[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) plays an important role in the regulation of a variety of immune cells, including monocytes. We have previously shown that KLF2 inhibits proinflammatory activation of monocytes. However, the role of KLF2 in arthritis is yet to be investigated. In the current study, we show that recruitment of significantly greater numbers of inflammatory subset of CD11b(+)F4/80(+)Ly6C+ monocytes to the inflammatory sites in KLF2 hemizygous mice compared to the wild type littermate controls. In parallel, inflammatory mediators, MCP-1, Cox-2 and PAI-1 were significantly up-regulated in bone marrow-derived monocytes isolated from KLF2 hemizygous mice, in comparison to wild-type controls. Methylated-BSA and IL-1β-induced arthritis was more severe in KLF2 hemizygous mice as compared to the littermate wild type controls. Consistent with this observation, monocytes isolated from KLF2 hemizygous mice showed an increased number of cells matured and differentiated towards osteoclastic lineage, potentially contributing to the severity of cartilage and bone damage in induced arthritic mice. The severity of arthritis was associated with the higher expression of proteins such as HSP60, HSP90 and MMP13 and attenuated levels of pPTEN, p21, p38 and HSP25/27 molecules in bone marrow cells of arthritic KLF2 hemizygous mice compared to littermate wild type controls. The data provide new insights and evidences of KLF2-mediated transcriptional regulation of arthritis via modulation of monocyte differentiation and function.
Current Molecular Medicine 02/2012; 12(2):113-25. · 4.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is a bone disorder associated with loss of bone mineral density and micro architecture. A balance of osteoblasts and osteoclasts activities maintains bone homeostasis. Increased bone loss due to increased osteoclast and decreased osteoblast activities is considered as an underlying cause of osteoporosis.
The cures for osteoporosis are limited, consequently the potential of CD34+ cell therapies is currently being considered. We developed a nanofiber-based expansion technology to obtain adequate numbers of CD34(+) cells isolated from human umbilical cord blood, for therapeutic applications. Herein, we show that CD34(+) cells could be differentiated into osteoblastic lineage, in vitro. Systemically delivered CD34(+) cells home to the bone marrow and significantly improve bone deposition, bone mineral density and bone micro-architecture in osteoporotic mice. The elevated levels of osteocalcin, IL-10, GM-CSF, and decreased levels of MCP-1 in serum parallel the improvements in bone micro-architecture. Furthermore, CD34(+) cells improved osteoblast activity and concurrently impaired osteoclast differentiation, maturation and functionality.
These findings demonstrate a novel approach utilizing nanofiber-expanded CD34(+) cells as a therapeutic application for the treatment of osteoporosis.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e39365. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoclasts resorb bone through the formation of a unique attachment structure called the sealing zone. In this study, a role for thyroid hormone receptor-interacting protein 6 (TRIP6) in sealing zone formation and osteoclast activity was examined. TRIP6 was shown to reside in the sealing zone through its association with tropomyosin 4, an actin-binding protein that regulates sealing dimensions and bone resorptive capacity. Suppression of TRIP6 in mature osteoclasts by RNA interference altered sealing zone dimensions and inhibited bone resorption, whereas overexpression of TRIP6 increased the sealing zone perimeter and enhanced bone resorption. Treatment of osteoclasts with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which phosphorylates TRIP6 at tyrosine 55 through a c-Src-dependent mechanism, caused increased association of TRIP6 with the sealing zone, as did overexpression of a TRIP6 cDNA bearing a phosphomimetic mutation at tyrosine 55. Further, LPA treatment caused increases in osteoclast fusion, sealing zone perimeter, and bone resorptive capacity. In contrast, overexpression of TRIP6 containing a nonphosphorylatable amino acid residue at position 55 severely diminished sealing zone formation and bone resorption and suppressed the effects of LPA on the cytoskeleton. LPA effects were mediated through its receptor isoform LPA(2), as indicated by treatments with receptor-specific agonists and antagonists. Thus, these studies suggest that TRIP6 is a critical downstream regulator of c-Src signaling and that its phosphorylation is permissive for its presence in the sealing zone where it plays a positive role in osteoclast bone resorptive capacity.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2010; 285(34):26641-51. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoclasts use actin-rich attachment structures in place of focal adhesions for adherence to bone and non-bone substrates. On glass, osteoclasts generate podosomes, foot-like processes containing a core of F-actin and regulatory proteins that undergo high turnover. To facilitate bone resorption, osteoclasts generate an actin-rich sealing zone composed of densely packed podosome-like units. Patterning of both podosomes and sealing zones is dependent upon an intact microtubule system. A role for unconventional myosin X (Myo10), which can bind actin, microtubules, and integrins, was examined in osteoclasts. Immunolocalization showed Myo10 to be associated with the outer edges of immature podosome rings and sealing zones, suggesting a possible role in podosome and sealing zone positioning. Further, complexes containing both Myo10 and beta-tubulin were readily precipitated from osteoclasts lysates. RNAi-mediated suppression of Myo10 led to decreased cell and sealing zone perimeter, along with decreased motility and resorptive capacity. Further, siRNA-treated cells could not properly position podosomes following microtubule disruption. Osteoclasts overexpressing dominant negative Myo10 microtubule binding domains (MyTH4) showed a similar phenotype. Conversely, overexpression of full-length Myo10 led to increased formation of podosome belts along with larger sealing zones and enhanced bone resorptive capacity. These studies suggest that Myo10 plays a role in osteoclast attachment and podosome positioning by direct linkage of actin to the microtubule network.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2010; 285(13):9506-15. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nonmuscle myosin IIA heavy chain (Myh9) is strongly associated with adhesion structures of osteoclasts. In this study, we demonstrate that during osteoclastogenesis, myosin IIA heavy chain levels are temporarily suppressed, an event that stimulates the onset of cell fusion. This suppression is not mediated by changes in mRNA or translational levels but instead is due to a temporary increase in the rate of myosin IIA degradation. Intracellular activity of cathepsin B is significantly enhanced at the onset of osteoclast precursor fusion, and specific inhibition of its activity prevents myosin IIA degradation. Further, treatment of normal cells with cathepsin B inhibitors during the differentiation process reduces cell fusion and bone resorption capacity, whereas overexpression of cathepsin B enhances fusion. Ongoing suppression of the myosin IIA heavy chain via RNA interference results in formation of large osteoclasts with significantly increased numbers of nuclei, whereas overexpression of myosin IIA results in less osteoclast fusion. Increased multinucleation caused by myosin IIA suppression does not require RANKL. Further, knockdown of myosin IIA enhances cell spreading and lessens motility. These data taken together strongly suggest that base-line expression of nonmuscle myosin IIA inhibits osteoclast precursor fusion and that a temporary, cathepsin B-mediated decrease in myosin IIA levels triggers precursor fusion during osteoclastogenesis.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2009; 284(18):12266-75. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tropomyosins are coiled-coil dimers that bind to the major groove of F-actin and regulate its accessibility to actin-modifying proteins. Although approximately 40 tropomyosin isoforms have been identified in mammals, they can broadly be classified into two groups based on protein size, that is, high molecular weight and low molecular weight isoforms. Osteoclasts, which undergo rounds of polarization and depolarization as they progress through the resorptive cycle, possess an unusual and highly dynamic actin cytoskeleton. To further define some of the actin regulatory proteins involved in osteoclast activity, we previously performed a survey of tropomyosin isoforms in resting and resorbing osteoclasts. Osteoclasts were found to express two closely related tropomyosins of the high molecular weight type, which are not expressed in monocytic and macrophage precursors. These isoforms, Tm-2 and Tm-3, are not strongly associated with actin-rich adhesion structures, but are instead distributed diffusely throughout the cell. In this study, we found that Tm-2/3 expression occurs late in osteoclastogenesis and continues to increase as cells mature. Knockdown of these isoforms via RNA interference results in flattening and increased spreading of osteoclasts, accompanied by diminished motility and altered resorptive capacity. In contrast, overexpression of Tm-2, but not Tm-3, caused morphological changes that include decreased spreading of the cells and induction of actin patches or stress fiber-like actin filaments, also with effects on motility and resorption. Suppression of Tm-2/3 or overexpression of Tm-2 resulted in altered distribution of gelsolin and microfilament barbed ends. These data suggest that high molecular weight tropomyosins are expressed in fusing osteoclasts to regulate the cytoskeletal scaffolding of these large cells, due at least in part by moderating accessibility of gelsolin to these microfilaments.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tropomyosins (Tms) are alpha-helical dimers that bind and stabilize actin microfilaments while regulating their accessibility to other actin-associated proteins. Four genes encode expression of over forty Tms, most of which are expressed in nonmuscle cells. In recent years, it has become clear that individual Tm isoforms may regulate specific actin pools within cells. In this study, we examined how osteoclast function may be regulated by the tropomyosin isoform Tm-4, which we previously showed to be highly localized to podosomes and sealing zones of osteoclasts. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Tm-4, both in RAW264.7- and mouse marrow-derived osteoclasts, resulted in thinning of the actin ring of the sealing zone. Knockdown of Tm-4 also resulted in diminished bone resorptive capacity and altered resorption pit shape. In contrast, osteoclasts overexpressing Tm-4 demonstrated thickened podosomes on glass as well as thickened, aberrant actin structures on bone, and diminished motility and resorptive capacity. These results indicate that Tm-4 plays a role in regulating adhesion structures of osteoclasts, most likely by stabilizing the actin microfilaments present in podosomes and the sealing zone.
Experimental Cell Research 03/2008; 314(3):564-73. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoclasts resorb bone through transient rearrangement of their cytoskeletons to create a polarized phenotype in which an apical ruffled membrane is surrounded by a ring of F-actin that creates a tight seal against bone substrate. This process, coupled with the capacity for rapid motility, necessitates the presence of a dynamic, multi-functional actin cytoskeleton. Tropomyosins are a large class of actin-binding proteins that can regulate microfilament stability and organization by recruiting other regulatory proteins to actin, or alternately, by inhibiting their binding. Tropomyosins are expressed from four distinct genes (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta) that are alternately spliced to produce over forty isoforms. In recent years, it has become clear that nonmuscle isoforms of tropomyosin may be differentially distributed among intracellular pools of F-actin possessing different functions. Here we have used Western analysis and immunocytochemistry coupled with confocal microscopy to identify the isoforms of tropomyosin expressed by osteoclasts, as well as their distributions within cells. Osteoclasts express at least seven isoforms with markedly different distributions. The products of the alpha gene (Tm-2, -3, and -5a/5b) are up-regulated during osteoclastogenesis, indicating potential cell-specific functions. Some isoforms (Tm-5a/5b, Tm-4) are specifically enriched within and around osteoclast attachment structures, the sealing zone and podosomes, whereas others are more abundant in internal regions of the cell. This compartmentalization of tropomyosins to specific actin structures within osteoclasts is likely to play a critical role in determining the dynamic properties of the actin cytoskeleton and thus osteoclast activity.