[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that are involved in several important biological processes through regulation of genes post-transcriptionally. Carcinogenesis is one of the key biological processes where miRNAs play important role in the regulation of genes. The miRNAs elicit their effects by binding to the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of their target mRNAs, leading to the inhibition of translation or the degradation of the mRNA, depending on the degree of complementary base pairing. To-date more than 1,000 miRNAs are postulated to exist, although the field is moving rapidly. Currently, miRNAs are becoming the center of interest in a number of research areas, particularly in oncology, as documented by exponential growth in publications in the last decade. These studies have shown that miRNAs are deregulated in a wide variety of human cancers. Thus, it is reasonable to ask the question whether further understanding on the role of miRNAs could be useful for diagnosis, prognosis and predicting therapeutic response for prostate cancer (PCa). Therefore, in this review article, we will discuss the potential roles of different miRNAs in PCa in order to provide up-to-date information, which is expected to stimulate further research in the field for realizing the benefit of miRNA-targeted therapeutic approach for the treatment of metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in the near future because there is no curative treatment for mCRPC at the moment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The emergence of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) contributes to the high mortality of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa), which in part could be attributed to the existence and the emergence of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Recent studies have shown that deregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to the initiation and progression of PCa. Among several known miRNAs, let-7 family appears to play a key role in the recurrence and progression of PCa by regulating CSCs; however, the mechanism by which let-7 family contributes to PCa aggressiveness is unclear. Enhancer of Zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a putative target of let-7 family, was demonstrated to control stem cell function. In this study, we found loss of let-7 family with corresponding over-expression of EZH2 in human PCa tissue specimens, especially in higher Gleason grade tumors. Overexpression of let-7 by transfection of let-7 precursors decreased EZH2 expression and repressed clonogenic ability and sphere-forming capacity of PCa cells, which was consistent with inhibition of EZH2 3'UTR luciferase activity. We also found that the treatment of PCa cells with BR-DIM (formulated DIM: 3,3'-diindolylmethane by Bio Response, Boulder, CO, abbreviated as BR-DIM) up-regulated let-7 and down-regulated EZH2 expression, consistent with inhibition of self-renewal and clonogenic capacity. Moreover, BR-DIM intervention in our on-going phase II clinical trial in patients prior to radical prostatectomy showed upregulation of let-7 consistent with down-regulation of EZH2 expression in PCa tissue specimens after BR-DIM intervention. These results suggest that the loss of let-7 mediated increased expression of EZH2 contributes to PCa aggressiveness, which could be attenuated by BR-DIM treatment, and thus BR-DIM is likely to have clinical impact.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e33729. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Androgen Receptor (AR) signaling is critically important during the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). The AR signaling is also important in the development of castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) where AR is functional even after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT); however, little is known regarding the transcriptional and functional regulation of AR in PCa. Moreover, treatment options for primary PCa for preventing the occurrence of CRPC is limited; therefore, novel strategy for direct inactivation of AR is urgently needed. In this study, we found loss of miR-34a, which targets AR, in PCa tissue specimens, especially in patients with higher Gleason grade tumors, consistent with increased expression of AR. Forced overexpression of miR-34a in PCa cell lines led to decreased expression of AR and prostate specific antigen (PSA) as well as the expression of Notch-1, another important target of miR-34a. Most importantly, BR-DIM intervention in PCa patients prior to radical prostatectomy showed re-expression of miR-34a, which was consistent with decreased expression of AR, PSA and Notch-1 in PCa tissue specimens. Moreover, BR-DIM intervention led to nuclear exclusion both in PCa cell lines and in tumor tissues. PCa cells treated with BR-DIM and 5-aza-dC resulted in the demethylation of miR-34a promoter concomitant with inhibition of AR and PSA expression in LNCaP and C4-2B cells. These results suggest, for the first time, epigenetic silencing of miR -34a in PCa, which could be reversed by BR-DIM treatment and, thus BR-DIM could be useful for the inactivation of AR in the treatment of PCa.
American Journal of Translational Research 01/2012; 4(1):14-23.