[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Death receptor 3 (DR3, TNFRSF25), the closest family relative to tumor necrosis factor receptor 1, promotes CD4(+) T-cell-driven inflammatory disease. We investigated the in vivo role of DR3 and its ligand TL1A in viral infection, by challenging DR3-deficient (DR3(KO)) mice and their DR3(WT) littermates with the β-herpesvirus murine cytomegalovirus or the poxvirus vaccinia virus. The phenotype and function of splenic T-cells were analyzed using flow cytometry and molecular biological techniques. We report surface expression of DR3 by naive CD8(+) T cells, with TCR activation increasing its levels 4-fold and altering the ratio of DR3 splice variants. T-cell responses were reduced up to 90% in DR3(KO) mice during acute infection. Adoptive transfer experiments indicated this was dependent on T-cell-restricted expression of DR3. DR3-dependent CD8(+) T-cell expansion was NK and CD4 independent and due to proliferation, not decreased cell death. Notably, impaired immunity in DR3(KO) hosts on a C57BL/6 background was associated with 4- to 7-fold increases in viral loads during the acute phase of infection, and in mice with suboptimal NK responses was essential for survival (37.5%). This is the first description of DR3 regulating virus-specific T-cell function in vivo and uncovers a critical role for DR3 in mediating antiviral immunity.
The FASEB Journal 05/2012; 26(8):3575-86. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The expression of death receptor 3 (DR3), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, is up-regulated in human tubular epithelial cells (TECs) during renal injury, but its function in this setting remains unknown. We used cisplatin to induce renal injury in wild-type (DR3(+/+)) or congenitally deficient DR3(-/-) mice to examine the in vivo role of DR3. Cisplatin induced the expression of DR3, its ligand, TNF-like ligand 1A (TL1A), and TNF in TECs, as observed in human renal injury. Cisplatin increased apoptotic death of DR3(-/-) TECs by twofold compared with DR3(+/+) TECs, whereas it reduced the number of tubules expressing phospho-NF-κBp65(Ser276) by 50% at 72 hours. Similar degrees of induction of DR3, TL1A, and TNF, and changes in apoptosis and phospho-NF-κBp65(Ser276), were obtained in mouse kidney organ cultures treated with cisplatin for 3 hours, suggesting a direct effect on TECs. TNF was implicated in mediating cisplatin-induced tubular damage given that the in vivo co-administration of GM6001, an inhibitor of TNF maturation and release, significantly reduced TNF production and tubular damage. Moreover, TNF exacerbated, whereas TL1A reduced, cisplatin-induced apoptosis in the DR3(+/+) mouse proximal tubule cell line, TKPTS. Our data demonstrate that cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity is mitigated by DR3 signaling, suggesting that this occurs by antagonizing pro-apoptotic signals induced by TNF. Therefore, activating DR3 may be beneficial in reducing acute kidney injury.
American Journal Of Pathology 02/2012; 180(4):1454-64. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) members were initially identified as immunological mediators, and are still commonly perceived as immunological molecules. However, our understanding of the diversity of TNFRSF members' roles in mammalian physiology has grown significantly since the first discovery of TNFRp55 (TNFRSF1) in 1975. In particular, the last decade has provided evidence for important roles in brain development, function and the emergent field of neuronal homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that TNFRSF members are expressed in an overlapping regulated pattern during neuronal development, participating in the regulation of neuronal expansion, growth, differentiation and regional pattern development. This review examines evidence for non-immunological roles of TNFRSF members in brain development, function and maintenance under normal physiological conditions. In addition, several aspects of brain function during inflammation will also be described, when illuminating and relevant to the non-immunological role of TNFRSF members. Finally, key questions in the field will be outlined.
Reviews in the neurosciences 08/2011; 22(5):509-33. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like cytokine (TL1A) is a T-cell costimulator that bolsters cytokine-induced activation through death receptor 3 (DR3). To explore the relationship between T-cell activation and TL1A responsiveness, flow cytometry profiled DR3 expression in resting and activated T cells. In human CD4(+) T cells, DR3 was induced rapidly following activation and expressed prominently by interleukin (IL)-17-secreting T cells (Th17). Splenic T cells from wild-type and DR3-deficient mice showed that TL1A activation of DR3 inhibits Th17 generation (81 ± 2.6% at 100 ng/ml TL1A) from naive T cells. This response was not associated with suppression of T-cell proliferation. Using neutralizing antibodies or T cells derived from genetically modified mice, TL1A inhibition of Th17 development was found to be independent of IL-2, IL-27, γIFN, IFNAR1, and STAT1. Under suboptimal TCR activation, TL1A continued to block IL-17A secretion, however, the reduced threshold of TCR engagement was now linked with an increase in TL1A-driven proliferation. In contrast, fully committed Th17 cells displayed an altered TL1A responsiveness and in the absence of TCR costimulation supported the maintenance of T cell IL-17A expression. Consequently, TL1A orchestrates unique outcomes in naive and effector T-helper cells, which may affect the proliferation, differentiation and maintenance of Th17 cells in peripheral compartments and inflamed tissues.
The FASEB Journal 01/2011; 25(1):409-19. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Death receptor 3 is a proinflammatory member of the immunomodulatory tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, which has been implicated in several inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Intriguingly however, constitutive DR3 expression has been detected in the brains of mice, rats, and humans, although its neurological function remains unknown. By mapping the normal brain expression pattern of DR3, we found that DR3 is expressed specifically by cells of the neuron lineage in a developmentally regulated and region-specific pattern. Behavioral studies on DR3-deficient (DR3(ko)) mice showed that constitutive neuronal DR3 expression was required for stable motor control function in the aging adult. DR3(ko) mice progressively developed behavioral defects characterized by altered gait, dyskinesia, and hyperactivity, which were associated with elevated dopamine and lower serotonin levels in the striatum. Importantly, retrograde tracing showed that absence of DR3 expression led to the loss of corticostriatal innervation without significant neuronal loss in aged DR3(ko) mice. These studies indicate that DR3 plays a key nonredundant role in the retention of normal motor control function during aging in mice and implicate DR3 in progressive neurological disease.
Journal of Neuroscience 03/2010; 30(10):3782-92. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mice prematurely expressing human CR2 (hCR2) in the B cell lineage have a defective B cell ontogeny and humoral immune response. We have previously determined altered tyrosine phosphorylation patterns within hCR2 transgenic mice, suggesting that irreversible changes in B cell signaling pathways had occurred, which could explain the B cell unresponsiveness associated with hCR2 transgene expression. In support of that assertion, we found that increasing antigen dose or addition of adjuvant had a minimal impact on the ability of B cells to respond to antigen. However, analysis of aged hCR2(high) mice (1 year plus) revealed that both B cell numbers, B cell sub-population distribution including expansion of a newly described B regulatory cell subset, and immune responses were comparable with age-matched hCR2 negative mice. Finally, we established that B cell unresponsiveness to antigen in aging wild type mice (1 year plus) was equivalent to that noted in 3-month-old hCR2(high) mice. This data provides evidence that 3-month-old hCR2(high) mice have a humoral immune system resembling aged mice and suggests that further examination of the precise molecular and cellular parallels between aged wild type mice and 3-month-old hCR2(high) mice could provide an important insight into the mechanisms which lead to B cell unresponsiveness in the aging immune system.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease of synovial joints that is associated with cartilage and bone destruction. Death Receptor 3 (DR3), a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily member, has recently been associated with the pathogenesis of RA. We demonstrate that absence of DR3 confers resistance to the development of adverse bone pathology in experimental antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). DR3(ko) mice exhibited a reduction in all histopathological hallmarks of AIA but, in particular, failed to develop subchondral bone erosions and were completely protected from this characteristic of AIA. In contrast, TNF-like protein 1A (TL1A), the ligand for DR3, exacerbated disease in a dose- and DR3-dependent fashion. Analysis of osteoclast number within AIA joint revealed a reduction in areas susceptible to bone erosion in DR3(ko) mice, whereas in vitro osteoclastogenesis assays showed that TL1A could directly promote osteoclastogenesis in mouse and man. Treatment with antagonistic anti-TL1A mAb protected animals in a systemic model of RA disease collagen-induced arthritis. We therefore conclude that the DR3-TL1A pathway regulates joint destruction in two murine models of arthritis and represents a potential novel target for therapeutic intervention in inflammatory joint disease.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 10/2008; 205(11):2457-64. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mice prematurely expressing human CR2 (hCR2) in the B cell lineage have a defective B cell ontogeny and immune response. Our recent analysis of this phenotype suggested that signaling through hCR2 and presumably mouse CD19 on the B cell surface, during bone marrow development, could result in the observed changes in B cell function in these mice. To test this hypothesis, we back crossed hCR2(high) transgenic mice onto the CD19(-/-) background. CD19(-/-)hCR2(high) mice were found to possess even fewer mature B cells than their CD19(+/+)hCR2(high) littermates, demonstrating that loss of CD19 exacerbated the effects elicited through hCR2. This data suggests that CD19 provides a survival signal during B cell development in this model. Next, we examined if the removal of the main ligand for CR2, namely C3d, through back-crossing onto the C3(-/-) background could restore normal B cell development. However, we found only minor recovery in peripheral B cell numbers and no obvious change in function. This was despite a three-fold increase in the level of hCR2 expression on B cells isolated from the spleen or bone marrow of C3(-/-)hCR2(high) mice when compared with C3 sufficient littermates. These data demonstrate that hCR2 is integrated in mouse B cell signaling and that the downstream effects of hCR2 expression during early B cell development are partially but not completely due to interaction with C3 fragments and signaling through CD19 in the bone marrow environment.