[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy is the most common pathological disorder predisposing patients to end-stage renal disease. Considering the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus worldwide, novel therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. ONO-1301 is a novel sustained-release prostacyclin analog that inhibits thromboxane A2 synthase. Here we examined the therapeutic effects of the intermittent administration of slow-release ONO-1301 (SR-ONO) on diabetic nephropathy in obese type 2 diabetes mice, as well as its direct effects on mesangial cells. The subcutaneous injection of SR-ONO (3mg/kg) every 3 wks did not affect the obesity or hyperglycemia in the db/db obese mice used as a model of type 2 diabetes, but it significantly ameliorated their albuminuria, glomerular hypertrophy, glomerular accumulation of type IV collagen, and monocyte/macrophage infiltration, and also the increase of TGF-β1, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and MCP-1 compared to vehicle treatment. In cultured mouse mesangial cells, ONO-1301 concentration-dependently suppressed the increases in TGF-β, type IV collagen, α-SMA, MCP-1 and fibronectin induced by high ambient glucose, at least partly through prostacyclin (PGI2) receptor-mediated signaling. Taken together, these results suggest the potential therapeutic efficacy of the intermittent administration of SR-ONO against type 2 diabetic nephropathy, possibly through protective effects on mesangial cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) is a unique endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis that is induced in endothelial cells by pro-angiogenic factors. We previously reported renoprotective effect of adenoviral delivery of VASH1 in diabetic nephropathy model, and herein investigated the potential protective role of endogenous VASH1 by using VASH1-deficient mice. Streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic VASH1 heterozygous knockout mice (VASH1+/-) or wild-type diabetic mice were sacrificed 16 weeks after inducing diabetes. In the diabetic VASH1+/- mice, albuminuria were significantly exacerbated compared with the diabetic wild-type littermates, in association with the dysregulated distribution of glomerular slit diaphragm related proteins, nephrin and ZO-1, glomerular basement membrane thickning and reduction of slit diaphragm density. Glomerular monocyte/macrophage infiltration and glomerular nuclear translocation of phosphorylated NF-κB p65 were significantly exacerbated in the diabetic VASH1+/- mice compared with the diabetic wild-type littermates, accompanied by the augmentation of VEGF-A, M1 macrophage-derived MCP-1 and phosphorylation of IκBα, and the decrease of angiopoietin-1/2 ratio and M2 macrophage-derived Arginase-1. The glomerular CD31+ endothelial area was also increased in the diabetic VASH1+/- mice compared with the diabetic-wild type littermates. Furthermore, the renal and glomerular hypertrophy, glomerular accumulation of mesangial matrix and type IV collagen and activation of renal TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling, a key mediator of renal fibrosis, were exacerbated in the diabetic VASH1+/- mice compared with the diabetic wild-type littermates. In conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes cultured under high glucose condition, transfection of VASH1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in the reduction of nephrin, angiopoietin-1 and ZO-1, and the augmentation of VEGF-A compared with control siRNA. These results suggest that endogenous VASH1 may regulate the development of diabetic renal alterations, partly via direct effects on podocytes, and thus, a strategy to recover VASH1 might potentially lead to the development of a novel therapeutic approach for diabetic nephropathy.
PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e107934. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0107934 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimental studies have demonstrated the involvement of angiogenesis-related factors in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). There have so far been no reports investigating the distribution and clinical roles of Vasohibin-1 (VASH-1), a negative feedback regulator of angiogenesis, in CKD. We recruited 54 Japanese CKD patients and 6 patients who had normal renal tissues excised due to localized renal cell carcinoma. We evaluated the correlations between the renal expression level of VASH-1 and the clinical/histological parameters. VASH-1 was observed in renal endothelial/mesangial cells, crescentic lesions and interstitial inflammatory cells. Significant positive correlations were observed between 1) crescent formation and the number of VASH-1+ cells in the glomerulus (r＝0.48, p＝0.001) or cortex (r＝0.64, p＜0.0001), 2) interstitial cell infiltration and the number of VASH-1+ cells in the cortex (r＝0.34, p＝0.02), 3) the glomerular VEGFR-2+ area and the number of VASH-1+ cells in the glomerulus (r＝0.44, p＝0.01) or medulla (r＝0.63, p＝0.01). These results suggest that the renal levels of VASH-1 may be affected by local inflammation, crescentic lesions and VEGFR-2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vasohibin-1 (VASH-1) is a negative feedback regulator of angiogenesis, and a small vasohibin-binding protein (SVBP) serves as its secretory chaperone and contributes to its antiangiogenic effects. In the present study, we aimed to define the clinical significance of VASH-1 and SVBP in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We recruited 67 Japanese hospitalized patients with renal disorders with (n = 45) or without (n = 22) renal biopsy samples and 10 Japanese healthy controls. We evaluated the correlations between the plasma and urinary levels of VASH-1/VASH-1-SVBP complex/SVBP and the clinicopathological parameters. The plasma levels of VASH-1 were inversely correlated with age and systolic and diastolic blood pressure and positively correlated with crescent formation. Increased plasma and urinary levels of VASH-1 and VASH-1-SVBP complex were significantly correlated with worse renal outcomes. These results demonstrate an association between elevated urinary and plasma levels of VASH-1 and progressive decline of the renal function, thus suggesting a potential role for VASH-1 in predicting a worse renal prognosis in patients with renal disease, including CKD.
PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e96932. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0096932 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tubulointerstitial injuries are known to predict the deterioration of renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We recently reported the protective role of Vasohibin-1(VASH-1), a negative feedback regulator of angiogenesis, in diabetic nephropathy, but its impact on tubulointerstitial injuries remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the role of endogenous VASH-1 in regulating the tubulointerstitial alterations induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), and assessed its role on fibrogenesis and the activation of Smad3 signaling in renal fibroblasts. UUO was induced in female Vasohibin-1 heterozygous knockout mice (VASH-1+/−) or wild-type (WT) (VASH-1+/+) littermates. Mice were sacrificed on Day 7 after left ureter ligation, and the kidney tissue was obtained. Interstitial fibrosis, the accumulation of type I and type III collagen and monocytes/macrophages infiltration in the obstructed kidneys (OBK) were significantly exacerbated in VASH-1+/− mice compared with WT mice (Day 7). The increases in the renal levels of TGF-β1, pSmad3, NF-κB pp65, CCL2 mRNA, and the number of interstitial fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1)+ fibroblasts in the OBK were significantly aggravated in VASH-1+/− mice. In addition, treatment with VASH-1 siRNA enhanced the TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad3, the transcriptional activation of the Smad3 pathway and the production of type I/type III collagen in fibroblasts, in vitro. Taken together, our findings demonstrate a protective role for endogenous VASH-1 on tubulointerstitial alterations via its regulation of inflammation and fibrosis and also show the direct anti-fibrotic effects of VASH-1 on renal fibroblasts through its modulation of TGF-β1 signaling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tubulointerstitial injuries are crucial histological alterations that predict the deterioration of renal function in chronic kidney disease. ONO-1301, a novel sustained-release prostacyclin analog, accompanied by thromboxane synthase activity, exerts therapeutic effects on experimental pulmonary hypertension, lung fibrosis, cardiomyopathy, and myocardial ischemia, partly associated with the induction of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). In the present study, we examined the therapeutic efficacies of ONO-1301 on tubulointerstitial alterations induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). After inducing unilateral ureteral obstruction in C57/BL6J mice, a single injection of sustained-release ONO-1301 polymerized with poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) sustained-release ONO-1301 (SR-ONO) significantly suppressed interstitial fibrosis, accumulation of types I and III collagen, increase in the number of interstitial fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1)(+) cells, and interstitial infiltration of monocytes/macrophages (F4/80(+)) in the obstructed kidneys (OBK; day 7). Treatment with SR-ONO significantly suppressed the increase of the renal levels of profibrotic factor TGF-β and phosphorylation of Smad2/3, and elevated the renal levels of HGF in the OBK. In cultured mouse proximal tubular epithelial cells (mProx24), ONO-1301 significantly ameliorated the expression of fibroblast-specific protein-1 and α-smooth muscle actin as well as phosphorylation of Smad3 and increased the expression of zonula occludens-1 and E-cadherin in the presence of TGF-β1 as detected by immunoblot and immunocytochemistry, partly dependent on PGI(2) receptor-mediated signaling. Administration of rabbit anti-HGF antibodies, but not the control IgG, partly reversed the suppressive effects of SR-ONO on tubulointerstitial injuries in the OBK. Taken together, our findings suggest the potential therapeutic efficacies of ONO-1301 in suppressing tubulointerstitial alterations partly mediated via inducing HGF, an antifibrotic factor counteracting TGF-β.