 scores. Patients with BS were more affected in Mobility and Activities of Daily Living than HFS patients. Both HFS and BS affect QOL both physically and mentally despite clinical improvement with botulinum toxin. Depression and peak improvement after injection were associated with the level of QOL.
    Quality of Life Research 03/2011; 20(9):1519-23. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To validate the Thai version of the Scale for Outcomes in Parkinson 's disease-Sleep Scale (SCOPA-Sleep scale)for assessment of nighttime sleep problems (NSP) and daytime sleepiness (DS). A Thai version of SCOPA-Sleep scale has been developed with the permission of the originator. Fifty-one patients with Parkinson's disease were asked to complete the Thai SCOPA-Sleep scale (consisting of NSP and DS sections), plus the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A second group of twenty patients completed the Thai SCOPA-Sleep scale, twice, two weeks apart. The reliability and validity were subsequently analyzed. The Thai SCOPA-Sleep scale showed a Cronbach 's alpha coefficient of 0.87 and 0.74 for SCOPA-NSP and SCOPA-DS, respectively with no significant difference between initial and follow-up scores. The content validity of SCOPA-NSP and SCOPA-DS were 0.9 and 0.9, respectively. There was a strong correlation between the Thai SCOPA-NSP and PSQI as well as the Thai SCOPA-DS and ESS (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). The Thai SCOPA-Sleep scale is a reliable, valid instrument for assessing NSP and DS
    Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 02/2011; 94(2):179-84.
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    ABSTRACT: Altered consciousness (AC) is a common presenting problem in the Emergency Department (ED), the causes of which can be either intracranial or extracranial in origin. Objective: To determine the common etiologies of AC among patients in the ED of a medical teaching hospital and to build up a proper differential diagnosis. A retrospective review of the medical records of patients who presented with AC in the ED between January and August 2004 was conducted Patient characteristics and demographic data as well as the etiologies of AC were presented in descriptive pattern. There were 350 patients, of whom 67 (19.1%) were admitted, 38(10.9%) were transferred to other hospitals due to full occupancy, 35 (10%) died in the ED, and the rest (60%) were discharged and re-evaluated The mean age was 60.3 years old with 57.1% males and 42.9% females. The etiologies included neurological disorders (29.1%), endocrine/metabolic derangement (20.8%), infectious diseases and sepsis (18.8%), cardiovascular disorders (10%), psychiatric illness (8.8%), pulmonary (7.1%), and toxicological causes (5.1%). Though neurological disorders or intracranial causes were the most common etiology of AC in the ED, they accounted for only one-third of all cases in the ED. The larger proportion of AC cases was extracranial abnormalities including adverse effects from current medications.
    Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 09/2009; 92(9):1131-5.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the risk factors for a low quality of life in Thai epileptic patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Songklanagarind Hospital, Thailand. Epileptic patients aged 15-50 years old, who had been treated with a stable dose of antiepileptic drug(s) for more than three months, were enrolled Those who had other chronic medical illnesses and pregnant women were excluded. All subjects completed a self-report questionnaire that included questions about the quality of life in epilepsy-31 (QOLIE-31), hospital anxiety, depression score (HADS), age, sex, occupation, marital status, education level, medical insurance, seizure frequency, trauma due to seizure activity, duration of epilepsy, and medication analysis. In the univariate analysis, significant (p < 0.05) factors affecting the quality of life included seizure frequency, history of trauma due to seizures, depression, and anxiety. In the multivariate regression analysis, seizure frequency, anxiety, and depression were significant. Anxiety and depression were significant statistical factors in explaining a lower quality of life. Throughout the results, seizure frequency, depression, and anxiety had an inverse relation to scores. Age, sex, education, medical insurance, occupation, marital status, and medication were not significant for quality of life. In the subscale analysis of quality of life, seizure frequency was associated with seizure worry; occupation with energy/fatigue; anxiety with all subscale QOLIE; depression with emotional well-being, overall, energy/fatigue and cognitive and social functions; marital status with energy/fatigue; and medical insurance with medical effects. These findings indicated that mood disorder and seizure frequency could be a powerful predictor for the quality of life.
    Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 07/2009; 92(6):762-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Antiepileptic drugs have been reported to reduce bone mineral density (BMD) in several countries with varying prevalence but in studies with small sample size and inadequate assessment of confounders, and rarely including young adults. We sought to determine the prevalence, vitamin D status and risk factors for low BMD in young adult epileptic patients in a tropical setting. We prospectively examined left femoral neck and spine with dual-energy X-ray absorption. Demographic data, basic laboratory studies, history of clinical epilepsy, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D level were obtained. One hundred and twenty three patients were included. The mean (+/-SD) T-score was -0.31+/-1.24 at the spine and -0.19+/-1.11 at the left femoral neck. 36% had osteopenia and 4.1% had osteoporosis at either site. Four patients had vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D levels were not correlated with BMD. Twenty-five patients had vitamin D insufficiency. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified low body mass index (BMI) and male sex as risk factors for low BMD at the spine and low BMI and duration of treatment as risk factors for low BMD at the left femoral neck. Chronic use of antiepileptic drug (AED) in young adult patients is associated with low BMD.
    Bone 05/2009; 45(2):232-7. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dysphagia after stroke is associated with increased mortality, higher dependence, and longer hospitalization. Different therapeutic strategies have been introduced to improve swallowing impairment. There are no current studies that compare rehabilitation swallowing therapy (RST) and neuromuscular electrical stimulation therapy (NMES). To compare treatment outcomes between RST and NMES intervention in stroke patients with pharyngeal dysphagia. A randomized controlled study. Twenty-three stroke patients with persistent pharyngeal dysphagia (RST 11, NMES 12) were enrolled in the present study. The subjects received 60 minutes of either RST or NMES treatment for five consecutive days, had two days off and then five more consecutive days of treatment for a four-week period or until they reached functional oral intake scale (FOIS) level 7. The outcome measures assessed were change in FOIS, complications related to the treatment and number of therapy sessions. There were no significant differences in the stroke characteristics and the VFSS results between the two groups. At the end of treatment, the average numbers of therapy sessions per subject in the RST and NMES groups were 18.36 +/- 3.23 and 17.25 +/- 5.64, respectively, a non-significant difference. Average changes in FOIS scores were 2.46 +/- 1.04 for the RST group and 3.17 +/- 1.27 for the NMES group, statistically significant at p < 0.001. No complications were observed in either group. While both RST and NMES therapy showed a positive effect in the treatment of persistent dysphagia in stroke patients, NMES was significantly superior.
    Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 03/2009; 92(2):259-65.
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    ABSTRACT: Tetanus has been a serious infectious disease with high mortality and morbidity. Some clinical factors can predict its severity. Survey the clinical profiles, their correlation with the severity of tetanus and the final outcomes after treatment. A retrospective study of the medical records of patients with tetanus who attended Songklanagarind hospital between January 1982 and June 2008 was done. The correlation between clinical profiles and severity was analyzed by Fisher exact test to detect the significant correlation (p < 0.05). Forty-seven cases of tetanus, composed of 36 male and 11 female patients, were reviewed. The mean age of onset was 45.5 years (SD = 19.6 years). Generalized tetanus was the most common form found (91.4%). History of injury or wound was reported in 80.8%. Age over sixty, puncture wound, onset time of less than seven days, and generalized tetanus, significantly correlated with clinical severity. Only two cases died, but the rest of the cases had residual muscle rigidity after treatment. The overall clinical features of tetanus and their correlation with the disease severity were presented. Unlike in the past, patients with tetanus can now be reversible under appropriate intensive critical care.
    Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 03/2009; 92(3):315-9.