[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial activity of activated protein C in allergic diseases including bronchial asthma and rhinitis. However, the exact mechanism of action of activated protein C in allergies is unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that pharmacological doses of activated protein C can modulate allergic inflammation by inhibiting dendritic cells.
Dendritic cells were prepared using murine bone marrow progenitor cells and human peripheral monocytes. Bronchial asthma was induced in mice that received intratracheal instillation of ovalbumin-pulsed dendritic cells.
Activated protein C significantly increased the differentiation of tolerogenic plasmacytoid dendritic cells and the secretion of type I interferons, but it significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide-mediated maturation and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in myeloid dendritic cells. Activated protein C also inhibited maturation and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Activated protein C-treated dendritic cells were less effective when differentiating naïve CD4 T-cells from Th1 or Th2 cells, and the cellular effect of activated protein C was mediated by its receptors. Mice that received adoptive transfer of activated protein C-treated ovalbumin-pulsed dendritic cells had significantly less airway hyperresponsiveness, significantly decreased lung concentrations of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and less plasma concentration of immunoglobulin E when compared to control mice.
These results suggest that dendritic cells mediate the immunosuppressive effect of activated protein C during allergic inflammation.
Journal of Asthma and Allergy 05/2015; 8:29-37. DOI:10.2147/JAA.S75261
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The beneficial effects of edible mushrooms for improving chronic intractable diseases have been documented. However, the antiatherogenic activity of the new medicinal mushroom Grifola gargal is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated whether Grifola gargal can prevent or delay the progression of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis was induced in ApoE lipoprotein-deficient mice by subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II. Grifola gargal extract (GGE) was prepared and intraperitoneally injected. The weight of heart and vessels, dilatation/atheroma formation of thoracic and abdominal aorta, the percentage of peripheral granulocytes, and the blood concentration of MCP-1/CCL2 were significantly reduced in mice treated with GGE compared to untreated mice. By contrast, the percentage of regulatory T cells and the plasma concentration of SDF-1/CXCL12 were significantly increased in mice treated with the mushroom extract compared to untreated mice. In vitro, GGE significantly increased the secretion of SDF-1/CXCL12, VEGF, and TGF-β1 from fibroblasts compared to control. This study demonstrated for the first time that Grifola gargal therapy can enhance regulatory T cells and ameliorate atherosclerosis in mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are characterized by progressive interstitial pulmonary fibrosis and a decline in lung function. Fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells that may play a role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Circulating fibrocyte numbers have been correlated with the prognosis of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between circulating fibrocytes, and parameters of disease activity and progression in several groups of patients with ILD.
The study population comprised 41 patients with ILD and seven healthy control subjects. Circulating CD45(+) collagen-I(+) fibrocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry.
The number of circulating fibrocytes was significantly increased in all patients with ILD and particularly in patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis and interstitial pneumonitis associated with collagen vascular disease as compared with healthy control subjects. The numbers of circulating fibrocytes were significantly correlated with pulmonary function test parameters and with serum levels of sialylated carbohydrate antigen, a marker of disease activity. Temporal changes in circulating fibrocyte numbers were evaluated in two patients, and the results suggested that these changes correlated with the activity of ILD.
The results from this study provide further evidence for the role of circulating fibrocytes in fibrotic lung diseases.