[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herein the first molecular diagnosis of a Brazilian child with Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome is reported. A 6-year-old boy was diagnosed with cystic fibrosis at the age of 15 months due to recurrent respiratory infections, diarrhea and therapeutic response to pancreatic enzymes. Three sweat tests were negative. At the age of 5 years, he began to experience pain in the lower limbs, laxity of joints, lameness and frequent falls. A radiological study revealed metaphyseal chondrodysplasia. A complete blood cell count showed leukopenia (leukocytes: 3.1-3.5 x 10(3)/µL), neutropenia (segmented neutrophils: 15-22%), but normal hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelet count. A molecular study revealed biallelic mutations in the Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond Syndrome gene (183-184TA-CT K62X in exon 2 and a 258+2T-C transition) confirming the diagnosis of Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome. A non-pathologic, silent nucleotide A to G transition at position 201 was also found in heterozygosis in the Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond Syndrome gene. This is the first report to describe a Brazilian child with molecular diagnosis of Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, intermittent or persistent neutropenia and skeletal changes. Other characteristics include immune system, hepatic and cardiac changes and predisposition to leukemia. Recurrent bacterial, viral and fungal infections are common. The possibility of Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome should be kept in mind when investigating children with a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis and normal sweat tests.
Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia 04/2013; 35(4):290-292. DOI:10.5581/1516-8484.20130058
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP Ia) is a rare disease characterized by an elevated parathyroid hormone due to the resistance to its action in target tissues. We report a new GNAS mutation causing PHP Ia and an atypical early-onset primary hypothyroidism. A 3-year-old boy was diagnosed with obesity, delayed pyschomotor development, and round face. The laboratory evaluation at the age of 1 year showed primary hypothyroidism, hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone. These data led to the diagnosis of PHP Ia. Molecular analysis revealed a novel missense mutation in GNAS exon 1 (TCG→CGC, Cys3→Arg) in both the child and his mother. Although previously reported cases described delayed subclinical hypothyroidism as the more common thyroid abnormality, we report a not previously described GNAS mutation associated with an atypical early-onset primary hypothyroidism. These observations broaden the clinical spectrum of PHP Ia and its associated mutations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and acute chorea is rare. We report an 8-yr-old boy with T1DM who developed acute hemichorea-hemiballism of the right arm in whom magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed hyperintense signal in putamen and considerable atrophy and focal area of gliosis in the right putamen. There was a deposition of deoxyhemoglobin indicating recent bleeding in the left lentiform nucleus. A control MRI 2 months later showed complete reabsorption of the blood component in the left lentiform nucleus. Multislice computerized tomography revealed hyperdensities in the corpus striatum and subcortical calcifications. This report describes, for the first time, findings of calcifications in the corticomedullary junction in the brain hemispheres of a child with T1DM and chorea and reviews the possible causal mechanisms of this unusual association.