[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: More than 50 % of patients with colorectal cancer develop liver metastases. Surgical resection is the only available treatment that improves survival in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). New antiangiogenic targeted therapies, such as bevacizumab, aflibercept, and regorafenib, in combination with neoadjuvant and conversion chemotherapy may lead to improved response rates in this population of patients and increase the proportion of patients eligible for surgical resection. The present review discusses the available data for antiangiogenic targeted agents in this setting. One of these therapies, bevacizumab, which targets the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has demonstrated good results in this setting. In patients with initially unresectable CRLM, the combination of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) plus bevacizumab has led to high response and resection rates. This combination is also effective for patients with unresectable CRLM. Moreover, the addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting of liver metastasis has a higher impact on pathological response rate. This drug also has a manageable safety profile, and according to recent data, bevacizumab may protect against the sinusoidal dilation provoked in the liver by certain cytotoxic agents. In phase II trials, antiangiogenic therapy has demonstrated benefits in the presurgical treatment of CRLM and may represent a new treatment pathway for these patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This phase II trial investigated the efficacy of an induction regimen of bevacizumab, capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) followed by maintenance therapy with bevacizumab plus erlotinib as first-line therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer received intravenous bevacizumab 7.5 mg/kg plus oxaliplatin 130 mg/m(2) on day 1 followed by oral capecitabine 1,000 mg/m(2) twice daily on days 1-14 every 3 weeks for six cycles. In the absence of disease progression, patients then received bevacizumab 7.5 mg/kg every 3 weeks plus oral erlotinib 150 mg once daily. The primary study endpoint was progression-free survival. In the intention-to-treat population (n = 90), the median progression-free survival was 9.2 [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9-11.9] months, and the median overall survival was 25.8 (95% CI: 18.0-30.9) months. In the patient subpopulation who received both induction and maintenance therapy (n = 52), median progression-free survival was 11.1 (95% CI: 9.0-15.7) months, and the median overall survival was 29.5 (95% CI: 23.7-36.7) months. KRAS status did not predict efficacy. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events were diarrhea, asthenia, and neutropenia. XELOX-bevacizumab for 6 cycles followed by bevacizumab-erlotinib maintenance therapy has been shown to be a highly active and well-tolerated first-line regimen in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of the combination of panitumumab and irinotecan every 3 weeks in a phase II trial as second-line treatment in patients with advanced wild-type (WT) K-RAS colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: Fifty-three patients received 9 mg/kg of panitumumab followed by 350 mg/m(2) of irinotecan every 21 days until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or consent withdrawal. RESULTS: Median age of patients included was 67 years. All patients had previously received 5-fluorouracil, 84 % oxaliplatin and 8 % irinotecan as first-line treatment. Patients received a median of five infusions of panitumumab and irinotecan. On an intention-to-treat analysis, 12 patients (23 %) achieved partial responses and 22 patients (41 %) achieved disease stabilization. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 4.5 and 15.1 months, respectively. The most frequent treatment-related severe toxicities per patient were diarrhoea (35.8 %), followed by skin rash (32.1 %), asthenia (18.9 %) and neutropenia (13.2 %). A significant association between clinical response and incidence and grade of skin toxicity was observed (p = 0.0032). CONCLUSION: This study shows that the administration of panitumumab plus irinotecan every 3 weeks is safe, active and feasible as second-line treatment in patients with advanced WT K-RAS CRC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported a 35% overall response rate (ORR) with biweekly 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) continuous infusion (TTD [Spanish Cooperative Group for Digestive Tumour Therapy] schedule) plus irinotecan as first-line therapy in elderly patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The present study also was carried out in elderly patients to determine the efficacy and safety of the same 5-FU schedule plus oxaliplatin.
Patients (aged ≥72 years old) with mCRC, measurable disease, ECOG (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group) ≤2, and no prior treatment were treated with oxaliplatin 85 mg/m(2) plus 5-FU 3000 mg/m(2) as a 48-hour infusion every 2 weeks.
The study included 134 patients, of whom, 129 were eligible. The main comorbidities were hypertension (44%), diabetes (17%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (11%). The ORR and disease control rate (ORR plus stable disease) were 52% and 80%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 14 months, the median progression-free survival and overall survival were 9.1 and 16.3 months, respectively. The most frequent grade 3/4 adverse events included neutropenia (16%), diarrhea (11%), and grade 3 neurotoxicity (18%). No correlation was found between efficacy or safety and comorbidities.
To our knowledge, this is the largest phase II prospective study in elderly patients with mCRC. The observed efficacy and safety of this schedule compared favorably with those reported in this population, including regimens with monoclonal antibodies.
Clinical Colorectal Cancer 09/2012; 11(3):200-6. DOI:10.1016/j.clcc.2012.01.003 · 2.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hand-foot syndrome (HFS) is a limiting toxicity of capecitabine, which is not life-threatening but could compromise capecitabine efficacy.
This phase II, multicenter, non-controlled study assessed the safety, particularly grade three HFS incidence, and efficacy of four capecitabine-based chemotherapy regimens [cisplatin/capecitabine (CX), epirubicin/cisplatin/capecitabine (ECX), epirubicin/oxaliplatin/capecitabine (EOX) and docetaxel/cisplatin/capecitabine (DCX)] as first-line treatment for advanced and/or metastatic gastric cancer.
One hundred and eight patients were assigned to one of the four treatment groups, according to investigator's criteria, and grouped together for both safety and efficacy primary analyses. HFS was reported in 31 patients (19.6 %) and its first presentation occurred at a median of 72 days (range 19-209 days). Grade 3 HFS developed in 6.3, 5.2, 3.7 and 2.4 %, of patients receiving ECX, DCX, EOX or CX chemotherapy regimen, respectively. Capecitabine dose reduction/discontinuation due to HFS was required in 5.7 % of patients (9/158). The most common (>10 %) grade 3-4 treatment-related AEs were neutropenia (15.2 %), asthenia (12.0 %) and diarrhoea (11.4 %).
A moderate incidence of HFS was reported in patients treated with capecitabine, which generally presented late and required dose reduction in <1/3 of patients. The results suggest that capecitabine may be useful in combination with standard fluorouracil-based regimens in patients with advanced and/or metastatic gastric cancer with favourable safety profile.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this phase III trial was to compare the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab alone with those of bevacizumab and capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) as maintenance treatment following induction chemotherapy with XELOX plus bevacizumab in the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).
Patients were randomly assigned to receive six cycles of bevacizumab, capecitabine, and oxaliplatin every 3 weeks followed by XELOX plus bevacizumab or bevacizumab alone until progression. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival (PFS) interval; secondary endpoints were the overall survival (OS) time, objective response rate (RR), time to response, duration of response, and safety.
The intent-to-treat population comprised 480 patients (XELOX plus bevacizumab, n = 239; bevacizumab, n = 241); there were no significant differences in baseline characteristics. The median follow-up was 29.0 months (range, 0-53.2 months). There were no statistically significant differences in the median PFS or OS times or in the RR between the two arms. The most common grade 3 or 4 toxicities in the XELOX plus bevacizumab versus bevacizumab arms were diarrhea, hand-foot syndrome, and neuropathy.
Although the noninferiority of bevacizumab versus XELOX plus bevacizumab cannot be confirmed, we can reliably exclude a median PFS detriment >3 weeks. This study suggests that maintenance therapy with single-agent bevacizumab may be an appropriate option following induction XELOX plus bevacizumab in mCRC patients.
The Oncologist 01/2012; 17(1):15-25. DOI:10.1634/theoncologist.2011-0249 · 4.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Irinotecan plus infusional 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (FOLFIRI) is accepted as a reference treatment for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC). The aim of this study was to demonstrate that a regimen without leucovorin (LV) (FUIRI) is not inferior to the standard FOLFIRI (response rate).
Chemotherapy-naive patients with MCRC were randomized to receive either irinotecan (180 mg/m(2) on day 1) + 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (400 mg/m(2) bolus and 600 mg/m(2) 22-h infusion) + LV (200 mg/m(2) on days 1-2) (FOLFIRI) every 2 weeks or irinotecan (80 mg/m(2)) + 5-FU (2.250 mg/m(2) 48-h infusion) (FUIRI) weekly.
In all, 346 patients were included, 173 in each arm. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the response rates for FOLFIRI and FUIRI were 57% [95% confidence interval (CI) 49% to 64%] and 51% (95% CI 43% to 59%), respectively (P = 0.2809). No statistically significant differences were observed between FOLFIRI and FUIRI regarding median progression-free survival (8.3 versus 8.4 months; P = 0.4339) nor median overall survival (21.6 versus 19.2 months; log-rank test P = 0.2941). Grade 3/4 neutropenia was significantly more frequent on FOLFIRI arm (27% versus 9%), while the proportion of diarrhea was higher on FUIRI arm (21% versus 42%).
FUIRI represents a valid alternative without LV to the FOLFIRI regimen as MCRC first-line treatment.
Annals of Oncology 09/2008; 20(2):251-7. DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdn557 · 7.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Capecitabine is a drug that requires the consecutive action of three enzymes: carboxylesterase 2 (CES 2), cytidine deaminase (CDD), and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) for transformation into 5-fluorouracil (5FU). The metabolism of 5FU requires the activity of thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) among other enzymes. The present study prospectively examined the possible relationship between the toxicity and efficacy of capecitabine and 14 different polymorphisms in CES 2, CDD, TS and DPD. Between 2003 and 2005, a total of 136 patients with advanced breast or colorectal cancer treated with capecitabine were prospectively enrolled. The presence of two polymorphisms (CDD 943insC and CES 2 Exon3 6046 G/A) were associated with a non-statistically significant higher incidence of grade 3 hand-foot syndrome (HFS) (p=0.07) and grade 3-4 diarrhoea (p=0.09), respectively. Patients heterozygous or homozygous for the polymorphism CES 2 5'UTR 823 C/G exhibited a significantly greater response rate to capecitabine, and time to progression of disease (59%, 8.7 months) than patients with the wild type gene sequence (32%, p=0.015; 5.3 months, p=0.014). For the first time, an association between a polymorphism in the CES2 gene and the efficacy of capecitabine has been described, providing preliminary evidence of its predictive and prognostic value.
Current Drug Metabolism 06/2008; 9(4):336-43. DOI:10.2174/138920008784220646 · 2.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is a disease with a very variable progression. Primary tumour size and metastatic lymph node involvement are the best indicators of the likelihood of relapse. However, their value in predicting progression following relapse is not clear.
The aim of this study was to asses whether the relationship between tumour size and the number of lymph nodes involved had any value as predictive factors of post-relapse progression.
We established an index defined as the quotient between the number of diseased lymph nodes and the tumour size (in cm).
Applying this index in 230 consecutive patients with metastatic breast cancer, we observed that there was a significant inverse relation between the index and post-relapse progression.
We conclude that, at the time of initial diagnosis, the quotient of tumour size and the number of diseased lymph nodes could be a good predictor of time-to-progression following the diagnosis of the metastatic disease.
European Journal of Surgical Oncology 05/2004; 30(3):346-51. DOI:10.1016/j.ejso.2003.10.006 · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated whether detection of cytokeratin-positive (CK+) cells in the peripheral blood (PB) of breast cancer patients before chemotherapy could be a prognostic factor. Blood from a total of 92 breast cancer patients was evaluated for the presence of CK+ cells. Blood samples were collected before chemotherapy. Patients entered in the study included: neoadjuvant (n = 25), adjuvant (n = 42) and metastatic (n = 25). Blood samples (10 ml) were centrifuged using a double density-gradient to recovering the mononuclear cell (MNC) and granulocyte cell (GC) fractions. Subsequently, positive immunomagnetic cell separation was carried out to isolating CK+ cells. The enriched cell fraction was cytocentrifuged and then immunocytochemically labeled using an anti-cytokeratin antibody. Our results indicated that breast tumor cells sediment with both MNC and GC fractions. We therefore recommend examination of both fractions in all enrichment protocols. CK+ cells in PB were identified in 57 of 92 (62%) patients when MNC and GC fractions were assessed (range = 1-61 cells, median = 8). No CK+ cells were detected in blood samples of 16 healthy donors. There were significant differences in the presence of CK+ cells according to estrogen receptor expression (p = 0.049), and lymph node status (p = 0.033), but not to the age, menopausal status, type of patient (neoadjuvant, adjuvant or metastatic), TNM stage, histological type, progesterone receptor expression, c-erbB2 expression, p53 expression or Ki67 expression. Regarding the relationship between tumor size (T) and the presence of CK+ cells, a borderline significant trend was observed (p = 0.07). The median follow-up of the patients was 21 months and statistical analysis (Kaplan-Meier analysis) showed that using the method we present, the detection of CK+ cells in PB before starting the chemotherapy in breast cancer patients was significantly correlated with both progression-free survival (p = 0.058) and overall survival (p = 0.003). In conclusion, the present study suggests that detection of CK+ cells in PB before chemotherapy might identify breast cancer patients with poor prognosis.
International Journal of Cancer 01/2004; 107(6):984-90. DOI:10.1002/ijc.11479 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has become a standard treatment in the management of locally advanced breast cancer. Patients with earlier-stage disease may also benefit from neoadjuvant treatment in terms of improved rates of breast-conserving surgery and thus better quality of life. Gemcitabine is a pyrimidine analogue that has shown activity in a variety of solid tumors, a good toxicity profile, and nonoverlapping toxicity with other chemotherapeutic agents. Several phase II/III studies are assessing gemcitabine combined with anthracyclines, taxanes, and/or vinorelbine both in the neoadjuvant and metastatic disease settings. This article reviews developments in neoadjuvant use of gemcitabine in combination with anthracyclines and taxanes. Several phase II trials of gemcitabine combined with doxorubicin/epirubicin or with doxorubicin/paclitaxel have been carried out. Preliminary findings demonstrate increased complete response rates and good tolerability of these regimens in patients with breast cancer.
Clinical Breast Cancer 06/2002; 3 Suppl 1:39-44. DOI:10.3816/CBC.2002.s.009 · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a single-center, open, phase II trial, we assessed the toxicity and activity of a triple combination therapy--doxorubicin at 30 mg/m2 (day 1), paclitaxel (Taxol) at 135 mg/m2 (day 2), and gemcitabine (Gemzar) at 2,500 mg/m2 (day 2 after paclitaxel)--administered biweekly in a 28-day cycle for six cycles. This was given as first-line treatment in 41 patients with metastatic breast cancer. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was used in 27 patients to permit maintenance of dose density. Hematologic toxicity was moderate. Nonhematologic adverse events were generally mild. The objective response rate was 82.9% (34/41) with 18 patients (43.9%) achieving complete response and 16 (38%) achieving partial response; progressive disease was observed in 4 patients (9.8%). Responses were observed at all metastatic sites, including complete responses in lung, liver, bone, and soft tissue. Median duration of response was 14.1 months and median time to progression was 13.9 months. Median survival was 26.2 months. The biweekly combination of gemcitabine, doxorubicin, and paclitaxel is safe and highly active as first-line treatment in metastatic breast cancer.