[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe infections in intensive care patients show high morbidity and mortality rates. Linezolid is an antimicrobial drug frequently used in critically ill patients. Recent data indicates that there might be high variability of linezolid serum concentrations in intensive care patients receiving standard doses. This study was aimed to evaluate whether standard dosing of linezolid leads to therapeutic serum concentrations in critically ill patients.
Critical care (London, England) 07/2014; 18(4):R148. · 4.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Liquid biobanking is an important tool for laboratory diagnostics in routine settings and clinical studies. However, the current knowledge about adequate storage conditions for different classes of biomarkers is incomplete and, in part, contradictory. Here, we performed a comprehensive study on the effects of different storage conditions on the stability of various biomarkers in human serum and plasma. Methods: Serum and citrated plasma were aliquoted and stored at 4°C, -20°C, -80°C, and <-130°C for 0, 7, 30, and 90 days, respectively (5-10 pools/condition). Additionally, frozen aliquots were temporarily exposed to higher temperatures during storage to simulate removing individual samples. Stability was tested for 32 biomarkers from 10 different parameter classes (electrolytes, enzymes, metabolites, inert proteins, complement factors, ketone bodies, hormones, cytokines, coagulation factors, and sterols). Results: Biobanking at -80°C and <-130°C for up to 90 days did not lead to substantial changes (defined as >3 interassay coefficients of variation and p<0.01) of any biomarker concentration. In contrast, storage at 4°C and -20°C induced substantial changes in single biomarker concentrations in most classes. Such substantial changes were increases (<20%) in electrolytes, metabolites, and proteins, and decreases (<96%) in enzymes, ketone bodies, cytokines, and coagulation factors. Biomarker stability was minimally affected by occasional short-term thermal exposure. Conclusions: Based on these results, we provide recommendations for storage conditions of up to 90 days for several biomarkers. Generally, storage at ≤-80°C for at least 90 days including occasional short-term thermal exposure is an excellent storage condition for most biomarkers.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 12/2013; · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUNDOBJECTIVES: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is one of the most important public health concerns in the industrialized world having increasing incidence and prevalence. Although there are several studies describing the prevalence of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF) and heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF) in selected populations, there are few data regarding the prevalence and the determinants of symptomatic heart failure in the general population.
Cross-sectional data of a population-based German sample (1,779 subjects aged 45-83 years) were analyzed to determine the prevalence and determinants of chronic SHF and HFNEF defined according to the European Society of Cardiology using symptoms, echocardiography and serum NT-proBNP. Prevalence was age-standardized to the German population as of December 31st, 2005.
The overall age-standardized prevalence of symptomatic CHF was 7.7% (95%CI 6.0-9.8) for men and 9.0% (95%CI 7.0-11.5) for women. The prevalence of CHF strongly increased with age from 3.0% among 45-54- year-old subjects to 22.0% among 75-83- year-old subjects. Symptomatic HFREF could be shown in 48% (n = 78), symptomatic HFNEF in 52% (n = 85) of subjects with CHF. The age-standardized prevalence of HFREF was 3.8 % (95%CI 2.4-5.8) for women and 4.6 % (95%CI 3.6-6.3) for men. The age-standardized prevalence of HFNEF for women and men was 5.1 % (95%CI 3.8-7.0) and 3.0 % (95%CI 2.1-4.5), respectively. Persons with CHF were more likely to have hypertension (PR = 3.4; 95%CI 1.6-7.3) or to have had a previous myocardial infarction (PR = 2.5, 95%CI 1.8-3.5).
The prevalence of symptomatic CHF appears high in this population compared with other studies. While more women were affected by HFNEF than men, more male subjects suffered from HFREF. The high prevalence of symptomatic CHF seems likely to be mainly due to the high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in this population.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e59225. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sepsis-associated changes of the arachidonic acid metabolism and the utility of arachidonic acid metabolites for the diagnosis of sepsis have been poorly investigated so far. Therefore, the primary objective of our study was to screen for differentially regulated arachidonic acid metabolites in septic patients using a lipopolysaccharide whole-blood model and to investigate their diagnostic potential.
Prospective, observational, single-center, clinical study.
Intensive care unit at University Hospital Leipzig.
Thirty-five patients (first cohort 25 patients, second cohort 10 patients) meeting the criteria for severe sepsis or septic shock were enrolled. Eighteen healthy volunteers (first cohort 15 subjects, second cohort 3 subjects) were enrolled as controls.
Arachidonic acid and its metabolites were investigated in supernatants of nonactivated (baseline) and lipopolysaccharide-activated heparinized whole blood of healthy subjects (n=15) and septic patients (n=25) by solid phase extraction and subsequent liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Arachidonic acid, arachidonic acid analogues, and the cyclooxygenase-associated metabolites prostaglandin E2, 11-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and thromboxane B2 were identified as differentiating metabolites between septic patients and healthy subjects. Some of these compounds, including arachidonic acid, its analogues, and the cyclooxygenase metabolites prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 differed at baseline. The inducibility of arachidonic acid and the cyclooxygenase metabolites 11-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic and prostaglandin E2 were reduced by 80% to 90% in septic patients. The degree of the inducibility was associated with severity of sepsis and clinical outcome. A reduced inducibility of COX-2 but preserved inducibility of mPGES-1 on gene expression level were confirmed in an independent cohort of septic patients (n=10) by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction compared to healthy controls (n=3).
Arachidonic acid metabolism is markedly affected in patients with sepsis. Our data suggest that the analysis of arachidonic acid metabolites in an in vitro whole blood activation model may be a promising approach for risk estimation in septic patients that has to be further evaluated in subsequent large-scale clinical studies.
Critical care medicine 05/2012; 40(5):1478-86. · 6.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is secreted by cardiac ventricular myocytes upon pressure and volume overload and is a prognostic marker to monitor the severity of precapillary pulmonary hypertension and the extent of right heart failure. Objectives: The impact of physical exercise on NT-proBNP levels in patients with left heart disease was demonstrated previously. No data regarding patients with isolated right heart failure and the influence of acute exercise on NT-proBNP serum levels exist. Methods: Twenty patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension were examined. Hemodynamic parameters were measured during right heart catheterization. Serum NT-proBNP of patients was measured at rest, after a 6-min walking test, during ergospirometry and during recovery, all within 7 h. Significant differences in sequential NT-proBNP values, relative changes compared to values at rest and the correlation between NT-proBNP and obtained parameters were assessed. Results: At rest, the mean serum level of NT-proBNP was 1,278 ± 998 pg/ml. The mean level of NT-proBNP at maximal exercise was increased (1,592 ± 1,219 pg/ml), whereas serum levels decreased slightly during recovery (1,518 ± 1,170 pg/ml). The relative increase of serum NT-proBNP during exercise correlated with pulmonary vascular resistance (r = 0.45; p = 0.026) and cardiac output (r = -0.5; p = 0.015). Conclusions: In this study, we demonstrated acute changes in NT-proBNP levels due to physical exercise in a small group of patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension. Our results also confirm the predominant usefulness of NT-proBNP as an intraindividual parameter of right heart load.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here.
12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6-C18) in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re-) absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6) a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B(2) and thromboxane B(3) release did not differ from that of healthy controls.
Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta-oxidation. No functional influence on unsaturated fatty acid metabolism and platelet aggregation in patients with PKU was detected.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e43021. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The level of body iron storage and the erythropoietic need for iron are indicated by the serum levels of ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), respectively. A meta-analysis of five genome-wide association studies on sTfR and ferritin revealed novel association to the PCSK7 and TMPRSS6 loci for sTfR and the HFE locus for both parameters. The PCSK7 association was the most significant (rs236918, P = 1.1 × 10E-27) suggesting that proprotein convertase 7, the gene product of PCSK7, may be involved in sTfR generation and/or iron homeostasis. Conditioning the sTfR analyses on transferrin saturation abolished the HFE signal and substantially diminished the TMPRSS6 signal while the PCSK7 association was unaffected, suggesting that the former may be mediated by transferrin saturation whereas the PCSK7-associated effect on sTfR generation appears to be more direct.
Human Molecular Genetics 03/2011; 20(5):1042-7. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acquired hemophilia A is a rare but potentially life-threatening bleeding disorder. It is caused by the development of autoantibodies directed against coagulation factor VIII in adults or elderly patients, who do not have a personal or family history of bleeding. Case: A man (age: 76 years) on prednisone and leflunomide for polymyalgia rheumatica developed spontaneous severe haematomas. The patient was diagnosed with acquired factor VIII deficiency (FVIII activity 1.2%, FVIII inhibitor 31.7 BU). Due to the active bleeding diathesis, treatment was administered with activated prothrombin complex concentrates (FEIBA®, Baxter). Immunosuppressive treatment with a combination of oral prednisone (1 mg/kg daily) and cyclophosphamide (1,5 mg/kg daily) was administered to reduce the FVIII inhibitor. However, after two weeks of treatment, FVIII was only 3% and no clinical improvement was observed. Treatment with the anti CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab intravenously at 375 mg/m2 once weekly for four consecutive weeks was started. The patient showed rapid clinical improvement following rituximab treatment. He achieved a complete remission defined as return to normal FVIII activity and undetectable FVIII inhibitor titer. After a follow-up of six months no relapse occurred. Conclusion: Rituximab appears an effective and well-tolerated treatment for patients with acquired haemophilia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to examine whether additional school exercise lessons would result in improved peak oxygen uptake (primary end point) and body mass index-standard deviation score, motor and coordinative abilities, circulating progenitor cells, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (major secondary end points).
Seven sixth-grade classes (182 children, aged 11.1+/-0.7 years) were randomized to an intervention group (4 classes with 109 students) with daily school exercise lessons for 1 year and a control group (3 classes with 73 students) with regular school sports twice weekly. The significant effects of intervention estimated from ANCOVA adjusted for intraclass correlation were the following: increase of peak o(2) (3.7 mL/kg per minute; 95% confidence interval, 0.3 to 7.2) and increase of circulating progenitor cells evaluated by flow cytometry (97 cells per 1 x 10(6) leukocytes; 95% confidence interval, 13 to 181). No significant difference was seen for body mass index-standard deviation score (-0.08; 95% confidence interval, -0.28 to 0.13); however, there was a trend to reduction of the prevalence of overweight and obese children in the intervention group (from 12.8% to 7.3%). No treatment effect was seen for motor and coordinative abilities (4; 95% confidence interval, -1 to 8) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.03 mmol/L; 95% confidence interval, -0.08 to 0.14).
Regular physical activity by means of daily school exercise lessons has a significant positive effect on physical fitness (o(2)max). Furthermore, the number of circulating progenitor cells can be increased, and there is a positive trend in body mass index-standard deviation score reduction and motor ability improvement. Therefore, we conclude that primary prevention by means of increasing physical activity should start in childhood.
URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT00176371.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peptidome profiling of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a promising tool to identify novel disease-associated biomarkers. Our aim was to develop a standardized protocol for reproducible peptidome profiling of CSF using magnetic bead (MB) separation followed by MALDI-TOF MS. Peptidome fractionation and profiling of CSF were performed using MBs with different surface functionalities. We investigated exogenous variables (storage conditions, freeze-thaw-cycles) and endogenous interferences (albumin, immunoglobulin, blood, leukocytes) in pooled CSF samples. We detected approximately 500 signals with an S/N ratio >10 and an overlap frequency of about 40% in non-pathological CSF. Within- and between-day imprecisions in relative signal intensities ranged from 3 to 28% and 7 to 47%, respectively. CSF storage at room temperature for up to 6 h and at 4 degrees C for up to 3 days did not significantly influence the mass spectra. Consecutive freeze-thaw-cycles significantly affected the mass spectra. High albumin and immunoglobulin content altered the CSF preparation using MB-HIC C8 beads. Blood contamination showed no effect on mass spectra up to a hemoglobin concentration of 0.075 micromol/L. The presence of leukocytes up to a cell number of 30 Mpt/L did not affect mass spectra. Our reliable pretreatment protocol allows standardization of preanalytical modalities and thereby enables reproducible peptidome profiling of human CSF using MB separation followed by MALDI-TOF MS.
Journal of proteomics 12/2008; 72(4):608-15. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 'Clinical metabolomics' aims at evaluating and predicting health and disease risk in an individual by investigating metabolic signatures in body fluids or tissues, which are influenced by genetics, epigenetics, environmental exposures, diet, and behaviour. Powerful analytical techniques like liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) offers a rapid, effective and economical way to analyze metabolic alterations of pre-defined target metabolites in biological samples. Novel hyphenated technical approaches like the combination of tandem mass spectrometry combined with linear ion trap (QTrap mass spectrometry) combines both identification and quantification of known and unknown metabolic targets. We describe new concepts and developments of mass spectrometry based multi-target metabolome profiling in the field of clinical diagnostics and research. Particularly, the experiences from newborn screening provided important insights about the diagnostic potential of metabolite profiling arrays and directs to the clinical aim of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine by metabolomics.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 11/2008; 301(1-2):266-71. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic vascular inflammation may trigger ischemic events whereas regular physical exercise training (ET) has shown to be cardioprotective in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the impact of 2 years regular ET versus percutaneous intervention (PCI) on chronic inflammation and cardiovascular events.
A total of 101 male patients with stable CAD and an indication for revascularization were prospectively randomized to regular ET (n=51) or PCI with stentimplantation (n=50). High-sensitive C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, exercise capacity and ischemic endpoints were analyzed at baseline and after 2 years. At 2 years maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) increased by 10% in the ET group (23.3+/-0.6 to 25.7+/-1.0 ml O2/kg/min; P=0.0171 versus baseline) versus 7% in the PCI group (22.3+/-0.8 to 23.9+/-1.2 ml O2/kg/min; P=0.4248). In a subgroup of patients, high-sensitive C-reactive protein levels and interleukin-6 levels were significantly reduced after ET by 41 and 18%, respectively, whereas no relevant changes were observed in the PCI group. Event-free survival rates after 24 months were 78% (ET) versus 62% (PCI) (P=0.039).
In patients with stable coronary artery disease, regular physical exercise is associated with a reduction of inflammatory markers and ischemic events.
European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation 03/2008; 15(1):107-12. · 2.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are modulated by endogenous and exogenous factors independently of inflammation. The present study investigated the impact of oral contraceptives, endogenous oestrogens, age, gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI) and lipid levels on CRP concentrations in a healthy collective.
Highly sensitive CRP, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were measured in 850 blood donors (438 M, 412 F); 227 women in this group used oral contraceptive formulations (OC). Additionally, serum samples from 58 women undergoing in vitro fertilization cycles (IVF) were tested for CRP. Results. The 97.5th percentile of CRP levels of the blood donors was 4.91 mg/L in men, 7.52 mg/L in OC non-users and 11.95 mg/L in OC users. Overweight gives a 2-fold increase of median CRP levels in men and women. The combination of overweight and OC use in women resulted in 6-fold median CRP levels. Age, smoking and lipid levels were influencing factors of lower significance. In IVF patients the elevated oestradiol levels had no influence on CRP concentrations in multivariance analysis.
The diagnostic and predictive value of CRP levels is most affected by BMI and oral contraceptive use, which suggests the need for further investigations into the role of CRP modulating factors in monitoring infectious diseases.
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 02/2008; 68(2):140-4. · 1.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) exhibit a wide variety of anti-atherogenic effects that may be independent of their property to lower plasma cholesterol. 2. In order to systematically investigate these effects at a cellular level, we investigated gene expression in phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-activated and non-activated human THP-1 monocytes in response to statins using cDNA arrays. 3. Of 588 genes tested, 26 were differentially expressed in the presence of statins. A marked reduction was found for the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha). The decrease in MIP-1alpha mRNA expression after incubation with statins was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in THP-1 monocytes and human freshly isolated monocytes. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha protein in THP-1 monocytes was reduced from 377 to 299 and 305 pg/mL by 0.1 micro mol/L simvastatin and 0.01 micro mol/L cerivastatin, respectively. The reduction in MIP-1alpha expression by statins was due, at least in part, to transcriptional inhibition of MIP-1alpha promoter activity. 4. The CC receptor ligand MIP-1alpha is a chemokine that has been implicated in atherosclerotic lesion formation. The present findings suggest that statin-mediated immunomodulation by inhibiting MIP-1alpha could contribute to the beneficial effects of statin therapy independent of lowering plasma cholesterol.
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 01/2007; 33(12):1144-9. · 2.41 Impact Factor